(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The wonder book of knowledge : the marvels of modern industry and invention, the interesting stories of common things, the mysterious processes of nature simply explained"

SEVEN HUNDRED 
ILLUSTRATIONS 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 








HOW COLOR PRINTING IS DONE 

A plate is made for each of the three printing colors, yellow, red and blue, as explained on page 382. 
First, yellow is printed, then red on the yellow, and last, blue on the yellow and red combination. Com- 
binations of these three colors in various proportions produce all the other tints which appear in the original 
subject. Above are shown the separate plates and also the combined result of all three. Extreme care is 
necessary to make all the plates register exactly together. 



THE WONDER BOOK 
OF KNOWLEDGE 



THE MARVELS OF MODERN INDUSTRY AND INVENTION 

THE INTERESTING STORIES OF COMMON THINGS 

THE MYSTERIOUS PROCESSES OF NATURE 

SIMPLY EXPLAINED 



COMPILED AND EDITED 
BY 

HENRY CHASE HILL 

WITH THE CO-OPERATION OF EXPERTS 
REPRESENTING EACH INDUSTRY 



illttatratrii tufty 
TB0 pfntograpIjH attft introtnga 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS 



COPYRIGHT, 1921 
BY L. T. MYERS 

CCPYBIQHT, 1917-18 



T/1 



Preface 



This book is presented to those, both young and old, who wish to have a non- 
technical account of the history, evolution and production of some of the every-day 
renders of the modern industrial age; coupled with occasional glimpses of the won- 
derful object-lessons afforded by nature in her constructive activities in the animal, 
vegetable and mineral kingdoms; and simple, understandable answers to the myriad 
puzzling questions arising daily in the minds of those for whom the fascination of 
the "Why" and "How" is always engrossing, 

Although not intended primarily as a child's book, the interest-compelling pic- 
tures and clear, illuminating answers to the constant avalanche of questions sug- 
gested by the growing mind, unite in making far happier children in the home and 
brighter children at school. Parents and te'achers will also recognize the opportunity 
to watch for subjects by which the child's interest appears to be more than ordinarily 
attracted, and, in so doing, will be enabled to guide the newly-formed tendencies into 
the proper channels. With the greatest thinkers of the age advocating vocational 
training, and leading educators everywhere pointing out that the foundation of a 
practical education for life must be laid in the home, thoughtful parents will not 
overlook the fact that a book which both entertains and instructs is of supreme 
importance in the equipment of their children. 

In the preparation of this book its function has been considered as that of gather- 
ing up some of the multitudinous bits of information of interest, both to the inquiring 
child and the older reader, and putting them in shape to be digested by the ordinary 
searcher after knowledge. The book is intended, not for a few technical specialists, 
but for the larger number of men, women and children who are not interested in 
exhaustive treatises, but who are seeking to gain some fair idea about the numberless 
every-day subjects that arise in ordinary conversation, or that they meet with in 
reading and about which they desire some definite and satisfactory information. 

Most of us realize that we live in a world of wonders and we recognize progress 
in industries with which we come in personal contact, but the daily routine of our 
lives is ordinarily so restricted by circumstances that many of us fail to follow works 
which do not come within our own experience or see beyond the horizon of our own 
specific paths. 

The workman who tends the vulcanizer hi the rubber factory has come to take 
his work as a matter of course; the man who assembles a watch, or a camera, is not 
apt to appreciate the fact that there have been marvelous developments in his line 
of manufacturing; the operator of a shoe machine, or of an elevator, does not see 
anything startling or absorbing in the work and so we find it almost throughout 
the entire list of industries. 

The tendency of the seemingly almost imperceptible movement marking onward 
development in the work that is familiar is to dull the mind toward opportunities for 



PREFACE 



improvement in the accustomed task. With the exception of the man who is at 
times impressed with the remarkable advances made in some strikingly spectacular 
industry, because such knowledge comes to him suddenly, the average workman is 
often too much inclined to regard himself as a machine, and performs his duties more 
or less automatically, without attempting to exercise imagination or those powers of 
adaptation upon which all progress has been builded. 

A single volume is of necessity too limited a space for anything approximating 
a complete record of the vast progress which has been made in American Industry. 
Consequently it has only been possible to select the more characteristic features of 
the twentieth century and point out the strides by which some of the prominent 
industries have advanced to their present proportions. If the hitherto undisputed 
maxim that "the more the individual knows the more he is worth to himself and his 
associates" still prevails, the chronicling of the developments in some fields should 
stimulate thought and experiment toward the adaptation of similar methods in 
others. It is to that end that authorities in each of the industries presented have 
co-operated in the compilation of this interesting and instructive volume. 

THE EDITOR. 



Table of Contents 



PAGE 
THE STORY OF THE SUBMARINE 9 

Origin of Submarine Navigation, 9. The American Types, 10. Twentieth Century Submarines, 11. 
Engine Power, 12. The Periscope, 13. Voyage of the "Deutschland," 14. Submarine Dredging, 15. 

THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANL 17 

The United States to the Rescue, 17. The Canal and the Navy, 20. The Great Canal, 20. The 
Hydroelectric Station, 20. Gigantic Obstacles, 30. Gatun Dam, 33. Meeting all Emergencies, 33. 
A Battle Won, 36. 

What is a Geyser? 40. What Kind of Dogs are Prairie-Dogs? 42. What is Spontaneous Combus- 
tion? 42. 

THE STORY IN THE TALKING MACHINE 43 

The Early Machines, 43. Invention of the Spring Motor, 47. Change from Cylinder to Disc, 47. 
Making the Record, 49. 

What are Petrified Forests? 49. What Animals are the Best Architects? 51. 

THE STORY OF THE MOTORCYCLE 52 

Austin's Steam Velocipede, 52. Motor-paced Racing, 55. First Practical Machine, 54. Modern 
Refinements, 57. Side Cars and Commercial Bodies, 58. 

How is the Weather Man Able to Predict Tomorrow's Weather? 58. How does a Siren Fog Horn 
Blow? 60. 

THE STORY IN A WATCH 61 

The Standard of Time, 61. Candles as Time-Keepers, 63. Galileo's Pendulum, 63. Balance 
Wheel *s a Pendulum, 65. The Time Train, 65. How a Watch Works, 67. What Causes Variation 
in Watches, 71. 

How does a Monorail Gyroscope Railway Operate? 72. Why are Finger-prints used for Identifi- 
cation? 74. 

THE STORY IN A RIFLE 75 

The Earliest Hunters, 75. The Use of Slings, 77. A Fortunate Accident ; 77. As to Arrows, 81. 
A Shooting Machine, 81. And Now for Chemistry, 81. Playing with Fire, 83. The Coming of 
the Matchlock, 83. Caps and Breech-Loaders, 85. From Henry VIII to Cartridges, 85. The 
Beginning of Precision in Mechanics, 87. Making Barrels, 92. Taking off 2/1000 of an Inch, 92. 
The Making of Ammunition Today, 94. Handling Deadly Explosives, 96. Extreme Precautions, 96. 

How does an Artesian Well Keep up its Supply of Water? 96. Where do Dates come from? 97. 

THE STORY OF RUBBER 98 

How was Rubber First Used? 98. What is a Rubber Camp Like? 100. How is Rubber Gathered 
by the Natives? 103. How is Rubber Smoked? 104. How was Vulcanizing Discovered? 105. 
How did Rubber Growing Spread to Other Places? 108. How is Rubber Cured on Modern Planta- 
tions? 110. How is Crude Rubber Received Here? 112. How is Rubber Prepared for Use? 112. 
How are Rubber Shoes Made? 116. How are Automobile Tires Made? 119. 

How did the Expression " Before you can say Jack Robinson " Originate? 119. What is an Aerial 
Railway Like? 119. Why are they called Newspapers? 121. How did the Coking of Food Originate? 
121. How Far away is the Sky-Line? 121. 

(3) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

THE STORY OF ROPE 122 

Civilized Rope Makers, 122. Hand Spinning, 124. Machine-made Ropes, 128. American Hemp, 
128. Manila and Sisal Fibers, 130. Wire Ropes, 132. Pine Tar for Ropes, 134. Why does Rope 
Cling Together? 136. What is Rope Used for? 136. 

How did the Expression " A-l " Originate? 136. How has Man Helped Nature give us Apples? 
136. What kind of a Crab Climbs Trees? 138. How are Files Made? 138. 

THE STORY OF SELF-LOADING PISTOLS 130 

Colt Pistols, 139. Machine Guns, 145. 

How does the Poisonous Tarantula Live? 146. How do the Indians Live Now? 146. How does the 
Beach get its Sand? 149. How did Nodding the Head Up and Down Come to Mean " Yes "? 149. 
Why do We Call a Man " a Benedict " When'He Marries? 149. 

THE STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SKY-ROCKETS 150 

The Need for Noisemakers, 150. Chinese Firecrackers, 150. Popular ever since the Invention of 
Gunpowder, 154. Beautiful Displays, 158. 

What makes a Chimney Smoke? 158. What are Dry Docks Like? 161. Why does a Lightning 
Bug Light Her Light? 161. 

THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PICTURE 162 

The Image is Upsidedown, 162. Effect of Light on the Film, 163. Early Photographic Efforts, 164. 
Modern Photography, 168. 

How Deep is the Deepest Part of the Ocean? 169. Why do We say " Get the Sack "? 169. Why 
do We call them X-Rays? 169. How did the Term " Yankee " Originate? 171. Why do We say 
" Kick the Bucket "? 171. When does a Tortoise move Quickly? 171. 

THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 172 

Gutenberg's Press in'*1450, ir 172. " Cylinder Presses, 173. Curved Plates, 175. Printing, Folding 
and Counting 216,000 Papers an Hour, 175. Color Printing, 180. 

What do We Mean by the " Flying Dutchman "? 180. Why does a Duck's Back Shed Water? 180. 
Why doesn't the Sky ever Fall Down? 180. How are Sand-Dunes Formed? 180. What do We Mear 
by an Eclipse? 181. What are Dreams? 182. What makes Our Teeth Chatter? 182. 

THE STORY IN A HONEY COMB 183 

Sixty Thousand Bees in a Hive, 183. Modern Bee-Keeping, 187. Profitable Anywhere, 193. 

Where do Figs Come from? 199. What are Fighting Fish? 199. How is the Exact Color of the 
Sky Determined? 199. What is a Divining Rod? 199. 

THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 200 

A Modern Aladdin's Lamp, 200. Electric Hot Irons the First Appliances, 201. How They are 
Made, 202. Electric Cooking Appliances, 205. Electric Toaster, 206. Electric Coffee Percolator, 
206. Baking and Roasting, 210. Vacuum Cleaners, 212. 

Why is there Always a Soft Spot in a Cocoanut Shell? 214. How does a Gasoline Motor Run an 
Electric Street Car? 214. How do Carrier Pigeons Carry Messages? 216. What Family has Over 
9,000,000 Members? 216. 

THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 217 

Invention, 217. Essential Factor in American Life, 218. America Leads in Telephone Growth, 
220. American Telephone Practice Superior, 222. The First Transcontinental Line, 225. Wire- 
less Speech Transmission, 226. The Mobilization of Communication, 228. 

Why do they Call Them " Fiddler-Crabs "? 229. How Far can a Powerful Searchlight Send its 
Rays? 229. What Started the Habit of Touching Glasses Before Drinking? 23 1 . Why are Windows 
Broken by Explosions? 231. What does the Expression " Showine the White Feather " come 
from? 231 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 232 

From Novelty to Necessity, 232. The Escalator, 235. The Cleat Escalator, 239. The Moving 
Platform, 239. 

What Happens when Animals Hibernate? 241. How do Peanuts get in the Ground? 241. How 
did Your State get its Name? 243. 

THE STORY OF COAL MINING . 244 

The World Depends on Coal, 244. Dangers of Mining, 244. How Coal Grew, 247. The Vast 
Quantities Produced, 253. 

How can We Hear through the Walls of a Room? 251. What is a Diesel Engine Like? 252. What 
does the Sheep-grower get for the Wool hi a Suit of Clothes? 252. 

THE STORY IN A SILVER TEASPOON 253 

The Spoon is Older than History, 253. Development of Various Shapes, 254. Plating Re-Dis- 
covered, 256. Electro-plating, 257. Stages in Manufacture, 258. Evolution of a Knife, 259. 

How do Chimes Strike the Hour? 260. How is Electricity Brought into a House? 262. What was 
the Origin of Masonic Signs? 262. What is a Dictograph? 262. 

STORY OF THE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH 263 

Stretching a Dog, 263. Marconi's Method, 263. Tuning the Instruments, 264. Interferences, 265. 

What is Forestry Work? 267. How did the Fashion of Wearing Cravats Commence? 270. How 
does the Gas Meter Measure Your Gas? 270. What is a Game Preserve? 270. 

THE STORY OF THE BUILDING OF A SILO 271 

What is a Silo? 271. The First Silo, 271. What is put in a Silo? 271. Elements of Success or 
Failure, 271. 

THE STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 273 

The First Commercial Central Station, 273. Edison and the Electric Light, 273.' Electricity a 
Living Factor, 279. In the Printing Trade, 279. Construction, 279. Loft Manufacturing, 281. 
Electric Heating, 281. Electricity and Safety, 281. Electricity in Medicine, 281. Electric 
Vehicles, 282. Electricity and the Home, 282. Decreased Cost of Electricity, 285. 

How is Die- Sinking Done? 285. 

THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A MAGAZINE 286 

Printing in Millions, 286. Color Printing, 289. 
How Did the Ringing of Curfew Originate? 289. 

THE STORY OF AMERICA'S FIRST HORSELESS CARRIAGE 290 

The Problems of Weight and Vibration, 290. The First Demonstration, 290. 

THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 292 

The First "Roast Pig," 292. Smoking Ham, 292. Salt Pork, 293. The Era of Refrigeration, 295. 
An Up-to-date Packing Plant, 295. Dressing Meat, 298. By-Products, 298. 

Why do We call them " Dog Days? " 301. How is a Five Dollar Gold Piece Made? 303. How 
does a Bird Fly? 303. 

THE STORY OF THE BIG REDWOOD TREES 304 

Long Life of the Great Trees, 304. Valuable Qualities of the Redwood, 304. Fire Retardance, 306. 
Magnificent Tones for Decoration, 306. 

How did the Expression " Forlorn Hope " Originate? 306. Why is " Wall Street " known Around 
the World? 308. What makes a Stick Seem To Bend in Water? 308. What causes a Lump in a 
Person's Throat? 308. How are We Able to Hear through Speaking Tubes? 308. Why do We 
Always Shak* Hands with our Right Hand? 308. 



6 TABLE OF CONTENTS 

f PAGE 

THE STORY IN A BILLIARD TABLE 309 

An Ancient Game, 309. Modern Manufacture, 311. The Cue is a work of Art, 314. The Finest 
Ivory for Balls, 314. 

What is the Hottest Place in the United States? 315. What are White Blackberries Like ? 317. 
Why do They Have a Dog- Watch on Shipboard? 317. How Much Gold has a 14-Carat Ring? 317- 
What is an Electro Magnet? 317. 

THE STORY IN A PIN 318 

Once a Luxury of the Wealthy, 318. Formerly made in Parts, 319. Making 25,000,000 Pins a 

Year, 321. 

How are Glaciers Formed? 324. How Large are Molecules? 324. 

PICTORIAL STORY OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY 325 

Episodes in the Game, 325. Modern Fishing Vessels, 326. The Trawl, 327o Drawing the Net. 
328. Fish Curing, 329. Preparing for Market, 330. 

THE STORY IN A BOX OF CALIFORNIA ORANGES 331 

Picked with Gloves, 331. Grading, 331. Shipped in Refrigerators, 333. 

What Kind of Steel Knives do not Stain or Rust? 333. Why is it Necessary to Keep Quiet when 
Fishing? 333. First Apartment Houses in this Country, 336. Why do we Call 32 above Zero 
Freezing? 336. How is Fresco Painting Done? 336. 

THE STORY OF A PIECE OF CHEWING GUM 337 

Juice of the Chicle Tree, 337. Treatment in the Factory, 342. 

Where did the Ferris Wheel get its Name? 342. What is Done to Keep Railroad Rails from] Break- 
ing? 342. How does a " Master Clock " Control others by Electricity? 342. 

THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 345 

How did Men Learn to Count? 345. The Firsc Adding Machine, 345. The Slide Rule Principle, 
348. The "Difference Engine," 348. Present-Day Models, 349. The Largest Adding Machine, 
354. How are Adding Machines Used? 355. 

Where does Ermine Come from? 356 What is the Principle of " Foreign Exchange? " 356. 
What do We Mean by " The Old Moon in the New Moon's Arms "? 356. 

THE STORY IN A BOWLING ALLEY 357 

Bowling Green, New York City, 357. How the Alley is Built, 358. Composition Balls, 361. 

How are Artificial Precious Stones Made? 361. What is a Mexican Bull-Fight Like? 363. What 
is the Difference between " Alternating " and " Direct " Current? 363. What was the " Court 
of Love "? 363. 

THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 364 

Birth of Mechanical Addressing, 364. The First Addressograph, 364. Greater Speed, 366. A 
Card Index that Addresses Itself, 367. 

What is Dry Farming? 372. What is a Drying Machine Like? 372. How does the New York Stock 
Exchange Operate? 374. How did the term " Cowboys " Originate? 374. 

THE STORY IN A CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHER 375 

Smothering Fire with a Gas Blanket, 375. The Soda and Acid Extinguisher, 376. 

How is Gold Leaf Made? 377. What is the Natural Color of Goldfish? 377. When was " Liquid 
Fire" first used in Warfare? 377. How did the Greyhound get his Name? 377. Why is It Called 
"Battery Park "? 379. How do we Know that the Earth is Round? 379. What were "Ducking 
Stools?" 379. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

THE STORY IN PHOTO-ENGRAVING . . 380 

Pictures are the Universal Language, 380. What a Halftone is, 380. Line Engravings, 381. Color 
Engraving, 382. 

Where are Milk-Pails Filled from Trees? 383. How did the Wearing of a Crown Originate? 384. 
Why do Lobsters change Color? 384. How do Fishes Swim? 384. Where do Peavls Come from? 
385. What is Cork? 385. 

THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 386 

Origin of the Cannon, 386. Modern Cannon, 392. How Cannon are Now Made, 393. Built-Up 
and Wire- Wound Guns, 394. Feats of Modern Guns, 406. 

What is a Deep-Sea Diver's Dress Like? 411. Why do We Smile when We are Pleased? 412. 
Why do Some of Us have Freckles? 412. 

PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 413 

Mining Ore, 413. Open-Hearth Furnaces, 416. Blast Furnaces, 417. A 15,000 Ton Forge, 418. 
Oil-Tempering, 420. Bending' Armor Plate, 422. Largest Steel Casting in the World, 424. Cast- 
ing Steel, 431. Rolling Rails, 432. 

What do We Mean by " Deviation of the Compass? " 435. 

THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 436 

Shoemaking by Machine, 436. Cross-Section of a Shoe, 437. Lasting Machine, 440. Details of 
the Process, 442. Evolution of a Shoe, 447. 

What is Standard Gold? 448. What are Cyclones? 450. What Metals can be Drawn into Wire 
Best? 450. How are Cocoanuts Used to Help our Warships? 450. How did the Dollar Sign 
Originate? 450. 

PICTORIAL STORY OF FIRE APPARATUS 451 

Aerial Truck, 451. Motor Fire Engine, 451. Old-time Apparatus, 452. Chemical Engine, 455. 

STORY OF THE TAKING OF FOOD FROM THE AIR 458 

Nitrogen and Oxygen in the Air, 458. Fixation of Nitrogen, 459. Liquid Air, 460. Fertilizer, 461. 
Ammonia, 466. 

What is a Drawbridge Like Today? 466. 

THE STORY OF A DEEP-SEA MONSTER 468 

A Thirty-nine Hour Battle, 468. Five Harpoons and 151 Bullets needed, 468. An Unknown 
Leviathan, 470. 

What is an Armored Railway Car Like? 470. What is an Electric Eel? 472. 

THE STORY OF SALT 473 

Natural Salt, 473. The Polish Mines, 474. Refining, 476. 

Why do We Call it " Denatured Alcohol "? 478. What is the Difference between a Cruiser and a 
Battleship? 478. 

THE STORY OF THE GROWTH OF THE MOTOR TRUCK 481 

Practically Developed since 1905, 481. Cheaper Transportation, 489. 

What is a Diving Bell? 489. How are Harbors Dredged Out? 491. How is a Razor Blade Made? 491 

THE STORY OF THE TUNNELS UNDER THE HUDSON RIVER 492 

Bold Engineering, 492. 40,000 Men, 492. How the Tunneling Shield Works, 494. Air Pressure, 
496. Extraordinary Adventures under the River, 501. 

What Causes Floating Islands? 504. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PICTORIAL STORY OF THE AIRSHIP 505 

Well-known Aviators, 05. Military Monoplane, 506. NC-4, First Plane to Cross the Atlantic, 
507. Vickers-Vimy, First Flier to make Non-Stop Atlantic Flight, 508. Chart of Transatlantic 
Fliers, 509. The Wright Brothers, 510. British Transatlantic Dirigible, R-34, 511. Examples of 
Military Uses, 512. 

THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 518 

A half-million Cars a year, 518. Overhead Cranes Cut Costs, 520. Safety First, 521. One thing 
at a Time, 524. Quick Assembling, 526. The Body Chute, 530. Motion Picture Advertising, 537 

How do Big Buildings get their Granite? 539. 

RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 541 

All Steel Train, 541. Electric Train, 542. Train of 120 Cars, 543. An Observation Car, 544. 
Electric Baggage Truck, 545. Terminal Stations, 546. Paint Drying Oven, 547. Locomotive 
Building, 548. Types of Locomotives, 550. 

THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 556 

Luxuries of Farm Life, 556. Plenty of Food, 557. Reaping Hook, 558. The Cradle, 559. Early 
Attempts to Harvest with Machines, 561. The First Successful Reaper, 563. Development of 
the Reaper, 564. The Self-Binder, 568. The Twine Binder, 570. Other Machines Follow, 574. 

What Causes an Echo? 574. 

THE STORY OF THE MOTION-PICTURE PROJECTING MACHINE... 575 

Spectacular Rise of Motion Pictures, 575. How the Projector Operates, 578. Varied Uses of the 
Pictures, 579. 

THE STORY OF LEATHER 580 

Tanning, 580. Oiling, 582. Finishing Coats, 583. Currying, 583. 

What is a " Glass Snake? 583. 

THE STORY IN DIAMOND-CUTTING 584 

Where Diamonds Come from, 584. Famous Diamonds, 585. Methods of Cutting, 585. Defects 
in Diamonds, 586. Brilliancy, 587. 

Why do We get Hungry? 588. 

THE STORY IN THE MODERN LIFTING MAGNET. 589 

What a Magnet is, 589. How an Electric Magnet Works, 590. Will Lift 30 Tons, 592. 

Why is the Thistle the Emblem of Scotland? 593. How are Animals Identified on Cattle Ranges? 
594. How is Glue Made? 594. Why does a Hot Dish Crack if we put Ice Cream in It? 594. 

ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF TITLES AND SUBJECTS 595 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.. . 607 



The Story of the Submarine* 



Origin of Submarine Navigation. 

The history of invention has no chapter more interesting than that of sailing 
under the ocean's waves. The navigation of the air approaches it in character, 
but does not present the vital problems of undersea travel. Both these new fields 
of navigation have been notably developed within recent years, largely as a result 
of the great European war. It is the story of sailing in the depths beneath the ocean's 
surface with which we here propose to deal. The problem was settled easily enough 




A SUBMARINE ABOUT TO SUBMERGE 

for his purpose by Jules Verne, in his "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea." 
But that was pure fiction without scientific value. It is with fact, not fiction, that 
we are here concerned. 

The story takes us back three hundred years, to the reign of James I, of England, 
when a crude submarine boat was built, to be moved by oars, but one of no value 
other than as a curiosity. At a later date a man named Day built a similar boat, 
wagering that he would go down one hundred yards and remain there twenty-four 
hours. So far as is known, he still remains there, winning the wager which he has 
not come up to claim. 

Other such boats were constructed at intervals, but the first undersea boat of 
any historical importance was the " American Turtle," built by a Yankee named 
David Bushnell during the time that the British held New York in the Revolutionary 
War. He sought to blow up the British frigate "Eagle" with the aid of a torpedo 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the Lake Torpedo Boat Co., unless otherwise indicated. 

(9) 



10 THE STORY OF THE SUBMARINE 

and nearly succeeded in doing so, seriously scaring the British shippers by the 
explosion of his torpedo. 

The next to become active in this line of discovery was Robert Fulton, the 
inventor of the first practical steamboat. He, like Bushnell, was an American, 
but his early experiments were in France, where Napoleon patronized him. With 
his boat, the " Nautilus," he made numerous descents, going down twenty-five feet 
in the harbor of Brest and remaining there an hour. He said that he could build 
a submarine that could swim under the water and destroy any war vessel afloat. 
But the French Admiralty refused to sustain him, one old admiral saying, " Thank 
God, France still fights her battles on the surface, not beneath it." 

Fulton finally went to England and there built a boat with which he attached a 
torpedo to a condemned brig, set aside for that purpose. The brig was blown up 
in the presence of an immense throng, and Fulton finally sold his invention to the 
British government for $75,000. Nothing further came of it. 

The submarine next came into practical view during the American Civil War, 
when the Confederate government built several such vessels, known usually as 
" Davids" from their inventor. Now, for the first time, did such a craft demonstrate 
its powers. On the night of February 17, 1864, one of the " Davids," the "Hunley," 
blew up the steamship "Housatonic" in Charleston harbor. The wave caused by 
the explosion swamped the submarine and it and its crew found a watery grave. 

Other submarines were built and experimented with, not only in the United 
States but in European countries. One of the later inventors was an Irish- American 
named John P. Holland, who, in 1876, built a submarine called the "Fenian Ram." 
The "Ram" collapsed with the collapse of the Fenian movement. Other boats 
were built and tried, but the successful period of the submarine was deferred until 
after 1893, when the United States Congress appropriated $200,000 to encourage 
such an enterprise and invited inventors to submit designs. This, and a similar 
movement in France, formed the first official recognition of the value of vessels of 
this class. 

The prize offered by Congress brought out three designs, one by Mr. Holland, 
the "Ram" inventor, one by George C. Barker, and a third by Simon Lake. The 
names of Holland and Lake have since been closely associated with the history of 
the submarine. Mr. Holland's device secured approval and in 1894 he received a 
contract to build a submarine vessel. This, named the "Plunger," was begun in 
1895, but was finally abandoned and a vessel of different type, the "Holland," was 
built in its place. It was accepted by the government in 1900. A number of others 
similar to the "Holland" were subsequently built. 

The American Types. 

The type of these vessels was what became known as the "diving." They 
were controlled by a rudder placed at the stern of the vessel and acting in both a 
horizontal and a vertical direction, the force of the screw propeller driving the boat 
forward in the direction desired. In 1904 the navy of the United States possessed 
eight Holland boats and there were also a number of them in the British navy. 

Mr. Lake's design, offered in 1893 but not accepted, had as its novel feature 
a plan by which a door could be opened in the bottom of the ship 'and the crew leave 
and enter it in diving suits, the water being kept out by the force of compressed air. 
To maintain the vessel on an even keel he introduced four vanes, called "hydro- 
planes," for regulating the depth of descent. By aid of these and the horizontal 
rudder it was found that the vessel would run for hours at a constant depth and on 
a level keel. There were other devices for diving or rising to the surface. 

In 1901 Mr. Lake built a large vessel of this type which was sold to the Russian 
government and was in commission at Vladivostock during the Russian-Japanese 



THE STORY OF THE SUBMARINE 



11 



Wai. He afterwards received orders from this and other governments for a number 
of vessels of the even-keel type, and his principles of control have since been generally 
adopted as the safest and most reliable controlling agency for under-water craft. 

We have not in the above brief statement described all the efforts to invent a 
satisfactory under-water boat. In several of the nations of Europe experiments, 
more or less available, had been tried, but the most practical results were achieved 
by the American inventors, Bushnell, Fulton, Davy, Holland and Lake. It will 
suffice here to say that the most successful of submarines were those constructed 
by Holland and Lake. An important addition was made in 1901 in a French boat, 
the " Morse," built at Cherbourg. The difficulty of navigators telling where they 
were when under water, and of changing their course safely without coming to the 
surface to reconnoitre, was in a large measure overcome by the addition of a "peri- 




A MINE-PLANTING SUBMARINE DESIGNED IN BERLIN BY SIMON LAKE IN 1895 FOR THE 

RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT 

scope." This, rising above the water, and provided with reflecting lenses, enabled 
the steersman to discover the surface conditions and see any near vessel or other 
object. The " Morse" was able to sink in seventy seconds and her crew could remain 
under water for sixteen hours without strain. 

Twentieth Century Submarines. 

We have given an epitome of the development of the submarine vessel up to 
the opening of the twentieth century. It had now reached a successful status of 
achievement and during the early years of that century was to display a remark 
able progress. Holland and Lake may be looked upon as the parents of the modern 
development of the submersible boat, their designs being at the base of the great 
European progress. 

France took up the work actively, its most successful early vessel being the 
"Narval," built in 1899. This was 118 feet long by 8 feet 3 inches beam, 106 tons 
surface and 168 submerged displacement. She was a double-deck vessel controlled 
by Lake hydroplanes, and had installed steam power for surface travel and electric 
power for undersea work. The French at this time kept their methods secret, and 
no useful type had been developed in England, the result being that a plant was 



12 



THE STORY OF THE SUBMARINE 



provided for the building of Holland boats in that country. Germany used the 
Lake devices, which had not been patented in that country and were made use of 
by the Krupps. Thus it appears that the modern submarines, as now built and used 
in the navies of the world, owe then- success to principles of construction and devices 
for control originated and developed by American inventors. 

Engine Power. 

The internal-combustion engine is the heart of the submarine. Steam, with 
its heavy engine, has been long set aside, and electricity, derived from the storage 
battery, yet awaits sufficient development. Gasoline succeeded them. The internal- 




A PROTECTOR FITTED FOR EXPERIMENTAL WORK UNDER ICE 

combustion engine became essential from its light weight and the fact that it could 
be started and shut down instantly. This is of prime importance, as permitting 
quick submergence or emergence, either to escape from a high-speed destroyer or to 
capture a merchantman. It weighs less per horse power, takes up less room and 
requires less fuel per hour than any other reliable motor. It was early used in both 
the Holland and Lake boats and is still the chief prime motor. 

The difficulty with the early boats was that they were slow in speed, making 
only from eight to nine knots per hour. Increased speed was demanded by govern- 
ments and more powerful engines, within a fixed limit of weight, were demanded. 
In doing this engines were built of such flimsy construction that they soon went to 
pieces. The gasoline used also gave off a gas of highly explosive character and one 
very likely to escape from leaky tanks or joints. Several explosions took place in 
consequence, in one of which twenty-three men were killed. As a result all the nations 
demanded that a non-explosive fuel should be used, and builders turned to the Diesel 
engine as offering a solution to the difficulty. 



THE STORY OF THE SUBMARINE 



13 



This heavy oil engine, weighing about five hundred pounds per horse-power, 
was not adapted to the submarine, and efforts have been made to decrease the weight. 
These have not as yet had a satisfactory result and experiments are still going on. 

The Periscope. 

As the engine is the heart of the submarine, the periscope is its eye. This is, 
in its simpler forms, a stiff, detachable tube from fifteen to twenty feet long and about 
four inches in diameter. On its top is an object glass which takes in all objects within 
its range and transmits an image of them through a right-angled prism and down 
the tube. By means of other lenses and prisms an image of the external object is 
thus made visible to those within the submarine. In this process of transmission 




A SUBMARINE UNDER ICE 

there is a certain loss of light, and to allow for that the image is magnified to about 
one-quarter above natural size. 

To obtain in this manner a correct idea of the distance of the object seen proved 
difficult, but by continued experiment this difficulty has been overcome. Mr. Lake 
developed an instrument suited to this purpose and one which gave a simultaneous 
view of the entire horizon. There is one fault in the periscope not easy to obviate. 
It is an instrument for day use only. When dark comes on it becomes useless, and 
this does away with the possibility of a successful submarine attack by night. 

The periscope is the one part of the submarine scout equipment that is open to 
vision from the surface. But while the outlook of the undersea captain, aided by 
his telescopic sights, has a radius of several miles, the periscope tube, of only four 
or five-inch diameter and painted of a neutral tint, is not easily seen. If the sea is 
a little choppy it is difficult to discover it with the naked eye at about 300 or 400 
yards away, or in a smooth sea at over 500 yards. 

The idea that a submarine may be located by an aeroplane is looked upon by 
Mr. Lake as a fallacy, except in water of crystal-like clearness, like that of the 
Mediterranean or the Caribbean, and periscopes are now being made to scour the 
heavens as well as the horizon, so that the presence of an enemy aeroplane can easily 
be seen. An attack by an aeroplane bomb, therefore, can readily be avoided, in 
view of the difficulty of hitting such an object from the upper air. 



14 THE STORY OF THE SUBMARINE 

The submarine is the guerrilla of the sea. Its tactics are like those of the Indian 
who fights under cover or lies in ambush for his enemy. It is the weaker party and 
can hope for success only through strategy. The old adage that "all is fair in love 
and war" applies to this new weapon of destruction as to every warlike instrument. 
It is its invisibility that makes the submarine the terror of the seas. This has been 
well proved during the European war. The North Sea and the English Channel 
have been invaded by German submarines which have made great havoc among 
merchant ships. And it is well to draw attention to the fact that submarines are 
safe from each other. In no case has a battle taken place between two of these armed 
sharks except in the one instance reported of an Austrian sinking an Italian sub- 
marine. But in this case the Italian boat was on the surface and was at the time 
practically a surface ship. 

During the war the Germans were especially active in the use of the submarine, 
and did much in making them an effective terror of the seas. With no mercantile 



TVPf OTHfSH SPtffi Stt KKKKS 







TTPE OF HIGH SPEED OCEAN-GOING SUBMARINE 

marine of their own to guard, they had a free field for attack in the abundant ship- 
ping of their foes. The loss of ships was so numerous and become such a common 
occurrence that little attention was finally paid to them except when great loss of life 
took place, as in the signal instance of the "Lusitania." 

The Voyage of the " Deutschland." 

The great mission of the submarine during the European war was as a com- 
merce destroyer. Many ships were sunk and many lives, with cargoes of great value, 
were lost, and it was not until the summer of 1916 that the submarine appeared in 
a new role, that of a commerce carrier. On July 9th of that year the people of 
Baltimore were astounded by the appearance in their port of a submarine vessel of 
unusual size and novel errand. Instead of being a destroyer of merchandise, this 
new craft was an unarmed carrier of merchandise. It had crossed the Atlantic on 
a voyage of 4,000 miles in extent, laden with dyestuffs to supply the needs of American 
weavers. 

This new type of vessel, the "Deutschland," was an undersea craft of 315 feet 
length and a gross tonnage of 701 tons, its cargo capacity being more than 1,000 
tons. It had crossed the ocean in defiance of the wide cordon of enemy warships 
which swarmed over part of its route, and reached port in safety after a memorable 
voyage, to the surprise and interest of the world. Leaving the port of Bremenhaven 
on June 18th, and halting at Heligoland for four days to train its crew, it made its 
way across the Atlantic in sixteen days. During this voyage it lay for two hours 
on the ocean bottom in the English Channel and was submerged in all not over ninety 
hours, the remainder of the voyage being made on the surface. 



THE STORY OF THE SUBMARINE 



15 



Its crew, composed of twenty-six men and three officers, found their novel voyage 
rather agreeable than otherwise. Supplied with plenty of good food, a well-selected 
library, a graph ophone with an abundance of music records, and other means of 
convenience and enjoyment, their voyage was more of a holiday then a hardship, 
and they reached their transatlantic port none the worse for their hazardous trip. 
It was not the longest that had been made. Other submarines had voyaged from 
German ports to the eastern limit of the Mediterranean, but it was the most notable 
and attracted the widest attention. 

The return voyage promised to be more perilous then the outgoing one. A 
fleet of British and French ships gathered around the outlet of Chesapeake Bay, 
alert to capture the daring mariners and their ship, if possible. Ready to leave 




THE GERMAN MERCHANT SUBMARINE " DEUTSCHLAND " WHICH CROSSED THE ATLANTIC IN 
1916, AFTER ELUDING THE BRITISH BLOCKADE 

Courtesy of Baltimore American and C. & P. Telephone Co, 

Baltimore on July 20th, with a return cargo of gold, nickel and rubber, the captain 
of the "Deutschland" shrewdly awaited a favorable opportunity and on August 1st 
began his voyage, plunging under sea as he left the American coast-line and easily 
evading the line of floating foemen. The return to its home port a success, a second 
round-trip voyage was made and completed on December llth, in the course of which 
a convoying tug-boat was rammed and sunk with the loss of several lives, shortly 
after leaving New London, Conn. The " Deutschland " was sent out by private 
parties, for purely commercial purposes, not as a military enterprise. 

Such is the story of a pioneer enterprise, that of the use of submarine vessels 
as commerce carriers. It is one not likely to be supplemented in times of peace, 
since surface boats would be cheaper and more available. But in future wars if 
such there are to be it may point to a future of advantageous trade. 

Submarine Dredging. 

Commerce is not the only peaceful mission of the submarine. In 1895 was 
organized an association known as the Lake Submarine Company, its purpose being 
to use the Lake type of submarine boat for the recovery of lost treasures from the 
sea bottom and for other possibilities of undersea work. This company is still in 



16 



THE STORY OF THE SUBMARINE 




existence, its various purposes being to recover sunken ships and their cargoes, to 
build breakwaters and other submerged constructions, to aid in submarine tunnel 
building, to dredge for gold, to fish for pearls and sponges, and for similar operations. 
The first vessel adapted to these purposes was the " Argonaut," built by Simon 
Lake in 1894. The important feature of this boat was a diver's compartment, 
enabling divers to leave the vessel when submerged, for the purpose of operating 
on wrecks or performing other undersea duties. This vessel and its successors have 
bottom doors for the use of divers, as previously stated. They are now used for 
numerous purposes for which they are much better adapted then the old system of 

surface diving, the sea bottom 
being under direct observation 
and within immediate reach. 
This sea bottom, in lo- 
calities near land, is abund- 
antly sown with wrecks, old 
and new, and in many cases 
bearing permanently valuable 
cargoes, such as gold and 
coal. The Lake system 
greatly simplifies the work of 
search for sunken ships, the 
vessels being able in a few 
hours' time to search over 
regions which would have 
taken months in the old 
method. Many wrecks have 
been found by these bottom- 
prowling scouts and valuable material recovered. Thus vessels laden with coal 
have been traced that had been many years under the water and deeply covered with 
sand and silt, and their cargoes brought to the surface. 

The gold-dredging spoken of refers to the working of gold-bearing sands found 
at the mouth of certain rivers in Alaska and South America. Places on the Alaskan 
coast, laid bare at high tide, are said to have yielded as much as $12,000 per cubic 
yard. With the Lake system it is possible to gather material from such localities 
to a depth of 150 or more feet, the material being drawn up by suction pumps into 
the vessel and its gold recovered. 

Another important application is that of fishing for pearl shells, sponges and 
coral. This is blind work when done by divers from the surface, the returns being 
largely matters of chance. By aid of submerged boats, with their powerful electric 
lights, the work becomes one of certainty rather than of chance. The recovery of 
the oyster, clam and other edible shell-fish is also a feature of the work which the 
Lake Company has in view. The present method of dredging is of the "hit or miss" 
character, while the submarine method is capable of thorough work. Vessels have 
been designed for this purpose with a capacity of gathering oysters from good ground 
at the rate of 5,000 bushels per hour. In regard to submarine engineering, of its 
many varieties, the Lake system is likely to be a highly useful aid and assistance. ; 

These particulars are given to show that the submarine vessel is not wholly an 
instrument of "frightfulness," as indicated by its use in war, but is capable of being 
made useful for many purposes in peace. Some of these have here been very briefly 
stated. With continued practice its utility will grow, and by its aid the sea bottom 
up to a certain depth may become as open to varied operations as is the land surface. 



A SEMI-SUBMERSIBLE WRECKING APPARATUS 



The Story of the Panama Canal 

America has captured the forces of Nature, harnessed the floods and made 
the desert bloom, builded gigantic bridges and arrogant skyscrapers and bored road- 
ways through solid rock and beneath water, but the most spectacular of all spec- 
tacular accomplishments is the Panama Canal. 

Some four centuries ago, Balboa, the intrepid, the persevering, led his little 
band of adventurers across the Isthmus of Darien, as it was then called, and, leaving 
their protection, gave rein to his impatience by going on ahead and climbing alone, 
slowly and painfully, the continental divide, from which vantage point he discovered 
the world's largest ocean. 

We are told that, later, gathering his followers, he walked out into the surf 
and with his sword in his right hand and the banner of Castile in his left gave the 
vast expanse of water its present name and claimed all the land washed by its waves 
the lawful property of the proud country to which he owed allegiance. 

The narrowness of the Isthmus naturally suggested the cutting of a waterway 
through it. It interposed between Atlantic and Pacific a barrier in places less than 
fifty miles wide. To sail from Colon to Panama forty-five miles as the bird flies 
required a voyage around Cape Horn some ten thousand miles. Yet it was nearly 
four centuries before any actual effort was made to construct such a canal. 

In 1876 an organization was perfected in France for making surveys and col- 
lecting data on which to base the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of 
Panama, and in 1878, a concession for prosecuting the work was secured from the 
Colombian Government. In May, 1879, an international congress was convened, 
under the auspices of Ferdinand de Lesseps, to consider the question of the best 
location and plan of the canal. 

The Panama Canal Company was organized, with Ferdinand de Lesseps as its 
president, and the stock of this company was successfully floated in December, 1880. 
The two years following were devoted largely to surveys, examinations and pre- 
liminary work. In 1889 the company went into bankruptcy and operations were 
suspended until the new Panama Canal Company was organized in 1894. 

The United States to the Rescue. 

The United States, not unmindful of the advantages of an Isthmian Canal, had. 
from time to time, made surveys of the various routes. With a view to government 
ownership and control, Congress directed an investigation, with the result that the 
Commission reported, on November 16, 1901, in favor of Panama and recommended 
the lock type of canal, appraising the value of the rights, franchises, concessions, 
lands, unfinished work, plans and other property, including the railroad of the new 
Panama Canal Company, at $40,000,000. An act of Congress, approved June 28, 
1902, authorized the President of the United States to acquire this property at this 
figure, and also to secure from the Republic of Colombia perpetual control of a 
strip of land not less than six miles wide across the Isthmus and the right to excavate, 
construct and operate and protect thereon a canal of such depth and capacity as 
would afford convenient passage to the largest ships now in use or which might be 
reasonably anticipated. 

Later on a treaty was made with the Republic of Panama whereby the United 
States was granted control of a ten-mile strip constituting the Canal Zone. This 
was ratified by the Republic of Panama on December 2, 1903, and by the United 

2 cm 



18 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




UNCLE SAM'S BIG WORK AT PANAMA 

A bird's-eye view of the great canal, showing how the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans are here joined. 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



19 




20 THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 

States on February 23, 1904. On May 4, 1904, work was begun under United States 
control. 

The Canal and the Navy. 

The opening of the canal has greatly increased the effectiveness of the Navy 
of the United States. It has reduced the distance between the central points of the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts from 13,000 to 5,000 miles and greatly reduced the 
problem of coaling on a cruise from coast to coast. It has made possible the con- 
centration of a fleet at either entrance of the canal which, with a cruising speed of 
fifteen knots, could reach the center of the Pacific coast in nine days and the center 
of the Atlantic coast in five days. 

Where, formerly, the fleets stationed opposite the middle of each coast were, 
from a cruising point of view, as far apart as opposite sides of the world, they are 
now as near as if one were off New York and the other off Buenos Aires. 

With regard to the monetary saving to the United States resulting from the 
availability of the canal for naval use, it is apparent that the distance and time between 
the coasts have been reduced to less than two-fifths of the former figures. The cost 
of coast-to-coast movements is reduced accordingly, for though vessels of the Navy 
pay tolls, such payment is in effect a transfer of money from one branch of the 
government to another. 

The strategic importance of the canal is inestimable from a monetary standpoint. 

The Great Canal. 

The Isthmus of Panama runs east and west and the canal traverses it from 
Colon on the north to Panama on the south in a general direction from northwest 
to southeast, the Pacific terminus being twenty-two miles east of the Atlantic 
entrance. The principal features of the canal are a sea-level entrance channel from 
the east through Limon Bay to Gatun, about seven miles long, five-hundred-foot 
bottom width and forty-one-foot depth at mean tide. At Gatun the eighty-five- 
foot lake level is obtained by a dam across the valley. The lake is confined on the 
Pacific side by a dam between the hills at Pedro Miguel, thirty-two miles away. 
The lake thus formed has an area of 164 square miles and a channel depth of not less 
than forty-five feet at normal stage. 

At Gatun ships pass from the sea to the lake level, and vice versa, by three 
locks in flight. On the Pacific side there is one lowering of thirty feet at Pedro Miguel 
to a small lake fifty-five feet above sea level, held by dam at Miraflores, where two 
lowerings overcome the difference of level to the sea. The channel between the 
locks on the Pacific side is five hundred feet wide at the bottom and forty-five feet 
deep, and below the Miraflores locks the sea-level section, about eight miles in length, 
is five hundred feet wide at the bottom and forty-five feet deep at mean tide. 
Through the lake the bottom widths are not less than one thousand feet for about 
sixteen miles, eight hundred feet for about four miles, five hundred feet for about 
three miles and through the continental divide from Bas Obispo to Pedro Miguel, 
a distance of about nine miles, the bottom width is three hundred feet. The total 
length of the canal from deep water in the Caribbean, forty-one-foot depth at mean 
tide to deep water in the Pacific, forty-five-foot depth at mean tide, is practically 
fifty miles, fifteen miles of which are at sea level. 

The Hydroelectric Station. 

The hydroelectric station uses water from Gatun Lake for driving three turbo- 
generators of 2,000-kilowatt capacity each, which supply electricity for the operation 
of the lock and spillway machinery, the terminal shops and adjacent facilities, and 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




22 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




M! 







.2 

I O 

I! 
i * 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



23 







I 



LADDER DREDGE, PANAMA CANAL 




SUCTION DREDGE, PANAMA CANAL 

The upper view shows a ladder dredge, which operates by means of buckets on a 
continuous chain, dipping the contents of the buckets into the scow which lies along- 
side. The lower view shows a suction dredge, which operates on soft mud or sands, 
pumping the discharge through the pipe seen at the left of the illustration. The pipe 
may be carried to any desired point and used for filling 



24 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




3 - 

O2 O 02 C >-" 

O . 1 ^ C2 Q t *" H 



o 

IJ 



co g 

8.2 1 






j3S 



Ogl ^ 



.1 8 



a 



s - M 

r~3 -2 o> o ^ " 

-H Q^ Q JT t^_( ^ ^ W 



. 

3'~ 1 -+3J fl 

5 1 III!? 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



25 




26 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



27 



v'--$ 

H 




S H 



- 



w 2 c 

S o > 

Q ^'ifg 

h 2 S'^3 

o S a 



o 



Q c^ 

s | ; 

q XTJ, 



| ^ >2 

Q rQ 0> (O, 

a 2^ 



o 5 d 

a-sa 



lia 



28 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



29 




Iff 

02 O 






KSl 



n -S.S8 

111 
s s-s 



fl x 
-g o 



30 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



for the lighting of the locks and the canal villages and fortifications. Transmission 
over the Zone is effected through four substations and a connecting high voltage 
transmission line which follows the main line of the Panama Railroad. 

Gatun Lake, impounded by Gatun Dam, has an area of 164 square miles when 
its surface is at the normal elevation of eighty-five feet above sea level, and is the 
largest artificially-formed lake in the world. The area of the water-shed tributary 
to the lake is 1,320 square miles. During the rainy season, from April to the latter 
part of December, the run-off from this basin exceeds considerably the consumption 
of water, and the surplus is discharged through the spillway of Gatun Dam. Toward 
the end of the rainy season the surface of the lake is raised to about eighty-seven 
feet above sea level, in order to afford a surplus or reserve supply to keep the channel 




STEAM SHOVEL LOADING ROCK 

These great machines, which are able to dig out and load several tons of material at each operation, 
made the rapid progress in digging the canal possible. 

full to operating depth during the dry season, in part of which the consumption and 
evaporation are in excess of the supply. It is calculated that when this level has 
been attained at the beginning of the dry season the reserve is sufficient to assure 
a surface elevation of at least seventy-nine feet at the end of the dry season in spite 
of the consumption at the hydroelectric station, and allowing forty-one passages of 
vessels through the locks each day with the use of the full length of the chambers, 
or fifty-eight lockages a day when the shorter sections of the chambers are used and 
cross filling is employed, which would usually be the case. This is a greater number 
of lockages than can be made in one day. 

Gigantic Obstacles. 

The greatest difficulty encountered in the excavation of the canal was due to 
slides and breaks which caused large masses of material to slide or move into the 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



31 




faC 



J -J3 
< <D 
fc 

rl S 

a 

^ 

M 










II 

o i 

g 5 

13 a 



H ri 

h ^ 
5 g) 

ll 
I 
| 

& 

.a 



32 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 33 

excavated area, closing off the drainage, upsetting steam shovels and tearing up the 
tracks. The greatest slide was at Cucaracha, and gave trouble when the French 
first began cutting in 1884. Though at first confined to a length of 800 feet, the 
slide extended to include the entire basin south of Gold Hill, or a length of about 
3,000 feet. Some idea of the magnitude of these slides can be obtained from the 
fact that during the fiscal year 1910 of 14,921,750 cubic yards that were removed, 
2,649,000 yards, or eighteen per cent, were from slides or breaks that had previously 
existed or that had developed during the year. 

The one greatest undertaking of the whole excavation was the Gaillard Cut. 
Work had been in progress on this since 1880, and during the French control over 
20,000,000 cubic yards were removed. On May 4, 1904, when the United States 
took charge, it was estimated that there was left to excavate 150,000,000 cubic yards. 
Some idea of the size of this big cut may be formed from the fact that this division 
has within its jurisdiction over 200 miles of five-foot-gage track laid, about fifty- 

miles of which is within the side slopes of the Gaillard Cut alone. 



Gatun Dam. 

The great dam at Gatun is a veritable hill 7,500 feet over all, 2,100 feet wide 
at the base, 398 feet through at the water surface, and 100 feet wide at the top, which 
is 115 feet above sea level. The dimensions of the dam are such as to assure that 
ample provision is made against every force which may affect its safety, and while 
it is made of dirt, a thing before unheard of, it is of such vast proportions that it is 
as strong and firm as the everlasting hills themselves. 

Fluctuations in the lake due to floods are controlled by an immense spillway 
dam built of concrete. The front of the dam is the arc of a circle 740 feet long with 
fourteen openings which, when the gates are raised to the full height, permit a dis- 
charge of 140,000 cubic feet per second. The water thus discharged passes through 
a diversion channel in the old bed of the Chagres River, generating, by an enormous 
electric plant, the power necessary for operating the locks. 

The locks of the canal are in pairs, so that if any lock is out of service navigation 
will not be interrupted, also, when all the locks are in use the passage of shipping 
is expedited by using one set of locks for the ascent and the other for descent. These 
locks are 110 feet wide and have usable lengths of 1,000 feet. The system of filling 
adopted consists of a culvert in each side wall feeding laterals from which are openings 
upward into the lock chamber. The entire lock can be filled or emptied in fifteen 
minutes and forty-two seconds when one culvert is used and seven minutes and 
fifty-one seconds, using both culverts. It requires about ten hours for a large ship 
to make the entire trip through the canal. 

Meeting all Emergencies. 

Many extraordinary feats of engineering were accomplished to overcome the 
difficulties presented. Special contrivances, wonderful in their operation, were 
invented to meet exigencies and emergencies. 

The first and greatest problem attempted by the United States was to make the 
Canal Zone healthful. This strip of land from ocean to ocean abounded in disease- 
L-'eeding swamps and filthy habitations unfit for human beings. The death-rate 
was appalling and the labor conditions terrible. During the first two and a half 
years, therefore, all energies were devoted to ridding the Isthmus of disease by sani- 
tation, to recruiting and organizing a working force and providing for it suitable 
houses, hotels, messes, kitchens and an adequate food supply. This work included 
clearing lands, draining and filling pools and swamps for the extermination of the 
mosquito, the establishment of hospitals for the care of the sick and injured and 



34 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




S 

03 O 
r r) 



S-3 



x o^ 

t+H O 

pq o3 _ 

g ^oj.g 



fc O 

3^ 
I IS 
II 



s w 

^2 tn 



1 a|? 
I -al 

5 &1 

I ^5 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



35 




36 THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 

the building of suitable quarantine quarters. Municipal improvements were under- 
taken in Panama and Colon and the various settlements in the Canal Zone, such 
as the construction of reservoirs, pavements and a system of modern roads. Over 
2,000 buildings were constructed besides the remodeling of 1,500 buildings turned 
over by the French company. 

It was only after all this preliminary sanitation was accomplished that the 
real work of digging the canal could go forward with any hope of success. These 
hygienic conditions had the result of making the Canal Zone one of the most healthful 
spots in the world, and work on the canal became so popular that it was no longer 
necessary to enlist recruits from the West Indies, the good pay, fair treatment and 
excellent living conditions bringing thousands of laborers from Spain and Italy. 
The greatest number employed at any one time was 45,000, of which 5,000 were 
American. 

A Battle Won. 

The completion of this herculean task marked an epoch in the history of the 
world. A gigantic battle against floods and torrents, pestilence and swamps, tropical 
rivers, jungles and rock-ribbed mountains had been 2ought and won! Well worthy 
a place in the halls of immortal fame are the names of the thousands of sturdy sons 
who, with ingenuity, pluck and perseverance never before equaled, succeeded in 
making a pathway for the nations of the world from ocean to ocean. 

This great and daring undertaking, which had for its object the opening up 
of new trade routes and lines of commerce, annihilating distance and wiping out 
the width of two continents between New York and Yokohama and making the 
Atlantic seaboard and the Pacific coast close neighbors, is the climax of man's achieve- 
ment and the greatest gift to civilization. It will help in the consummation of man's 
loftiest dreams of world friendship and world peace. 

*So far, in the use of the canal, over forty per cent of the vessels which have 
passed through it have been engaged in the coastwise trade of the United States 
each of them saving about 7,800 miles on each trip. If their average speed be taken 
at ten knots, they have averaged a saving of over a month at sea on each voyage 
from coast to coast. Where formerly the round trip of a ten-knot vessel required 
about fifty-five days' actual steaming, the time at sea for the same trip for the same 
vessel is now reduced to about twenty-two days. 

The canal makes San Francisco nearer to Liverpool by 5,666 miles, a saving of 
two-fifths of the old journey by Magellan. The distance between San Francisco 
and Gibraltar has been reduced from 12,571 miles to 7,621 miles, a saving of 4,950 
miles, or thirty-nine per cent of the former distance. 

From San Francisco to Buenos Aires, via Valparaiso and Magellan, is approxi- 
mately 7,610 miles, which is shorter than the route through the canal, by which the 
distance is 8,941 miles. To Rio de Janeiro, the distance via Magellan is 8,609 miles; 
by the canal 7,885 miles. To Pernambuco, on the eastern promontory of South 
America, the distance via Magellan is 9,748 miles ; via the canal 6,746 miles. To Para 
the distances via Magellan and via the canal are 10,852 and 5,642 miles, respectively. 

From San Francisco to Freetown, on the west coast of middle Africa, the dis- 
tance by the most practicable route, using the Strait of Magellan, is 11,380 miles. 
Through the canal and by way of the island of Barbados, the distance is 7,277 miles. 
The new route is less than two-thirds of the former. 

With reference to the trade between the Atlantic coast of the United States 
and the west coast of South America, New York is nearer to Valparaiso by 3,717 
miles by virtue of the canal; to Iquique, one of the great nitrate ports, by 4,139 
miles; and to Guayaquil by 7,405 miles. From New York to Guayaquil the present 

*The following information and statistics by courtesy of The Panama Canal, Washington office. 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 



37 



O> -^ I i 

^ s 5^3 

:l^ 

fl" 

I 111 -' 

C3 Q 

^^i^ 

0) .. t-< 

S*3 

+* >> 

4 i-* ^ 

ns 

-^ si ^ 

"^ S 3 




38 



THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 




THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 39 

distance of 2,765 miles is approximately twenty-seven per cent of the former distance 
10,270 miles. 

As to the Far East, New York is nearer to Yokohama by 3,768 miles than formerly 
by way of the Suez Canal, but the latter route is eighteen miles shorter than the 
Panama route for vessels plying between New York and Hongkong. New York is 
forty-one miles nearer Manila by Panama than by Suez, and 3,932 miles nearer 
Sydney by Panama. New York is now, by virtue of the Panama Canal, nearer than 
Liverpool to Yokohama by 1,880 miles, and nearer than Liverpool to Sydney by 
2,424 miles. 

When the ship enters the harbor of either of the terminal ports it is boarded 
by officers of the canal who examine its bill of health and clearance, see that its 
certificate of canal measurement is properly made out, and ascertain any of the 
vessel's needs in the matters of fuel, supplies, extra men to handle the lines during the 
passage of the locks, etc. These matters are immediately reported to the Captain 
of the Port, who gives the necessary orders to insure proper attendance on the vessel's 
needs and directs its start through the canal whenever it is ready. 

In all stages of its transit of the canal the vessel must have on board a govern- 
ment pilot. There is no charge for pilotage on vessels going directly through the 
canal without stopping to discharge cargo or passengers at the terminal ports. The 
pilot is on board in an advisory capacity and is required to confer with the master 
of the vessel, giving him the benefit of his knowledge and advice as to the handling 
of the vessel in the various reaches, but the master, who is best acquainted with the 
peculiarities of his vessel and her ways of answering the helm, is responsible for the 
navigation of the vessel, except when she is passing through the locks. 

The handling of a vessel during its transit of the canal is like the handling of a 
railway train on its "run." The course is equipped with all requisite signals, facilities 
for mooring, like sidings, and a system of communication between points along the 
line, which includes a special telephone system connecting all the important points 
of control in series. 

As soon as the vessel starts on its transit of the canal, the Captain of the Port 
at the point of entrance telephones its starting to the other stations along the course. 
As the vessel arrives and departs from each of these points, the fact is telephoned 
along the line, so that there is exact knowledge at each station all the time of the 
status of traffic, and complete co-operation from the several points of control. 

The transit of the canal requires about ten hours, of which approximately three 
hours are spent in the locks. In the sea-level channels and Gaillard (formerly 
"Culebra") Cut the speed of vessels is limited to six knots; through Gatun Lake 
they may make ten, twelve and fifteen knots, according to the width of the channel. 
A vessel may clear from the canal port at which it enters and, after passing through 
th last of the locks, put direct to sea without further stop. 

The handling of a vessel all through the canal, except in the locks, is essentially 
the same as its handling through any. charted channel where observance of signals, 
ranges and turns is necessary. The canal channel throughout is very accurately 
charted, fully equipped with aids to navigation, and governed by explicit rules with 
which the pilots, of course, are thoroughly familiar. 

In the locks, the vessel is under the control of the lock-operating force. As 
the vessel approaches the locks, the operator in charge at the control house indicates 
by an electrically operated signal at the outer end of the approach wall if the vessel 
shall enter the locks and, if so, on which side; or if it shall keep back or moor along- 
side the approach wall. If everything is ready for the transit of the locks, the vessel 
approaches the center approach wall, which is a pier extending about a thousand 
feet from the locks proper, lines are thrown out, and connections are made with the 
electric towing locomotives on the approach wall. 



40 THE STORY OF THE PANAMA CANAL 

The vessel then moves forward slowly until it is in the entrance chamber, when 
lines are thrown out on the other side and connections are made with towing loco- 
motives on the side wall. Six locomotives are used for the larger vessels, three on 
each wall of the lock chamber. Two keep forward of the vessel, pulling and holding 
her head to the center of the chamber; two aft, holding the vessel in check; and two 
slightly forward of amidships, which do most of the towing of the vessel through 
the chamber. The locomotives are powerful affairs, secured against slipping by 
the engagement of cogs with a rack running along the center of the track, and equipped 
with a slip drum and towing windlass, which allow the prompt paying out and taking 
in of hawser as required. No trouble has been experienced in maintaining absolute 
control over the vessels. 

The water within the lock chamber proper, beyond the entrance chamber, ia 
brought to the level of that in the approach, the gates toward the vessel are opened, 
the fender chain is lowered, and the locomotives maneuver the vessel into the chamber 
and bring it to rest. The gates are then closed, the water raised or lowered, as the 
case may be, to the level of that in the next chamber, the gates at the other end 
are opened, and the vessel moved forward. Three such steps are made at Gatuiu 
two at Miraflores, and one at Pedro Miguel. 

When the vessel has passed into the approach chamber at the end of the locks, 
the lines from the towing locomotives on the side wall are first cast off, then those 
from the locomotives on the approach wall, and the vessel clears under its own power. 

Towing is not ordinarily required in any part of the canal, except in the locks, 
for steam or motor vessels. Tug service for sailing ships or vessels without motive 
power is at' the rate of $15 per hour. If the channel in the cut has been disturbed 
by a slide, tugs may be used to handle vessels past the narrow places, but hi such 
cases there is no charge for the service to vessels of less than 15,000 gross tonnage. 



What is a Geyser? 

The famous geyser shown in the illustration is called "Old Faithful" because 
of the clock-like regularity of its eruptions. For over twenty years it has been 
spouting at average intervals of sixty-five minutes. 

Geysers were first observed in Iceland and the name, therefore, comes from 
that language, being derived from the word "geysa," meaning "to gush" or "rush 
forth." That is just what they do. 

There are really three different kinds of geysers; one which throws up hot 
water, either continually or, like "Old Faithful," at intervals; one which simple 
emits steam and no water and one which is a sort of a hot-water cistern. 

The "Grand Geyser" at Firehole Basin in Yellowstone Park is the most 
magnificent natural fountain in the whole world. The "Great Geyser" and the 
"New Geyser" are the most remarkable ones in Iceland, where there about a hundred 
altogether. The basin of the former is about seventy feet in diameter, and at times 
it throws up a column of hot water to the height of from eighty to two hundred feet 
in the air. 

The hot-lake district of Auckland, New Zealand, is also famous in possessing 
some of the most remarkable geyser scenery in the world. It was formerly noted 
for the number of natural terraces containing hot water pools, and its lakes all filled 
at intervals by boiling geysers and hot springs, but the formation of the country 
was considerably altered by a disastrous volcanic outbreak in 1886, its beautiful 
pink and white terraces being destroyed. It still has, however, a circular rocky 
basin, forty feet in diameter, in which a violent geyser is constantly boiling up to 
the height of ten to twelve feet, emitting dense clouds of steam. This is one of the 
natural wonders of the southern hemisphere and is much visited by tourists traveling 
through New Zealand. 



WHAT IS A GEYSER 



41 




Photo by Brown Bros. 



( OLD FAITHFUL" IN ERUPTION 



42 WHAT KIND OF DOGS ARE PRAIRIE-DOGS 

What Kind of Dogs are Prairie-Dogs? 

Prairie-dogs are not really dogs at all, but a kind of a squirrel called a marmot. 
As the visitors to city Zoological Parks already know, these animals make little 
mounds of earth, and a great many of these are found in one locality, which is known 
as a "dog-town." It is possible to travel for days at a time through country which 
is dotted over with mounds, every one of which is the home of a pair or more of 
prairie-dogs. These mounds are usually about eighteen feet apart, and consist of 
about as much earth as would fill a very large wheelbarrow. This is thrown up by 
the prairie-dog when he digs out his subterranean home. His dwelling sometimes 
has one entrance and sometimes two, and there are many much-traveled paths 
between the different hillocks, showing that they are very neighborly and sociable 
with one another. 

In choosing a town site, they select one which is covered with short, coarse 
grass, such as is found especially in fields on high ground and mountain sides, for 
it is on this grass and certain roots that the prairie-dogs feed. On the plains of 
New Mexico, where for miles you will not find a drop of water unless you dig down 
into the earth for a hundred feet or so, with no rain for several months at a time, 
there are many very large " dog-towns," and it is, therefore, clear that they are 
able to live without drinking, obtaining enough moisture for their needs from a 
heavy fall of dew. 

At about the end of October, when the grass dries up and the ground becomes 
frozen hard, so that digging is out of the question, the prairie-dog creeps into his 
burrow, blocking up the opening in order to keep out the cold and make everything 
snug, and goes to sleep until the following spring, without having had to lay up a 
store of food, as some animals do, to last him through the long, hard winter months. 
If he opens up his house again before the end of cold weather, the Indians say it is 
a sure sign that warmer days are near at hand. 

If one approaches very cautiously so as not to be observed, a large "dog-town" 
presents a very curious sight. A happy, animated scene stretches away as far as 
the eye can see. Little prairie-dogs are found everywhere, on the top of their 
mounds, sitting up like squirrels, waving their tails from side to side and yelping 
to each other, until a most cheerful-sounding concert is produced. If you listen 
carefully, as you draw nearer, however, you will notice a different tone in the calls 
of the older and more experienced animals, and that is the warning signal for the 
whole population to disappear from view into their burrows. Then, if one hides 
quietly in the background and waits patiently for some time, sentinels will mount 
up to their posts of observation on top of the mounds and announce that it is safe 
to come out of their burrows and play about again, as the danger is past. 

What is Spontaneous Combustion? 

Spontaneous combustion is the burning of a substance or body by the internal 
development of heat without the application of fire. 

It not infrequently takes place among heaps of rags, wool and cotton when sodden 
with oil; hay and straw when damp or moistened with water; and coal in the bunkers 
of vessels. 

In the first case, the oil rapidly combines with the oxygen of the air, this being 
accompanied by great heat. In the second case, the heat is produced by a kind of 
fermentation; and in the third, by the pyrites of the coal rapidly absorbing and 
combining with the oxygen of the air. 

The term is also applied to the extraordinary phenomenon of the human body, 
which has been told of some people, whereby it is reduced to ashes without the appli- 
cation of fire. It is said to have occurred in the aged and persons that were fat and 
hard drinkers, but most chemists reject the theory and altogether discredit it. 



The Story in the Talking Machine* 

As far back as 1855 inventors were experimenting with talking machines; but 
nothing practical was accomplished till 1877, when Thomas A. Edison constructed 
a primitive machine capable of recording and reproducing sounds. In the early 
Edison phonograph the sound vibrations were registered on a tinfoil-covered cylinder. 
Busy with other inventions, he postponed developing the idea of a talking machine; 
and meantime other brains were at work on the problem. 

In 1885 Chichester A. Bell (cousin of Alexander Graham Bell, of telephone fame) 
and Charles Sumner Tainter invented the "graphophone." This was the first 




FIRST PRACTICAL TALKING 
MACHINE 



ONE OP THE EARLIER TYPES OF SPRING 
MOTOR GRAPHOPHONES 



practical and commercially usable talking machine. The experiments and discoveries 
resulting in the production of the Bell and Tainter graphophone were made in the 
laboratories of Alexander Graham Bell, near Washington, D. C., and the latter 
assisted and advised with the inventors, and on his own behalf conducted experiments 
which were productive of highly important results in the art of recording and repro- 
ducing sound. 

The Bell and Tainter patent was granted in 1886, and although the subject of 
much controversy, it has been repeatedly sustained by the United States courts, 
and in one case (87 F. R. 873) Judge Shipman had to consider all that other inventors 
had done or attempted to do, and he there decided that Bell and Tainter were the 
first to make "an actual living invention which the public was able to use." 

This method covered "a method of engraving records of sound, producing 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the Columbia Graphophone Co. 

(43) 



44 THE STORY IN THE TALKING MACHINE 




OSCAR SEAGLE, THE WELL-KNOWN SOLOIST, RECORDING 

The artist stands before the horn and his every note is 
recorded with a fidelity startling in the extreme. 



THE STORY IN THE TALKING MACHINE 



45 



records of sound by engraving in a wax-like material which would permit of the 
handling, using and transporting of the record." Another United States patent, 
covering a method of duplicating or copying sound records, was granted to Charles 
Sumner Tainter in 1886. 

Of course the talking 
machine of to-day is a 
long way removed from 
the early Edison and the 
early Bell and Tainter 
machines, because many 
master minds have been 
working on the problem 
of developing and ma- 
turing the art of sound 
recording and reproduc- 
ing, and in perfecting 
machines to be used in 
reproducing the sound 
records after they have 
been made. 

Disk records have 
taken the place of the 

old-style cylinder records, the latter being confined for the most part to dictating 
machines for office use, as the Dictaphone, which has largely displaced the short- 
hand writer in many business houses. 

Since the original Thomas A. Edison patents and the Bell and Tainter patent 




THE MACDONALD GRAPHOPHONE GRAND 




IN BAND AND ORCHESTRA RECORDING EACH INSTRUMENT is AT A DIFFERENT ELEVATION 



46 



THE STORY IN THE TALKING MACHINE 




LEOPOLD GODOWSKT, ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREATEST 
PIANISTS, MAKING A RECORD 

The bell at the left is rung to advise the artist that 
the recorder is ready and the flashing of the light at the 
right is the signal to begin playing. 



THE STORY IN THE TALKING MACHINE 



47 



there have been many thousands granted, but only a few need be referred to as 
constituting the milestones in the evolution and development of the art and industry. 

First in point of time and importance is the Macdonald Spring Motor, the 
invention of Thomas Hood Macdonald, a prolific inventor and contributor of many 
valuable improvements to the talking machine art and industry. The Bell and 
Tainter machine was operated by a storage battery and this was an inconvenient 
and expensive form of power. To meet this condition the Macdonald Spring Motor 
was invented and from the start proved a tremendous success. Today most of the 
clockwork motor talking machines are 
built upon the principles disclosed in the 
Macdonald Spring Motor patent. 

The next important step was the dis- 
covery by Macdonald that a critical speed 
for the surface of the record must be ob- 
tained in order to secure best results, and 
this wonderful principle in the art of 
sound recording was protected by United 
States patent issued to Macdonald cov- 
ering what is known as the Macdonald 
Graphophone Grand. This discovery 
and invention has been largely instru- 
mental in the rapid development of 
sound recording. 

Although Bell and Tainter disclosed 
a method of recording sound on a flat 
surface, all of the earlier forms of talking- 
machine records were what are known as 
cylindrical, records in a cylindrical form. 
Later the disc record came into use and 
is now the most popular form. Rela- 
tively very few cylinder records are manu- 
factured at the present time. The process 
of sound recording, as applied to disc 
records, is covered by United States pat- 
ent to J. W. Jones, and marks a further 
important stage in the development of 
the art and industry. 

In present-day sound recording the 
operation is briefly as follows : A recording 
machine is employed on which is mounted 
a rotating turntable carrying a wax-like 

disc blank. Suspended above, but in contact with the surface of the blank, is a 
recording needle or stylus, attached to a diaphragm which, in turn, is connected to 
an amplifying horn. The horn extends beyond the machine and the singer, band or 
orchestra is stationed in front of the mouth of this horn. As the singer interprets 
the song the vibrations set up by the singer's voice are communicated to the dia- 
phragm by the passage of the sound through the horn. These vibrations, striking 
upon the diaphragm, set in motion the recording needle or stylus, causirg it to move 
rapidly, and its motion is traced upon the surface of the rotating disc in a line which 
is known as the sound line. Looked at with the naked eye this line has the appear- 
ance of a spiral traced upon the surface of the wax-like blank, but examined under 
a magnifying glass it shows myriad little indentations or grooves in the wall of the 
sound line. These indentations correspond to the vibrations imparted to the needle 




AN UP-TO-DATE TALKING MACHINE MODEL 



48 THE STORY IN THE TALKING MACHINE 




INSTRUMENTAL Music is RECORDED AS FAITHFULLY AS VOCAL 

Barrere, the great flute player and orchestra leader, is shown 

making a popular record. 



THE STORY IN THE TALKING MACHINE 49 

through the diaphragm, and are the recorded sounds made by the singer or band. 
When the song or selection is finished the surface of the wax-like blank has been 
covered over with this spiral sound line. The blank has become the "master record," 
and the first stage of producing a talking-machine record has been passed. The 
next step is to secure from this master record a metallic counterpart or shell. This 
is done by the electro-plating process. When the shell is secured the next step is 
to provide a matrix which serves as a die or stamp from which to press copies or 
duplicates of the master record. These copies or duplicates are the talking-machine 
records which the public ultimately purchases. The matrix or die is placed in a power 
press and the records pressed from the material used in making the sound records. 
This material is prepared in a plastic form so that it can be forced under pressure 
into every line and indentation on the face of the matrix. 

The discovery of the art of recording and reproducing sound; the development 
of that art into a giant industry, and the present-day universal sovereignty of the 
talking machine are tributes to American inventive genius and American industrial 
enterprise. The contributions to the art and the improvements in the manufacture 
of talking machines and talking-machine records from sources outside of the United 
States have been very unimportant. The industry employs many thousands of 
people in the manufacture of these instruments and records which afford entertain-- 
ment, instruction and amusement to the entire world 



What are Petrified Forests? 

In the first place, petrification is the name we give to the animal and vegetable 
bodies which have, by slow process, been converted into stone. We mean very much 
the same thing when we refer to "Fossil Forests." 

Although in most instances there are comparatively few traces of its vegetable 
origin left, coal owes its existence primarily to the vast masses of vegetable matter 
deposited through the luxuriant growth of plants in former epochs of the earth's 
history, and since slowly converted into a petrified state. 

Coal fields today present abundant indications of the existence of huge ancient 
forests, usually in the form of coal formed from the roots of the trees. Several such 
forests have been uncovered, of which one in Nova Scotia is a good example, remains 
of trees having been found there, six to eight feet high, one tree even measuring 
twenty-five feet in height and four feet in diameter. 

The remains of a fossil forest have been found in an upright position in France, 
and in a colliery in England, in a space of about one-quarter of an acre, there have 
been found the fossilized stumps of seventy-three trees, with roots attached, and 
broken-off trunks lying about, one of them thirty feet long and all of them turned 
into coal. 

A remarkable group of petrified trees, some of them twelve feet in diameter, 
exists in California, and another in Yellowstone Park, in which the trees are still 
erect, though converted into stone. An extraordinary forest of such trees has been 
found in Arizona, lying over a wide space of ground, some of them six feet in diameter 
and perfectly preserved. 

^ These trees are rather mineralized than fossilized. They are found in volcanic 
regions and are supposed to be due to the action of hot water, which carried off the 
organic material and deposited dissolved silica in its place. In some instances the 
wood has been converted into solid jasper or has been changed into opal or agate. 
or filled with chalcedony or crystallized quartz, with beautifully variegated colors. 



50 



WHAT ARE PETRIFIED FORESTS 




2 

PQ 
m 
P 
H | 

M O 

- 



WHAT ANIMALS ARE THE BEST ARCHITECTS 51 

What Animals are the Best Architects? 

Animals of a great many different kinds have helped show man the way, in 
taking advantage of the opportunities which nature affords him to feed, clothe and 
protect himself, but one of the smallest of the animal kingdom is probably the cleverest 
of all the spider. Spiders have many different kinds of enemies, ranging from man 
down to the very smallest, but dangerous, insects, and most of their enemies possess 
enormous advantages over them in either strength or agility, or both combined; 
enemies with wings, swift in movement and able to retreat where the spider cannot 
follow them; enemies clad in an impenetrable coat of armor, against which the 
spider's weapons are powerless, while the spider's own body is soft and vulnerable. 
These handicaps have been met by the spider with a multitude of clever contrivances, 
and if invention and skill are to be regarded as an index to intellectual development, 
it should be very significant to realize how far spiders are ahead of our near relatives, 
the almost human members of the monkey family. 

One of the most interesting of the spider race is the " trap-door" spider which 
inhabits warm countries all over the earth. The " trap-door" spider not only builds 
a home for herself by digging a deep hole in the ground and lining it with silk to 
prevent the sides from falling in, but she also adds a neat little door to keep out the 
rain and other troublesome things. She usually chooses sloping ground for her 
homestead so that the door, which she fastens at the edge of its highest point by 
a strong silk-elastic hinge, swings shut of its own weight after being opened. She 
disguises the entrance to her home in a manner superior to the famous art of con- 
cealment practiced by the Indians, by planting moss on the outside of the door 
living moss taken from the immediate neighborhood so that the entrance to her 
house harmonizes perfectly with its surroundings, its discovery being made more 
difficult by the fact that in her careful selection of a site for her dwelling she also 
appears to be influenced by the presence of patches of white lichen which distract 
the eye. 

The male spider does not seem to take any part in designing, constructing or 
decorating the home and does not even share its occupancy, leaving it to the mother 
and her family often forty or more children at a time and living a vagrant life, 
camping out in holes and ditches when he is not tramping around over the whole 
countryside. The mother spider, however, like many other animals, takes excellent 
charge of her children, and guards them carefully from all harm. At the first sign 
of a commotion going on outside her front door she is known to invariably assemble 
her family behind her, out of harm's way, and then place her back against the 
swinging door, holding it shut with some of her feet and clinging tightly to the inner 
walls of her home with the others. 

There is one kind of spider which has developed an even more elaborate style 
of architecture, digging another room and adding an upper side gallery to her main 
residence, and placing a second door at the junction of the two tunnels. The doors 
are made to swing back and forth in both directions, and she constructs a handle 
on the outer one, by which she fastens it open with a few threads attached to any 
convenient grass stems or little stones, when she expects to come home from a hunting 
expedition with her arms full. If a dangerous enemy threatens her home she usually 
retreats to the second room, in the hope that he will decide she is out and depart 
in search of another victim elsewhere, but if he discovers her secret, she slams the 
second swinging door in his face. Should she be beaten in the pushing match at 
that point, she slips into the upper side gallery opening above the door, and her 
enemy's presence within the inner room automatically blocks the entrance to her 
hiding place by holding up the swinging door across its only opening. 



The Story of the Motorcycle* 

Interest in the development of mechanically propelled two-wheel vehicles began 
soon after the introduction of the bicycle in its first practicable form. Man's natural 

dislike for manual labor quickly found 
objection to the physical effort of 
bicycle travel, and accordingly sought 
to devise mechanical means of over- 
coming it. 

The earliest known attempt to 
construct a two-wheel vehicle which 
would proceed under its own power was 
made by W. W. Austin, of Winthrop, 
Mass., in the year 1868. This crude 
affair consisted of a small velocipede 
upon which was mounted a crude coal- 
burning steam engine. The piston 
rods of the engine were connected 
directly with cranks on the rear wheel. 
The boiler was hung between the two 
wheels and directly back of the saddle, 
while the engine cylinders were placed 
slightly above horizontal just behind 
the boiler. Despite the crudity of 
this outfit, Austin claimed that he had 
traveled some 2,200 miles on this, 




COPELAND MODEL, 1884 



the "granddaddy" of all motorcycles. 
L. D. and W. E. Copeland, two 

Californian experimenters, are credited 

with the next known effort to produce a two-wheeler which would travel by its own 
power. Their first model appeared in 1884. The bicycle to which this miniature steam- 





AUSTIN STEAM VELOCIPEDF, 1868 



ROPER'S MACHINE, 1886 



power plant of the Copeland brothers' invention was attached was one of the old 
high-wheel models with the small steering wheel forward. The steam engine of this 
truly ingenious contrivance, together with the boiler and the driving pulley, weighed 

* Illustrations by courtesy of thoHendee Manufacturing Co. 

(52) 



THE STORY OF THE MOTORCYCLE 



53 



only sixteen ounces. The Copeland model was probably the first motorcycle to 
use belt drive. It should be understood that propulsion of this first Copeland model 
was not intended to depend solely upon mechanical power, but to be operated in 
connection with the foot pedals. 

The Copeland brothers are to be credited with the first attempt to produce the 
motorcycle upon a commercial basis, but their efforts were unsuccessful. Their 
invention seemed to be far ahead of 
the times, and their project passed 
by unappreciated. 

In 1886, S. H. Roper, of Roxbury, 
Mass., appeared with a steam-propelled 
bicycle which consisted of a specially 
designed engine placed in a bicycle 
frame of the type with which we are 
familiar today. This invention was 
awkward, and its weight of 150 pounds 
made it difficult to handle, but in spite 
of that its inventor is said to have 
obtained considerable use from it. 

The year 1895 saw the first public 
exhibition of mechanically operated 
two-wheel vehicles held at Madison 
Square Garden, New York City. The sensation of the show was a motorcycle 
which was presented by E. J. Pennington of Cleveland. This was the first public 
appearance of a cycle propelled by a combustion engine, and in that regard 
it may be called the first appearance of the motorcycle in the form that it 
is known today. The Pennington machine was the first-known vehicle to attempt 




THE PENNINGTON MOTORCYCLE, 1895 







HEDSTROM MOTOR TANDEM, 1898 

the use of gasoline. History fails to relate a great deal about the mechanical 
detail of the Pennington model, but it is said to have made a very creditable per- 
formance in exhibition. It appeared at the Madison Square Garden in two forms, 
as a single motorcycle and as a motor tandem. 

There was little or no interest in motor vehicles of any description in that period 
of the early nineties, consequently the Pennington efforts were fruitless. Portly 



54 



THE STORY OF THE MOTORCYCLE 




A BIG TWIN MODEL 




AN UP-TO-DATE "FEATHERWEIGHT" MODEL 



THE STORY OF THE MOTORCYCLE 



55 



after the public exhibition of his models, financial difficulties are said to have over- 
taken Pennington and he is reported to have departed suddenly for foreign climes, 
bringing his experiments to an abrupt end. 

Along in the late nineties a keen interest in bicycle racing led to the introduc- 
tion of what is known as the motor-paced tandem. This consisted of a, regulation 
tandem bicycle on which was mounted a gasoline motor geared up to the rear wheel 
with a chain drive. The tandem rider 
on the forward seat did the steering and the 
foot pedaling, and the rear rider operated 
the motor. It is believed that the first 
of these tandems came over here from 
France. 

By 1898 the popularity of the motor- 
paced racing bicycle became so great that 
attention was soon directed toward their 
manufacture. Chief among the bicycle 
manufacturers who took up the making 
of the motor-paced tandem was Oscar 
Hedstrom, a racer with many notable 
victories to his credit. He believed that he 
could make a motor tandem which would 
prove far superior to any other American 
machine made, if not better even than any 
foreign machine. 

The machine which he produced with a motor of his own design was entered 
in some big races at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo in 1901 where nearly 
every record was broken. Mr. Hedstrom's partner on this tandem outfit was 
Henshaw, a bicycle racer of some repute. Following their debut on the motor tandem 
at Buffalo, this pair proceeded to make records throughout the country, several of 
which still stand today. 

In 1901 a bicycle manufacturer of Springfield, Mass., foresaw a future for a 
motorcycle designed for pleasure purposes instead of exclusively for racing. Hitherto, 

all motor-propelled cycles had used the 




CRADLE SPRING FRAME CONSTRUCTION 




power of the engine of whatever form it 
was merely as an aid to locomotion. 
None had been successful in producing 
a machine that could proceed anywhere 
solely under its own power. Convinced 
that such a machine could be produced, 
and certain that it would find a ready 
market, this manufacturer set about to 
put his ideas into execution. 

He recognized in Oscar Hedstrom, as 
the leader of the motor tandem racing 
field, the man who knew more about com- 
bustion engines than any other man in 

America, and accordingly enlisted his services. Oscar Hedstrom retired to a little 
mechanical laboratory in Middletown, Conn., and in a short four months emerged 
with a completed motorcycle which he had not only designed himself, but had con- 
structed entirely by his own labor. Its performance on its first trial trip was 
absolutely astounding to every observer. In road tests under every conceivable 
condition, this first motorcycle of Oscar Hedstrom's displayed a perfection of 
mechanical operation which had to that time never been approached. It moved 



FIRST HEDSTROM MOTORCYCLE WITH TRI-CAR, 
1902 



56 



THE STORY OF THE MOTORCYCLE 



entirely under its own power, could climb hills and could travel on the level road 
at speeds which had never before been exhibited by vehicles of that type. 

By reason of the successful performance of his first motorcycle, Oscar Hedstrom 
is given the credit, in many quarters, for producing the first motorcycle of practicable 
construction. All successful machines of this type since then are said to have been 
modeled more or less on the fundamental principles of that first Hedstrom machine. 
Part of Hedstrom's success was due to his mastery of the important problem of 
carburetion, and a carburetor expressly designed for that first machine constituted 
a marked step in motorcycle development. The leading carburetors of today are 
said to be based upon the principles of the first Hedstrom carburetor. The date of 
the appearance of the first Hedstrom motorcycle was 1901. 

Manufacture of the motorcycle upon a commercial scale forthwith commenced 
in the bicycle manufactory at Springfield, Mass. Such is said to have been the 
humble beginning of the motorcycle. 

Their first motorcycle was offered to the public in 1902. Itsjnechanical detail 




inr 




MODERN "SIDE-CAR" MODEL 



is worthy of note for the sake of comparison with the models of the current year. 
Its motor was the Hedstrom single-cylinder motor of 1% horse-power; frame, 22 
inches; tires, 1% inches, single tube; chain drive; weight, 93 pounds. From the 
year 1902 to 1909, the style of their motorcycle remained substantially the same in 
appearance. The models of that period are referred to as "camel backs" by reason 
of the location and shape of the gasoline tank on the rear mud guard. In 1909, the 
loop frame was introduced to provide additional strength to the machine, being 
required by the increased weight of the motor; 1906 saw the introduction of twin 
cylinders for racing models, and the following year they appeared in the regular 
models. 

Motorcycle design has made wonderful progress. The powerful, easy-riding 
machines of today with their many refinements are truly marvelous pieces of 
mechanism. Mechanical perfection is as nearly approached as it is possible for 
the best brains and the most approved methods of manufacture to attain. There 
are numerous modern refinements which have contributed materially to the present- 



THE STORY OF THE MOTORCYCLE 57 

day popularity of the motorcycle that are worthy of special note. Chief of these 
is the kick-starter, which enables the rider to start the engine of his machine without 
mounting it upon a stand or pedaling on the road. Improved clutches, gear ratios 
which permit varying speeds, double-braking systems and electric lights are present- 
day refinements which add zest to the sport of motorcycling. 

One of the greatest of all motorcycling comfort creations is a device known 
as the cradle spring frame which consists of pairs of cushion-leaf springs of the 
semi-elliptical type, which are located at the rear of the frame just beneath the saddle. 
This affords the maximum of riding comfort by the elimination of all jar and jolt 
occasioned by an uneven roadway. 

Magneto ignition first appeared in 1908; previous to that date all ignition had 
been dependent upon batteries of the ordinary dry-cell variety. 

The last two years has seen the introduction of what is known as the light-weight 
model. This style of motorcycle has a smaller motor, which is usually of the two- 
stroke type, single cylinder. The frame is of lighter construction, the mechanism 








MODERN DELIVERY VAN FOR GROCERS, DRUGGISTS, ETC. 

is simpler, and of course the speed is reduced. This type of two-wheeler, however, 
finds favor among those who like power and speed but in modified form. Lower 
initial cost and lower operation expense are factors which especially recommend 
the light-weight models. 

There has been considerable difference of opinion as regards the comparative 
efficiency of chain drive and belt drive. The consensus of opinion, however, seems 
to favor the chain drive, as evidenced by its use on most of the leading makes of 
present-day machines. Some of the light-weight models are using belt drive, but 
chain drive is generally conceded to be superior. In the early days of motorcycling, 
belt drive was rather generally used, but the heavy duty required soon brought 
about the change to present usage. 

Motorcycle manufacture is today carried on in some of the largest and most 
up-to-date manufactories that can be found in the United States. The oldest and 
the largest factory devoted to motorcycle manufacture is said to be that which has 
been built up under the direction of the Springfield manufacturer, the man who first 
saw the great commercial possibilities in the development of the motorcycle for 
pleasure and business purposes. His company had a capitalization of $12,500,000 



58 THE STORY OF THE MOTORCYCLE 

in 1916. Some 2,400 skilled workmen were employed in its two big Springfield 
)lants. Its output, said to be the largest in the industry, is over 25,000 machines 
per year. Numerous models meeting varying requirements are produced. 

Soon after the first practicable motorcycle appeared in 1902 there arose a 
demand for a contrivance that would accommodate an additional passenger. Conse- 
quently, there was produced an attachment called a tri-car. This was mounted 
on two pneumatic-tired wheels which were fitted to the front fork together with 
necessary steering devices. Later it was found that the passenger conveyance could 
better be carried at the side mounted upon a springed chassis which was supported 
by a third wheel. That form was thereupon generally adopted, and remains today 
the general practice in the manufacture of motorcycle side-cars, as they are called. 

Naturally enough, interest in motorcycles was quickly directed toward their 
application to commercial uses, and to that end there were produced numerous styles 
of side vans and parcel carriers intended for parcel delivery. 

The use of the motorcycle for commercial purposes was for a time overshadowed 
by the abnormally rapid development of the automobile, but the factor of upkeep 
and operation costs of an automobile is bringing the motorcycle into prominence 
now. In this respect the motorcycle is said to have the advantage overwhelmingly. 
The tendency, however, among business houses is to investigate their individual 
requirements for delivery service and determine to what purposes either form of 
motor vehicle is best adapted. For light parcel system there is said to be no form 
of delivery that excels the motorcycle in speed and efficiency and nothing with opera- 
tion costs so low. The commercial motorcycle is said to be gaming widespread 
favor, and therein lies its greatest future. 

Foreign countries have contributed little or nothing to the development of 
the motorcycle, To be sure, efforts were made to produce two-wheel motor vehicles, 
but little success is recorded. Record of the earliest known effort was found in an 
English newspaper of 1876. This report, however, was very meager and lacking in 
any profusion of mechanical detail. Moreover, beyond the newspaper reports there 
is little verification that any steps were really taken at that time. The French con- 
tribute the only known features that are credited to foreign inventors. The DeDion 
motor was used in some of the racing motor tandems which appeared in this country 
in the late nineties. Other French racing bicycles were no doubt in existence, but there 
is no history which can ascribe any truly constructive innovations in motorcycle 
making to any foreign country. The motorcycle in its form of today was designed 
and built by America. 



How is the Weather Man Able to Predict Tomorrow's Weather? 

The Weather Bureau was founded in 1870 by the United States Government, 
itsjpurpose being to make daily observations of the state of the weather in all parts 
of the country, and to calculate from the results a forecast for each section of the 
country, based on the information thus obtained, these predictions being published 
so that the people of each district may know in advance the kind of weather likely 
to occur. 

" While these forecasts are of great convenience to practically everyone, and of 
importance to the agriculturist, they are frequently of still more importance to ship 
masters, storm warnings being given that may keep them in port when storms are 
expected and thus save their ships from the danger of injury or shipwreck. This 
system has made great progress since its institution, and reports are now received 
daily from more than 3,500 land stations and about fifty foreign stations, while by 
means of wireless telegraphy, under normal conditions, some 2,000 ships send reports 
of the weather conditions at sea. 



HOW IS THE WEATHER PREDICTED 



59 




I fv 

OH DQ "^ 

1| 

*|! 

i-a 
g^ 



g'-S 

b^ 

S| 

1! 

^S 



w 



60 HOW THE WEATHER IS PREDICTED 

Study of results has led to the belief that more than eighty per cent of winds 
and storms follow beaten paths, their movements being governed by physical condi- 
tions, a knowledge of which enables the Weather Bureau officials to estimate very 
closely then* probable speed and direction and send warning of their coming in 
advance. Within two hours after the regular morning observation at eight o'clock, 
the forecasts are telegraphed to more than 2,300 principal distributing points, from 
which they are further sent out by mail, telegraph and telephone, being mailed 
daily to 135,000 addresses and received by nearly 4,000,000 telephone subscribers. 

One of the most valuable services rendered is that of the warnings of cyclonic 
storms for the benefit of marine interests. These are displayed at nearly three 
hundred points on the ocean and lake coasts, including all important ports and 
harbors, warnings of coming storms being received from twelve to twenty-four 
hours in advance. The result has been the saving of vast amounts of maritime 
property, estimated at many millions of dollars yearly. 

Agriculturists also derive great advantage from these warnings, especially those 
engaged in the production of fruits, vegetables and other market garden products. 
Warnings of frosts and of freezing weather have enabled the growers of such pro- 
ducts to protect and save large quantities of valuable plants. It is said that on a 
single night in a small district in Florida, fruits and vegetables were thus saved to 
the amount of more than $100,000. In addition, live stock of great value has been 
saved by warnings a week in advance of the coming of a flood in the Mississippi; 
railroad companies take advantage of the forecast for the preservation, in their 
shipping business, of products likely to be injured by extremes of heat or cold, and 
in various other ways the forecasts are of commercial or other value. 

One of the chief stations for observations is that at Mount Weather, in the 
Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. This is equipped with delicate instruments in 
considerable variety for the study of varying conditions of the upper air. Kites 
and captive balloons are sent up every favorable day, ascending to heights of two 
or three miles, and equipped with self-registering instruments to record the tempera- 
ture and other conditions of the atmosphere. At other times, free balloons are 
liberated, carrying sets of automatic registering instruments. Some of these travel 
hundreds of miles, but nearly all are eventually found and returned. 

How does a Siren Fog Horn Blow? 

There are a great many different kinds of signals for the guidance of vessels 
during fogs, when lights or other visible signals cannot be perceived. 

One of the most powerful signals is the siren fog horn, the sound of which is 
produced by means of a disk perforated by radial slits made to rotate in front of 
a fixed disk exactly similar, a long iron trumpet forming part of the apparatus. The 
disks may each contain say twelve slits, and the moving disk may revolve 2,800 times 
a minute; in each revolution there are of course twelve coincidences between the 
slits in the two disks; through the openings thus made steam or air at a high pres- 
sure is caused to pass, so that there are actually 33,600 puffs of steam or compressed 
air every minute. This causes a sound of very great power, which the trumpet collects 
and compresses, and the blast goes out as a sort of sound beam in the direction 
required. Under favorable circumstances this instrument can be heard from twenty 
to thirty miles out at sea. 

Fog signals are also used on railways during foggy weather; they consist of 
cases filled with detonating powder, which are laid on the rails and exploded by 
the engine when it runs over them. 



The Story in a Watch* 

Clocks and watches are often called "timekeepers," but they do not keep time. 
Nothing can keep it. It is constantly flying along, and carrying us with it, and we 
cannot stop it. What we call "time keepers" are really time measures, and are 
made to tell us how rapidly time moves, so that we may regulate our movements 
and occupations to conform to its flight. 

Of course, you understand that measurement of anything is the comparing of 
it with some established standard. So that if you want to measure the length of 
anything you use a rule or a yard stick, or some other scale which is graduated into 
fractions of the whole standard measure. Do you know that the United States 
government has in a secure, fireproof vault, in one of the government buildings in 
Washington, a metal bar which is the authorized standard "yard" of this nation? 
It is a very carefully made copy of the standard yard of Great Britain. I believe 
that each one of the United States has also a standard which must agree in length 
with the government, or national standard. The same thing is true concerning 
standards of capacity, and standards of weight. But no vault can contain the 
authorized standard of time. Yet there is such a standard. And it is as accessible 
to one country as to another, and it is a standard which does not change. But, 
because all other time measures are more or less imperfect, our government tries 
to compare its standard clock with the ultimate standard every day. 

The first mention of time which we have is found in the Book of Genesis, where 
it is written "and the evening and the morning were the first day." That state- 
ment gives a "measure" which was sufficient for the purpose intended, but there 
is nothing very accurate in it. If it had said "the darkness and the light" were the 
first day, it would have been just as accurate. The people who lived in those far- 
off days had no special occasion to know or to care what time it was. We may 
suppose that they were hungry when they waked at sunrise, and if they had no food 
"left over" from the previous day's supply they would have to hustle and find 
some, and if possible secure a little surplus beyond that day's needs, and so they would 
work, or hunt, until the "evening" came and the sun disappeared. When a man 
was tired, and the sun was hot, he sat down under a tree for shelter and rest. As 
he sat under the tree and looked about him he could not fail to notice that upon the 
ground was a shadow of the tree under which he sat. And as he was tired and warm 
he lay down and fell asleep, and when he woke, he again saw the shadow, but in 
another place. He noticed that the same thing occurred every day. He saw also 
that in the morning the shadow was stretched out in one direction, and that in the 
evening it lay in exactly the opposite direction, and that every day it moved very 
nearly the same, so he put a mark on the ground about where the shadow first appeared, 
and another mark at the place where it disappeared. Then one day he stuck his 
staff in the ground about half-way between the places of the morning and the evening 
shadows, which served as a noon mark. As the staff cast a shadow as readily as 
did the tree, the man found that it was really a better index of time than was the 
tree shadow, for it was much smaller and more clearly defined, and so he put up a 
straight stick in the ground near the hut in which he hVed, and as the ground was 
level and smooth he drove a lot of little stakes along the daily path of the shadow, 
and in that way divided the day into a number of small parts. That was a crude 
"sun dial." (The Bible tells of the sun dial in the thirty-eighth chapter of Isaiah.) 
But there was nothing very accurate in the sun dial. Several hundred years later 

"Courtesy of the Waltham Watch Company, and " The American Boy." 

(61) 



62 



THE STORY IN A WATCH 




THE STORY IN A WATCH 63 

the days were divided into sections which were called " hours, " such as the "sixth 
hour" (noon), the " ninth hour" (three o'clock), the " eleventh hour" (five o'clock), 
etc. There was, however, nothing very accurate in those expressions, which simply 
indicate that there were recognized divisions of time, but with no suggestions as 
to the means used to determine their limits or boundaries. It is recorded of Alfred 
the Great, who lived in the ninth century, A. D., that he was very methodical in 
his employment of time, and in order to insure a careful attention to his religious 
duties as well as his kingly duties, he divided the day into three parts, giving one 
part to religious duties, one to the affairs of his kingdom, and the remainder to bodily 
rest. To secure an equal division of the day he procured a definite quantity of wax 
which he had made into six candles, of twelve inches in length, and all of uniform 
weight, for he found that each inch in length of candle would burn for twenty minutes 
one candle for each four hours. This was an approach toward accuracy and it 
was effective for night use as well as for the daytime. 

Perhaps the earliest mechanical time measure was the clepsydra, or water 
clock. It is quite probable that, in its earliest form it consisted of a vessel containing 
water, which was allowed to escape through a small orifice. Suitable marks, or 
graduations, on the sides of the vessel served to indicate the lapse of time as the 
water gradually receded. This device was constructed in a variety of forms, some 
of which employed some simple mechanism also; but from their nature they could 
not give very accurate indications concerning the passage of time. The "hour 
glass" was another form of time indicator, which was capable of uniform, though 
extremely limited, action. It is said that its original use was to limit the length of 
sermons. 

It is interesting to note that discoveries and inventions, which may seem slight 
in themselves, sometimes form the basis of, or contribute to, other important inven- 
tions. In the year 1584 a bright young Italian was sitting in the gallery of the 
cathedral, in the City of Pisa, and as the lofty doors of the building opened to admit 
the incoming worshipers, a strong draft of air caused the heavy chandelier, which 
was suspended from the lofty ceiling, to swing quite a distance from its position 
of rest. This unusual movement attracted the attention of the young man, and 
as he continued to watch its deliberate movements, he did more than watch. He 
thought for he noticed that the time occupied by the movement of the chandelier 
from one extreme position to the opposite point, seemed to be exactly uniform. He 
wondered why. It is the careful observation of things, and the trying to learn why 
they are as they are, and why they act as they do, that enables studious people to 
discover the laws which govern their actions. This young man, Galileo, was a thinker, 
and while some of his conclusions and theories have since been found erroneous, his 
thinking has formed the basis of much of the scientific thought and theory of later 
years. Galileo's swinging chandelier was really a sort of a pendulum, and we have 
made mention of it because it has been found that no mechanical means for obtaining 
and maintaining a constant and accurate movement will equal the free movement 
of a vibrating pendulum. This fact has led to its adoption as a means of regulating 
the mechanism of clocks. For, when operated under the most favorable conditions, 
such a clock constitutes the most accurate "time measure" yet made. 

Watches are made to measure time. If anything is to be measured there must 
be some standard with which to compare it, for we have seen that measuring is a 
process of comparing a thing with an appropriate or acknowledged and fixed standard. 
The only known standard for the measurement of time is the movement of the earth 
in relation to the stars. It has taken thousands of years for mankind to learn what 
is now known concerning time. It has also taken hundreds of years to secure the 
wonderful accuracy in the measuring of time which has now been attained. We 
have said that nothing has been devised which will equal the accuracy of a "pendu- 



64 



THE STORY IN A WATCH 




THE STORY IN A WATCH 



65 



lum clock." A story was told of a professor of a theological seminary who was one 
day on his way to a jeweler's store, carrying in his arms the family clock, which 
was in need of repairs. He was accosted by one of his students with the question, 
"Look here, Professor, don't you think it would be much more convenient to carry 
a watch?" A pendulum clock must of necessity be stationary, but it is now needful 
that people should be able to have a timepiece 
whenever and wherever wanted. This need is 
supplied by the pocket watch. 

If Galileo watched the swinging of the big 
chandelier long enough he found that the 
distance through which it swung was gradually 
diminishing, till, at last, it ceased to move ; what 
stopped it? It was one of the great forces of 
nature, which we call gravitation, and the force 
which kept it in motion we call momentum. 
But gravitation overcame momentum. 

In order to maintain the constant vibration of a pendulum it is needful to impart 
to it a slight force, in a manner similar to that given by a boy who gives another boy 
a slight "push," to maintain his movement in a swing. A suspended pendulum being 
impossible of application to a pocket watch, a splendid substitute has been devised 
in the form of the balance wheel of the watch, commonly called the "balance." The 
balance is, in its action and adaption, the equivalent of the vibrating, or oscillating, 
pendulum; and the balance spring (commonly called the hairspring), which accom- 
panies it, is in its action equivalent to the force of gravity in its effect upon a pendulum. 
For the tendency and (if not neutralized by some other force) the effects of the 




TIME TRAIN OP A WATCH 






JXlain, Wfa.vC.atwi 



Jl- 6- s/hjjem6tect. 



hairspring upon tiie watch balance, and of gravitation on the pendulum, are to hold 
each at a position of rest, and consequent inaction. 

But we have in a pocket watch a "mainspring" to actuate the train of gear 
wheels which by their ultimate action give the delicate "push" to the balance wheel 
at distinct intervals, and so keep the balance in continued motion. In the same 
manner, the "weight" of a clock, acting through the force of gravity, carries the 
various wheels of the clock train, and gives the slight impulse to the swinging clock 
pendulum. 

Both clocks and watches are "machines" for the measurement of time, and, 
therefore, it is absolutely imperative that their action must be constant, and, if 
accurate time is to be indicated, the action must be uniform. 

The illustration shows the "time train" of an ordinary pocket watch. The 
various wheels are here shown in a straight line, so that their successive order 



66 



THE STORY IN A WATCH 




INTERIOR OP ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, SHOWING TRANSIT INSTRUMENT. USED TO OBTAIN 
CORRECT LOCAL, TIME. BY OBSERVING THE PASSAGE OF STARS ACROSS THE MERIDIAN 



THE STORY IN A WATCH 



67 



may be seen, but for economy and convenience they are arranged in such way as is 
most convenient when constructing a pocket watch. The large wheel at the left is the 
"main wheel," called by watchmakers the "barrel." In it is coiled the mainspring 
a strip of steel about twenty-three inches long, which is carefully tempered to insure 
elasticity and "pull." The outer end of the mainspring is attached to the rim of 
the barrel, and the inner end to the barrel arbor. Bear in mind the fact that the 
power which is sufficient to run the watch for thirty-six hours or more, is not in 
the watch itself. It is in yourself, and by the exertion of your thumb and finger, 
in the act of winding, you transfer that power to the spring, and thereby store the 
power in the barrel, to be given out at the rate which the governing mechanism of 
the watch will permit. The group of wheels here shown are known as the "tune 
train," and the second wheel is called the "center," because that, in ordinarily con- 
structed watches, is located in the center of the group, and upon its axis are put the 
"hour hand" and the "minute hand." On the circumference of the barrel are gear 
teeth, and those teeth en- 
gage corresponding teeth on 
the arbor of the center. 
These arbor teeth are in all 
cases called, not "wheels" 
but "pinions," and in watch 
trains the wheels always 
drive the pinions. Next to 
the center comes the third 
pinion and wheel, and then 
the fourth, which is the last 
wheel in the train which has 
regular gear teeth. Now let 
us look back a little and 
see that the wheel teeth of 
the barrel drive the center 
pinion, and the center wheel 
drives the third pinion and 
the third wheel drives the 
etc. The 




BALANCE COCK AND PATENT MICRO-METRIC REGULATOR; 
ALSO BALANCE WHEEL AND HAIR SPRING, SHOWING PATENT 
HAIR SPRING STUD 



fourth pinion, 
speed of revolution of the 
successive wheels increases 
rapidly. The center wheel must revolve once in each hour, which is 6J^ times 
faster than the barrel. The third wheel turns eight times faster than the center, 
and the fourth wheel turns 7^ times faster than the third, or 60 times faster than, 
the center, so that the fourth pinion, which carries the "second hand," will revolve 
60 times while the "center," which carries the minute hand, revolves once. If we 
should put all the wheels and pinions in place, and wind up the main spring, the 
wheels would begin to turn, each at its relative rate of speed, and we should find 
that, instead of running thirty-six hours, it would have run less than two minutes. 
What was needed was some device to serve as an accurate speed governor and 
the attainment of this essential device is the one thing on which accurate time 
measuring depends. Without any mention of the various attempts to produce such 
a device, let us, as briefly as possible, describe the means used in most watches of 
American manufacture. While there are several distinct parts of this device, each 
having its individual function, they may be considered as a whole under the general 
term of "the escapement." Returning now to the fourth pinion, we see that it also 
carries a^ wheel, which engages another little pinion, called the escape pinion. This 
escape pinion also carries a wheel, but it is radically different in appearance, as well 



68 



THE STORY IN A WATCH 




THE STORY IN A WATCH 



69 



as in action, from any of the previously mentioned wheels. An examination of 
the " escape wheel" would show that it has a peculiarly shaped piece, which is called 
the "pallet," the extended arm of which is called the "fork." The fork encloses a 
sort of half-round stud or pin. This stud projects from the fact and near the edge 
of a small steel disc. The stud is formed from some hard precious stone and is 
called the "jewel pin," or "roller pin," and the little steel disc which carries it is 
called the "roller." In the center or axial hole of the roller fits the "balance staff," 
which staff also carries the "balance wheel," and the balance spring, commonly called 
the "hair spring." The ends of the balance staff are made very small so as to form 
very delicate pivots which turn in jewel bearings. The balance wheel moves very 
rapidly, and, therefore, its movement must be as free as possible from retarding 
friction, so its bearing pivots are made very small. 

Now that we have given the names of each of the different parts which com- 
pose the escapement, let us see how they perform their important work of governing 



BALANCE flfiM. 




FIG 3. 



"PufiCBT, 



BALANCE 
AND HOLLERS, 
ASSEMBLED. 




DRIVING /N TOOL. 



DfiMMG Our TOOL. 



Wawn TAPER SHOULDER DenxmEBam SWF. 



the speed of the little machine for measuring time. In the escape wheel, the left 
arm of the pallet rests on the inclined top of one of the wheel teeth. This is the 
position of rest. If we wind up the mainspring of the watch it will immediately cause 
the main wheel to turn, and, of course, that will turn the next wheel, and so on to 
the escape wheel. When that wheel turns to the right, as it must, it will force back 
the arm of the pallet which swings on its arbor. In swinging out in this way it must 
also swing in the other pallet arm, and that movement will bring it directly in front 
of another wheel tooth, so that the wheel can turn no further. It is locked and will 
remain so until something withdraws it. When the pallet was swung so as to cause 
this locking, the fork was also moved, and as it enclosed the roller pin, that too was 
moved and carried with it the roller and the balance wheel, and in so doing it 
deflected the hair spring from its condition of rest. And as the spring tried to get 
back to its place of rest it carried back the balance also. In going back, the balance 
acquired a little momentum, and so could not stop when it reached its former posi- 
tion, but went a little further, and, of course, the roller and its pin also went along 
in company, the pin carrying the fork and the pallet swinging in the other direction, 



70 



THE STORY IN A WATCH 



which unlocked the escape wheel tooth. Its inclined top gave the pallet a little 
"push" so that the first pallet was locked, forcing the fork and roller, and the balance 
and hair spring, to move in the opposite direction. And so the alternate actions 
proceed, and the balance wheel travels further each time, until it reaches the greatest 
amount which the force of the mainspring can give. But before this extreme is 
reached, the momentum of the revolving balance carries the roller pin entirely out 
of the fork. As the fork is allowed to move only just far enough to allow the pin 
to pass out, it simply waits until the fork returns and enters its place, only to escape 




ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS ARE ESSENTIAL TO CORRECT TIME KEEPING 

again on the other side. And so the motions continue to the number of 18,000 times 
per hour. If that number can be exactly maintained, the watch will measure time 
perfectly. But if it should fall short of that exact number only once each hour, it 
would result in a loss of 4.8 seconds each day, or 2.4 minutes in one month. A watch 
as bad as that would not be allowed on a railroad. 

Isn't it wonderful that such a delicate piece of mechanism can be made to run 
so accurately? And the wonder is increased by the fact that the little machine is, 
to a great extent, continually moved about, and liable to extreme changes in posi- 
tion and in temperature. Watches of the highest grades are adjusted to five posi- 
tions as well as to temperature. Some are adjusted to temperature and three 
positions, and still others to temperature only. The way in which a watch is made 
to automatically compensate for temperature changes is interesting. Varying 



THE STORY IN A WATCH 



71 



degrees of heat and cold always affect a watch. It is a law of nature that all simple 
metals expand under the influence of heat and therefore contract when affected by 
cold. Alloys, or mixtures of different metals, act in a similar manner, but in varying 
degrees. Some combinations of metals possess the quality of relatively great 
expansibility. Another natural law is that the force required to move a body 
depends upon its size and weight. So it follows that with only a certain amount 
of available force a large body cannot be moved as rapidly as a small one. The 
force of 200 pounds of steam in a lo omotive boiler might be sufficient to haul a 
train of six cars at a speed of thirty miles per hour, but if more cars be added it will 
result in a slower speed. The same principle applies to a watch as to a railway train. 
Therefore if the balance wheel becomes larger as it grows warmer, and the force 




170 PARTS COMPOSE A 16 SIZE WATCH MOVEMENT. (A LITTLE MORE THAN K 

ACTUAL SIZE) 

which turns the wheel is not changed, the speed of movement must be reduced 
One other natural law which affects the running of watches is this: Variations in 
temperature affect the elasticity of metals. Now the balance spring of a watch 
is made from steel, and is carefully tempered in order to obtain its highest elasticity. 
Increase in temperature therefore introduces three elements of disturbance, all of 
which act in the same direction of reducing the speed. First, it enlarges the balance 
wheel; second, it increases the length of the spring; third, it reduces the elasticity 
of the spring. To overcome these three disturbing factors a very ingenious form of 
balance has been devised. 

A watch balance is made with a rim of brass encircling and firmly united to 
the rim of steel. In order to permit heat to have the desired effect upon this balance, 
the rim is completely severed at points near each of the arms of the wheel. If we 



72 THE STORY IN A WATCH 

apply heat to this balance the greater expansion of the brass portion of its rim would 
cause the free ends to curl inward. 

In order to obtain exactly 18,000 vibrations of the balance in an hour, it will 
be seen that the weight of the wheel and the strength of the hair spring must be 
perfectly adapted each to the other. The shorter the spring is made the more rigid 
it becomes, and so the regulator is made a part of the watch, but its action must be 
very limited or its effect on the spring will introduce other serious disturbances. 
The practical method of securing the proper and ready adaptation of balances to 
springs is to place in the rims of the balance a number of small screws having rela- 
tively heavy heads. Suppose now that we have a balance fitted with screws of the 
number and weight to exactly adapt it to a spring, so that at a normal temperature 
of, say, 70 degrees, it would vibrate exactly 18,000 times per hour. When we place 
the watch in an oven the heat of which is 95 degrees, we might find that it had lost 
seven seconds. That would show that the wheel was too large when at 95 degrees, 
although just right at 70 degrees. Really, that is a very serious matter it would 
lose at the rate of 2% minutes in a day. But after all it need not be so very serious, 
because if we change the location of one screw on each half of the balance so as to 
place it nearer the free end of the rim when the heat curls the rim inward, it will 
carry a larger proportion of the weight than if the screws had not been moved. It 
may require repeated trials to determine the required position of the rim screws, 
and both skill and good judgment are essential. It will be readily understood that 
numerous manipulations of this kind constitute no small items in the cost of producing 
high-grade watches. 

Large quantities of the cheaper class of watches are now made by machinery 
in the United States, Switzerland, France, Germany and England. They are generally 
produced on the interchangeable system, that is, if any part of a watch has become 
unfit for service, it can be cheaply replaced by an exact duplicate, the labor of the 
watch repairer thus becoming easy and expeditious. 



How does a Monorail Gyroscope Railway Operate? 

The last decade has brought a railway with a single line of rails, on which the 
car is kept erect by the steadying power of a pair of heavy gyroscopes, or flywheels, 
rotating in opposite directions at very high velocity. There are two recent inven- 
tions of this kind, an English and a German, practically the same in character. 

The English, the invention of an Australian named Brennan, had its first form 
in a model, a small car on which the gyroscopes rotated at the enormous speed of 
seventy-five hundred revolutions per minute. They were hung in special bearings 
and rotated in a partial vacuum, the friction being so slight that the wheels would 
continue to revolve and give stability to the car for a considerable time after the 
power was shut off. Also, in such a case, supports at the side kept the car from 
overturning. This model showed itself capable of traveling at high speed on a single 
rail, rounding sharp curves and even traversing with ease a wire cable hung in the air. 

In 1909 a car was tried fourteen feet long and ten feet wide, capable of carrying 
forty passengers. The gyroscopes in this, moved by a gasoline engine, revolved in 
a vacuum at a speed of three thousand rotations a minute. They were three and a 
half feet in diameter and weighed together one and a half tons. With a full load of 
passengers, this car sped easily around a circular rail two hundred and twenty yards 
long and proved that it could not be upset, since when all the passengers crowded 
to one side the car remained firmly erect, the gyroscopes lifting it on the weighted 
sides. It is claimed that in the monorail system so equipped with the gyroscope, 
a speed of more than a hundred miles an hour is possible with perfect safety. 



MONORAIL GYROSCOPE RAILWAY 



73 




i. 











I 

I 



74 MONORAIL GYROSCOPE RAILWAY 

The German invention, displayed by Herr Schorl, a capitalist of Berlin, is in 
many respects like the English one. The experimental car was eighteen feet long 
and four feet wide, the gyroscopic flywheels being very light, weighing but a hundred 
and twenty-five pounds each, while their speed of rotation was eight thousand per 
minute. The same success was attained as in the English experiments, and there 
seems to be a successful future before this very interesting vehicle of travel. There 
is also another type of monorail of overhead construction, the wheels running on 
the rail from which the car hangs. 

The fundamental principle of the gyroscope lies in the resistance which a fly- 
wheel in rapid motion presents to any change of direction in the axis of rotation. 

The gyroscope has been utilized to give steadiness to vessels in rough seas, and 
Sperry has made considerable progress in this country in applying it to give stability 
to an aeroplane. One of the most successful of the recent applications of the gyro- 
scope is in its connection with the marine compass. All battleships in the United 
States Navy are now fitted with the gyroscopic compass. As a gyro compass is 
independent of the magnetism of the earth and of the ship, and, when running 
properly, always points to the North Pole, its great convenience in vessels carrying 
heavy guns and armor, the attraction of which would materially interfere with the 
operation of the ordinary type of compass, is at once apparent. Another important 
use of the gyroscope is found in its relation to the vertical and horizontal steering 
gear of the naval torpedo, especially the Whitehead pattern. Its first application 
to this purpose was made by an officer in the Austrian navy in 1895, and this device, 
or an improved modification of it, such as the Angle Gyroscope, invented by Lieut. 
W. I. Chambers of the United States Navy, is in use on all torpedoes. 

Why are Finger-prints Used for Identification? 

Tne plan of identifying people by their finger-prints, although at first used only 
on criminals, is now put to many other uses. It was introduced originally in India, 
where it was of very great assistance to the British authorities in impressing the 
natives with the fact that at last no evasion of positive identification of culprits 
was possible. It was later taken up by the Scotland Yard authorities in England, 
and its use has since spread to practically every country in the civilized world. 

It has been proven, to the entire satisfaction of everyone who has ever made 
a careful study of the subject, that every human being has a marking on his or her 
fingers which is different from that of any other person on earth. Not only is it sure 
that no one else has a thumb or finger marked like yours, but it has also been estab- 
lished beyond dispute that every little detail will continue peculiar to your fingers 
as long as you have them. 

There are many ways in which this knowledge is used to advantage; two methods 
now employed are particularly valuable. It is seldom that an unpremeditated crime 
is committed without its author leaving finger-marks on some object which is uncon- 
sciously touched, such as silver plate, cash boxes or safes, glassware or windows, 
polished wood-work, etc., and very often the professional criminal also neglects to 
take precautions against leaving his signature behind him. It is then a simple matter 
for the police to collect such marks for comparison with the finger prints of anyone 
to whom suspicion may be directed. 

The plan has also been utilized a great deal in recent years for the identifica- 
tion of enlisted men in the army and navy. Finger-prints are made, immediately 
upon enlistment, of each separate finger and thumb of both hands. Group impres- 
sions are also taken with the four fingers of each hand pressed down simultaneously. 
When needed for any particular purpose, such finger-prints are usually enlarged by 
means of a special camera, to five times their natural size. 



The Story in a Rifle* 

How It Began. 

A naked savage found himself in the greatest danger. A wild beast, hungry 
and fierce, was about to attack him. Escape was impossible. Retreat was cut off. 
He must fight for his life but how? 

Should he bite, scratch or kick? Should he strike with his fist? These were 
the natural defenses of his body, but what were they against the teeth, the claws 
and the tremendous muscles of his enemy? Should he wrench a dead branch from 
a tree and use it for a club? That would bring him within striking distance to be 
torn to p ece before he could deal a second blow. 

There was but a moment in which to act. Swiftly he seized a jagged fragment 
of rock from the ground and hurled it with all his force at the blazing eyes before 
him; then another, and another, until the beast, dazed and bleeding from the unex- 
pected blows, fell back and gave him a chance to escape. He knew that he had 
saved his life, but there was something else which his dull brain failed to realize. 

He had invented arms and ammunition! 

In other words, he had needed to strike a harder blow than the blow of his fist, 
at a greater distance than the length of his arm, and his brain showed him how to 
do it. After all, what is a modern rifle but a device which man has made with his 
brain permitting him to strike an enormously hard blow at a wonderful distance? 
Firearms are really but a more perfect form of stone-throwing, and this early Cave 
Man took the first step that has led down the ages to the present-day arms and 
ammunition. 

This strange story of a development that has been taking place slowly through 
thousands and thousands of years, so that today you are able to take a swift shot 
at distant game instead of merely throwing stones. 

The Earliest Hunters. 

The Cave Man and his descendants learned the valuable lesson of stone- 
throwing, and it made hunters of them, not big-game hunters that was far too 
risky; but once in a while a lucky throw might bring down a bird or a rabbit for 
food. And so it went on for centuries, perhaps. Early mankind was rather slow of 
thought. 

At last, however, there appeared a great inventor the Edison of his day. 

He took the second step. 

A Nameless Edison. 

We do not know his name. Possibly he did not even have a name, but in some 
way he hit upon a scheme for throwing stones farther, harder and straighter than 
any of his ancestors. 

The men and women in the Cave Colony suddenly fcund that one bright-eyed 
young fellow, with a little straighter forehead than the others, was beating them all 
at hunting. During weeks he had been going away mysteriously, for hours each 
day. Now, whenever he left the camp he was sure to bring home game, while the 
other men would straggle back for the most part empty-handed. 

Was it witchcraft? They decided to investigate. 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the Remington Arms-Union Metallic Cartridge Company, unless otherwise indicated. 

(75) 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 




THE FIRST MISSILE 
The Cave Man of prehistoric times unconsciously invented arms and ammunition. 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 77 

What They Saw. 

Accordingly, one morning several of them followed at a careful distance as he 
sought the shore of a stream where water-fowl might be found. Parting the leaves, 
they saw him pick up a pebble from the bank and then, to their surprise, take off his 
girdle of skin and place the stone in its center, holding both ends with his right hand. 

Stranger still, he whirled the girdle twice around his head, then released one 
end so that the leather strip flew out and the stone shot straight at a bird in the water. 

The mystery was solved. They had seen the first slingman in action. 

The Use of Slings. 

The new plan worked with great success, and a little practice made expert 
marksmen. We know that most of the early races used it for hunting and hi war. 
We find it shown in pictures made many thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt 
and Assyria. We find it in the Roman army where the slingman was called a 
"funditor." 

We find it in the Bible where it is written of the tribe of Benjamin: "Among all 
these people there were seven hundred chosen men left-handed ; every one could sling 
a stone at an Jiair breadth and not miss. " Surely, too, you remember the story of 
David and Goliath when the young shepherd "prevailed over the Philistine with 
a sling and with a stone. " 

Today shepherds tending their flocks upon these same hills of Syria may be 
seen practicing with slings like those of David. Yes, and slings were used in European 
armies until nearly a hundred years after America was discovered. 

Something Better. 

Yet they had their drawbacks. A stone slung might kill a bird or even a man, 
but it was not very effective against big game. 

What was wanted was a missile to pierce a thick hide. 

Man had begun to make spears for use in a pinch, but would you like to tackle 
a husky bear or a well-horned stag with only a spear for a weapon? 

No more did our undressed ancestors. The invention of the greatly desired 
arm probably came about in a most curious way. 

Long ages ago man had learned to make fire by patiently rubbing two sticks 
together, or by twirling a round one between his hands with its point resting upon a 
flat piece of wood. , 

In this way it could be made to smoke, and finally set fire to a tuft of dried 
moss, from which he might get a flame for cooking. This was such hard work that 
he bethought him to twist a string of sinew about the upright spindle and cause it 
to twirl by pulling alternately at the two string ends, as some savage races still do. 
From this it was a simple step to fasten the ends of the two strings to a bent piece 
of wood, another great advantage, since now but one hand was needed to twirl the 
spindle, and the other could hold it in place. This was the "bow-drill" which also 
is used to this day. 

A Fortunate Accident. 

But bent wood is apt to be springy. Suppose that while one were bearing on 
pretty hard with a well-tightened string, in order to bring fire quickly, the point 
of the spindle should slip from its block. Naturally, it would fly away with some 
force if the position were just right. 

This must have happened many times, and each time but once the fire-maker 
may have muttered something under his breath, gone after his spindle, and then 



78 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 




THE SLINQ MAN IN ACTION 
Practice developed some wonderful marksmen among the users of this primitive weapon. 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



79 



settled down stupidly to his work. He had had a golden chance to make a great 
discovery, but didn't realize it. 

But, so it has been suggested, there was one man who stopped short when he 
lost his spindle, for a red-hot idea shot suddenly through his brain. 

He forgot all about his fire-blocks while he sat stock still and thought. 

Once or twice he chuckled to himself softly. Thereupon he arose and began to 
experiment. 

He chose a longer, springier piece of wood, bent it into a bow, and strung it with 
a longer thong. He placed the end of a straight stick against the thong, drew it 
strongly back and released it. 

The shaft whizzed away with force enough to delight him, and, lo, there was the 
first bow-and-arrow! 



What Came of It. 

After that it was merely a matter of improvement, 
to slip from the string until some one thought to notch it. 



The arrow-end was apt 
Its head struck with such 





force that the early hunter decided to give it a sharp point, shaped from a flake of 
flint, in order that it might drive deep into the body of a deer or bear. 

But, most of all, it must fly true and straight to its mark. Who of all these simple 
people first learned to feather its shaft? Was it some one who had watched the 
swift, sure-footed spring of a bushy-tailed squirrel from branch to branch? Possibly, 
for the principle is the same. At all events with its feathers and its piercing point 
the arrow became the most deadly of all missiles, and continued to be until long 
after the invention of firearms. 

A Great Variety. 

It is interesting to see how many different forms of bow were used. The English 
had a six-foot "Jong bow" made of yew or ash, in a single straight piece, that shot 
arrows the length of a man's arm. The Indians had bows only forty inches on the 
average, since a short bow was easier to handle in thick forests. They used various 
kinds of wood, horn or even bone, such as the ribs of large animals. These they 
generally backed with sinew. 

Sometimes they cut spiral strips from the curving horns of a mountain sheep, 
and steamed them straight. Then they glued these strips together into a wonderfully 



80 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 




THE "LONG Bow" IN SHERWOOD FOREST 
One of Robin Hood's famous band encounters a savage tusker at close range. 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 81 

tough and springy bow. Once in a while they even took the whole horns of some 
young sheep, that had not curved too much, and used the pair just as they grew. 
In this case each horn made one-half of the bow, and the piece of skull between was 
shaped down into a handle. This gave the shape of a " Cupid's Bow," but it could 
shoot to kill. 

As to Arrows. 

The arrows were quite as important, and their making became a great industry 
with every race. This was because so many must be carried for each hunt or battle. 

Who is not familiar with the chipped flint arrow-heads that the farmer so often 
turns up with his plow as a relic of the period when Americans were red-skinned 
instead of white? These arrow-heads have generally a shoulder where the arrow 
was set into the shaft, there to be bound tightly with sinew or fiber. Many of them 
are also barbed to hold the flesh. 

A Shooting Machine. 

But the age of machinery was coming on. Once in a while there were glimpses 
of more powerful and complicated devices to be seen among these simple arms. 

A new weapon now came about through warfare. Man has been a savage 
fighting animal through pretty much all his history, but while he tried to kill the' 
other fellow, he objected to being killed himself. 

Therefore he took to wearing armor. During the Middle Ages he piled on more 
and more, until at last one of the knights could hardly walk, and it took a strong 
horse to carry him. When such a one fell, he went over with a crash like a tin- 
peddler's wagon, and had to be picked up again by some of his men. Such armor 
would turn most of the arrows. Hence invention got at work again and produced 
the cross-bow and its bolt. We have already learned how the tough skin of animals 
brought about the bow; now we see that man's artificial iron skin caused the invention 
of the cross-bow. 

What It Was. 

What was the cross-bow? It was the first real hand-shooting machine. It 
was another big step toward the day of the rifle. The idea was simple enough. 
Wooden bows had already been made as strong as the strongest man could pull, 
and they wished for still stronger ones steel ones. How could they pull them? 
At first they mounted them upon a wooden frame and rested one end on the shoulder 
for a brace. Then they took to pressing the other end against the ground, and using 
both hands. Next, it was a bright idea to put a stirrup on this end, in order to hold 
it with the foot. 

Still they were not satisfied. " Stronger, stronger!" they clamored; "give us 
bows which will kill the enemy farther away than he can shoot at us! If we cannot 
set such bows with both arms let us try our backs !" So they fastened " belt-claws " to 
their stout girdles and tugged the bow strings into place with their back and leg muscles. 

"Stronger, stronger again, for now the enemy has learned to use belt-claws 
and he can shoot as far as we. Let us try mechanics!" 

So they attached levers, pulleys, ratchets and windlasses, until at last they 
reached the size of the great siege cross-bows, weighing eighteen pounds. These 
sometimes needed a force of twelve hundred pounds to draw back the string to its 
catch, but how they could shoot! 

And Now for Chemistry. 

Human muscle seemed to have reached its limit, mechanics seemed to have 
reached its limit, but still the world clamored, "Stronger, stronger! How shall we 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 




DEER-STALKING WITH THE CROSS-BOW 
This compact arm with its small bolt and great power was popular with many sportsmen. 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 83 

kill our enemy farther away than he can kill us?" For answer, man unlocked one 
of the secrets of Nature and took out a terrible force. It was a force of chemistry. 
Who first discovered the power of gunpowder? Probably the Chinese, although 
all authorities do not agree. Strange, is it not, that a race still using cross-bows 
in its army should have known of explosives long before the Christian Era, and 
perhaps as far back as the time of Moses? Here is a passage from then* ancient 
Gentoo Code of Laws: "The magistrate shall not make war with any deceitful 
machine, or with poisoned weapons, or with cannons or guns, or any kind of fire- 
arms." But China might as well have been Mars before the age of travel. Our 
civilization had to work out the problem for itself. 

Playing with Fire. 

It all began through playing with fire. It was desired to throw fire on an 
enemy's buildings or his ships, and so destroy them. Burning torches were thrown 
by machines, made of cords and springs, over a city wall, and it became a great study 
to find the best burning compound with which to cover these torches. One was 
needed which would blaze with a great flame and was hard to put out. 

Hence the early chemists made all possible mixtures of pitch, resin, naphtha, 
sulphur, saltpeter, etc.; " Greek fire" was one of the most famous. 

What Two Monks Discovered. 

Many of these were made in the monasteries. The monks were pretty much 
the only people in those days with time for study, and two of these shaven-headed 
scientists now had a chance to enter history. Roger Bacon was the first. One 
night he was working his diabolical mixture in the stone-walled laboratory, and 
watched, by the flickering lights, the progress of a certain interesting combination 
for which he had used pure instead of impure saltpeter. 

Suddenly there was an explosion, shattering the chemical apparatus and probably 
alarming the whole building. "Good gracious!" we can imagine some of the startled 
brothers saying, "whatever is he up to now! Does he want to kill us all?" That 
explosion proved the new combination was not fitted for use as a thrown fire; it 
also showed the existence of terrible forces far beyond the power of all bow-springs, 
even those made of steel. 

Roger Bacon thus discovered what was practically gunpowder, as far back as 
the thirteenth century, and left writings in which he recorded mixing 11.2 parts of 
the saltpeter, 29.4 of charcoal, and 29 of sulphur. This was the formula developed 
as the result of his investigations. 

Berthold Schwartz, a monk of Freiburg, studied Bacon's works and carried on 
dangerous experiments of his own, so that he is ranked with Bacon for the honor. 
He was also the first one to rouse the interest of Europe in the great discovery. 

And then began the first crude, clumsy efforts at gunmaking. Firearms were 
born. 

The Coming of the Matchlock. 

Hand bombards and culverins were among the early types. Some of these 
were so heavy that a forked support had to be driven into the ground, and two men 
were needed, one to hold and aim, the other to prime and fire. How does that strike 
you for a duck-shooting proposition? Of course such a clumsy arrangement could 
only be used in war. 

Improvements kept coming, however. Guns were lightened and bettered in 
shape. Somebody thought of putting a flash pan for the powder, by the side of the 
touch-hole, and now it was decided to fasten the slow-match, in a movable cock, 
upon the barrel and ignite it with a trigger. These matches were fuses of some 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 





AN UNEXPECTED MEETING 
The "Kentucky Rifle" with its flint-lock was accurate, but had to be muzzle-charged. 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 85 

slow-burning fiber, like tow, which would keep a spark for a considerable time. 
Formerly they had to be carried separately, but the new arrangement was a great 
convenience and made the matchlock. The cock, being curved like a snake, was 
called the "serpentine." 

The Gun of Our Ancestors. 

Everybody knows what the flint-lock was like. You simply fastened a flake 
of flint in the cock and snapped it against a steel plate. This struck off sparks which 
fell into the flash-pan and fired the charge. 

It was so practical that it became the form of gun for all uses; thus gunmaking 
began to be a big industry. Invented early in the seventeenth century, it was used 
by the hunters and soldiers of the next two hundred years. Old people remember 
when flint-locks were plentiful everywhere. In fact, they are still being manufactured 
and are sold in some parts of Africa and the Orient. One factory in Birmingham, 
England, is said to produce about twelve hundred weekly, and Belgium shares in 
their manufacture. Some of the Arabs use them to this day in the form of strange- 
looking guns with long, slender muzzles and very light, curved stocks. 

Caps and Breech-Loaders. 

Primers were tried in different forms called " detonators," but the familiar little 




THE FIRST REMINGTON RIFLE 



copper cap was the most popular. No need to describe them. Millions are still 
made to be used on old-fashioned nipple guns, even in this day of fixed ammunition. 
Then came another great development, the breech-loader. 

From Henry VIII to Cartridges. 

Breech-loaders were hardly new. King Henry VIII of England, he of the many 
wives, had a match-lock arquebus of this type dated 1537. Henry IV of France 
even invented one for his army, and others worked a little on the idea from time to 
time. But it was not until fixed ammunition came into use that the breech-loader 
really came to stay and that was only the other day. You remember that the 
Civil War began with muzzle-loaders and ended with breech-loaders. 

Houiller, the French gunsmith, hit on the great idea of the cartridge. If you 
were going to use powder, ball and percussion primer, to get your game, why not 
put them all into a neat, handy, gas-tight case? Simple enough, when you come 
to think of it, like most great ideas. But it required good brain-stuff to do that 
thinking. 

A Refusal and What Came of It. 

Two men, a smith and his son, both named Eliphalet Remington, in 1816, were 
working busily one day at their forge in beautiful Ilion Gorge, when, so tradition 
says, the son asked his father for money to buy a rifle, and met with a refusal. 

The boy set his wits to work. Looking around the forge, he picked up enough 
scrap iron to make a gun barrel, and with this set to work to make a rifle for him- 
self. At that time gun barrels were made, not by drilling the bore out of a solid rod 
of metal, but by shaping a thick, oblong sheet of metal around a rod the size of the 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



bore, and lapwelding the edges. When the rod was withdrawn, there was your 
barrel. 

It took him several weeks to work out this job and get it right, but he succeeded. 
He had no tools to cut the rifling. There was a gunsmith in Utica, and he walked 
there, fifteen miles over the hills, to have his barrel finished. The gunsmith was so 
impressed by the boy and his accomplishment that, after rifling the barrel, he fitted 

it with a lock. Then when Remington fitted on a wooden 
stock his weapon was ready. 

This was the first Remington rifle, and it proved a 
surprisingly good one. 

Neighbors tried it, and wanted guns like it. Rem- 
ington made them. The first rifle or one exactly like 
the first one, at least that Remington made is still in 
Ilion, the property of Walter Green. Before long the 
demand was so brisk that Remington would take as many 
barrels as he could carry over to the Utica gunsmith to 
be rifled, bringing back a load that had been left 
there on a previous trip, a journey of thirty miles on 
foot. 

When a new business grows at that rate, of course, 
it soon needs power. So, later, in 1816, the two Reming- 
tons went u up the creek/' building a shop three miles 
from home, at Ilion Gulph, which was part of the father's 
farm. That was the actual beginning of the plant and 
the industry of which the centennial was celebrated in 
1916. During its early years this shop made anything 
in its line that could be sold in the neighborhood rifles, 
shotguns, crowbars, pickaxes, farm tools. The power 
was taken from a water wheel in Steele's Creek, and the 
first grindstones for smoothing down the welded edges 
in gun barrels were cut from a red sandstone ledge up 
the gorge. 

Guns sold better than all other products. Orders 
came from greater distances. By and by shipments were 
made on the new Erie Canal. For a while, as packages 
were small, they were taken to the canal bridge, a board 
lifted from the floor, and the package dropped onto a 
boat as it passed under. There was no bill of lading. 
Remington took down the name of the boat and notified 
his customer by mail, so the latter would know which craft was bringing his 
guns. 

When the trade had extended into all the surrounding counties, however, the 
new business needed another prune essential of industry transportation facilities. 
Shipments were growing larger, and materials like grindstones, bought outside, had 
to be brought from the canal to Ilion Gulph. In 1828, therefore, the elder Remington 
bought a large farm in Ilion proper, and there, on the canal, the present plant was 
started. This was also the beginning of Ilion, for at that period the place was nothing 
more than a country corner. In 1828 the elder Remington met his death through 
accident, and the business was carried on by his son, who brought water for several 
power wheels from Steele's Creek, built a house to live in, and installed in his wooden 
shop quite a collection of machinery for gunmaking the list names a big 
tilt hammer, several trip hammers, boring and rifling machines, grindstones, and 
so on. 




YOUNG REMINGTON AT 
WORK ON RIFLE 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



87 




The Beginning of Precision in Mechanics. 

Not so many years before that, in England, James Watt was complaining about 
the difficulty of boring a six-inch cylinder for his steam engine with sufficient accuracy 
to make it a commercial success. No matter how he packed the piston with cork, 
oiled rags and old hats, the irregularities in the cylinder let the steam escape, and 
it was believed that neither the tools nor the 
workmen existed for making a steam engine 
with sufficient precision. When a young 
manufacturer named Wilkinson invented a 
guide for the boring tool, and machined cyl- 
inders of fifty inches diameter so accurately 
that, as Watt testified, they did not err the 
thickness of an old shilling in any part, it 
seemed as though the last refinement in ma- OLD BORING TOOL 

chinery had been achieved. That was not 

very accurate by present-day standards of the thousandth part of an inch, for a 
shilling is about one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness. 

Remington was right in the thick of development with a gunmaking plant, 
of course, for as his business grew he had to invent and adapt machines to increase 
output. The lap-welded barrel was standard until 1850, and he got together a battery 
of trip hammers for forging and welding his barrels. Finer dimensions became a 
factor in his business when the output grew large enough to warrant carrying a 

stock of spare parts for his customers, and so he 
improved those parts in ways that gave at least the 
beginnings of interchangeability. 

Materials were very crude. There was no 
buying of foundry iron by analysis, no high carbon 
steels, no fancy tool steels nor any " efficiency ex- 
perts " with their stop watches and scientific speed- 
and-feed tables. Iron was secured by sending 
teams around the neighborhood to pick up scrap, 
and when the scrap iron was all cleaned up, fresh 
metal was brought from ore beds in Oneida County. 
Coal was scarce, and charcoal made the chief fuel, 
burnt in the hills round about Ilion. 

And the world was fairly swarming with in- 
ventors ! 

That was long before invention became a 
research department full of engineers. The in- 
dividual inventor, with a queer-shaped factory 
process, carried on by a head and a rough model in 
his carpet-bag, had a chance to influence industry. 
Few of the useful contrivances had been invented 
yet, and almost any one of these chaps might be a 
genius. So, from the very first, Remington was in- 
terested in inventors. He was an inventor himself! His pioneer spirit was so strong 
that Ilion became a place of pilgrimage for men with ideas. Inventors came from 
everywhere, and Remington listened to them all. Some brought models, others 
drawings, still others a bare idea, and a few, of course, had just a plain "bug." 

The First Government Contract. 

The first government contract came in 1845. War with Mexico loomed up on 
the horizon. William Jencks had invented a carbine, and Uncle Sam wanted several 




POLE LATHE OF 1800 



88 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



thousand guns made in a hurry under the patent. A contract had been let to Ames 
& Co., of Springfield, Mass., and they had made special machinery for the job. 
Remington took over the contract and the machinery, added to his power, secured 
by putting in another water race, erected the building now known as the "Old 
Armory/' and made the carbines. 

In 1850 the art of gunmaking began to improve radically. The old lap-welded 
barrel gave way to the barrel drilled from solid steel. This was accomplished for 
the first tune in America at the Remington plant, in making Harper's Ferry muskets. 
Then followed the drilling of small-bore barrels from solid steel, the drilling of 
doubled-barrel shotguns from one piece of steel, the drilling of fluid steel and nickel 
steel barrels, all done for the first time in this country at the Ilion shops. Three- 




SHIPPING REMINGTONS IN T.HE EARLY DAYS 

barrel guns were also made from one piece of steel, two bores for shot and the third 
rifled for a bullet. A customer wanted some special barrels with nine bores in a 
single piece of steel. These were made at Ilion, and the Remington plant soon 
became noted for its ability to bore almost anything in the shape of a gun, from the 
tiniest squirrel calibers up to boat guns weighing sixty pounds or more, which were 
really small caliber cannon. 

Between the time when Remington made his first rifle at Ilion Gulph and the 
outbreak of the Civil War, most of the basic things in mackine tools had been adapted 
to general production the slide-rest lathe, planer, shaper, drill press, steam hammer, 
taps and dies, the vernier caliper that enabled a mechanic at the bench to measure 
to one-thousandth of an inch, and so on. 

When Fort Sumter was fired upon, Uncle Sam turned to the Remington plant, 
among others, for help out of his dilemma of "unpreparedness." The first contract 
was given for 5,000 Harper's Ferry rifles, ancj it took two years to complete it. 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



89 




MASTER OP THE SITUATION 
The modern sportsman with his automatic rifle is prepared for all emergencies. 



90 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



thousand Harper's Ferry muskets came in to be changed so that bayonet or sabre 
could be attached, and this particular job was finished in two weeks, every man and 
boy in ilion working at it. There was a big contract for army revolvers, and that 
had to be taken care of by starting a separate plant in Utica, which ran until the 
end of the war, when its machinery and tools were moved to Ilion. Steam power 
was now installed, and the plant, increased by new buildings and machinery ran 
day and night. 

In 1863, the Remington breech-loading rifle was perfected, and proved to be so 
great an improvement over previous inventions in military arms that an order for 
10,000 of them was obtained from our government. The Ilion plant being taxed 





Illustrations by courtesy of the Winchester Repeating Arms Co. 

to its utmost capacity, the contract was transferred to the Savage Arms Company, 
of Middletown, Conn., which completed the job in 1864. 

The tools and fixtures used in making Remington breech-loading rifles for the 
United States were brought back from Connecticut in 1866, and an inventive genius 
named John Rider was set to work, with a staff of the best mechanics obtainable, 
to develop this gun still further. He devised the famous system of a dropping breech 
block, backed up by the hammer. 

Uncle Sam had a great number of muzzle-loading Springfield rifles left from the 
Civil War. By the Berdan system, these were turned into breech-loaders at the 
Ilion plant, the breech being cut out of the barrel and a breech-block inserted, 
swinging upward and forward. Spain had 10,000 muskets to modernize by the 
same system, and the breech-block attachments were made at Ilion. 

The Berdan system, with a slight alteration, was the foundation of the Allen 
gun, made by the United States government for the army until superseded by the 
Krag-Jorgensen. 

The repeating rifle now seemed an interesting possibility and large sums were 
spent in developing a weapon of this type. It did not prove to have merit, however. 

Then James P. Lee designed the first military rifle with the bolt type of cartridge 
chamber, the parent of the military rifle of today. The model was made at Ilion, 
but another type of bolt gun, the Keene, seemed to offer still greater possibilities 
at the moment, and the plant was being prepared to manufacture this. The Lee 
gnu was taken up at Bridgeport, but not made successfully, and finally, as the Keene 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 





EXTREME CARE IN TESTING is NECESSARY TO ACCURACY OP AIM IN THE FINISHED PRODUCT 

Illustrations by courtesy of the Wincnester Repeating Arms Co. 



92 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



gun had not met expectations, falling short of government tests, the Lee type was 
brought back to Ilion, tools worked out and manufacture undertaken in quantities. 
It afterwards became the basis for the famous British army rifle, the Lee-Metford. 

At this period the plant made many other interesting guns. The Whitmore 
double-barrel breech-loading shotgun was designed, and later developed into the 
Remington breech-loading shotgun. Eliott hammerless breech-loading pistols with 
one, two, four and five barrels, discharged by a revolving firing pin, were made in 
large quantities, as well as a single-barrel Eliott magazine pistol. The Eliott magazine 
pump rifle was perfected in Ilion, but afterwards made in New England. Vernier 
and wind gauge sights, attachable to any rifle, were made, and novelties like the 




"gun cane," which had the appearance of a walking-stick, but was a perfect firearm, 
carried as a protection against robbery. 

Making Barrels. 

One of the most important features is, of course, the making of barrels. The 
machines for drilling and boring are the best that money can buy, and the operatives 
the most skilful to be found anywhere. Care at this stage reduces the necessity 
for straightening later. Every point is given the minutest attention. In drilling 
22-calibers, for example, the length of the hole must be from 100 to 125 times the 
diameter of the drill. 

Improvements have made it possible to drill harder steel than formerly. This 
reduces the weight of the gun, and is important to the man who carries it. 

Taking off 2/1000 of an Inch. 

The boring is an especially delicate task. In choke-boring your shotgun, for 
example, the final reamer took off only 2/1000 of an inch. Think of such a gossamer 
thread of metal! But it insures accuracy. No pains can be too great for that. 

This exquisite painstaking will be seen still more in the barrel-inspection depart- 
ment, to which we will go now. In passing, we must not forget the grinding shop, 
where is, perhaps, the finest battery of grinding machines in the United States; or 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



93 







94 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



the polishers running at the dizzy speed of 1,500 to 1,700 revolutions per minute 
and making the inside of the barrel shine like glass. This high polish is im- 
portant, for it resists rust ard prevents leading. 

That is the atmosphere of the whole 
place. Every action has its reason. There 
is not an unnecessary motion made by any 
one, and there is not one necessary thing 
omitted, whatever the cost or trouble. 

The Making of Ammunition Today. 

It is no easy matter to secure a pass 
to the Bridgeport plant. Its great ad- 
vantage over other concerns lies, to a 
large degree, in the exclusive machinery 
that has been developed at so much pains 
and expense and the secrets of which are 
so carefully guarded. In our case, how- 
ever, there will be nothing to hinder us 
from getting a few general impressions, provided we do not go into mechanical de- 
tails too closely. 

The very size of the great manufactory is impressive sixteen acres of floor 
space, crowded with machinery and resounding with activity. In building after 
building, floor above floor, the sight is similar: the long rows of busy machines, the 
whirling network of shafts and belts above, the intent operatives, and the steady 
clicking of innumerable parts blended into a softened widespread sound. It seems 




Courtesy of the Winchester Repeating Arms Co. 




absolutely endless; it is a matter of hours to go through the plant. Stop at one 
of the machines and see the speed and accuracy with which it turns out its product; 
then calculate the entire number of machines and you will begin to gain a little idea 
as to what the total output of this vast institution must be. 

More than once you will find yourself wondering whether there can be guns 
enough in the world, or fingers enough to press their triggers, to use such a tremendous 
production of ammunition. But there are, and the demand is steadily increasing. 
This old world is a pretty big place after all. 



THE STORY IN A RIFLE 



95 







96 THE STORY IN A RIFLE 

Handling Deadly Explosives. 

Operatives, girls in many cases, handle the most terrible compounds. We 
stop, for example, where they are making primers to go in the head of your loaded 
shell, in order that it may not miss fire when the bunch of quail whirrs suddenly 
into the air from the sheltering grasses. That grayish, pasty mass is wet fulminate 
of mercury. Suppose it should dry a trifle too rapidly. It would be the last thing 
you ever did suppose, for there is force enough in that double handful to blow its 
surroundings into fragments. You edge away a little, and no wonder, but the girl 
who handles it shows no fear as she deftly but carefully presses it into molds which 
separate it into the proper sizes for primers. She knows that in its present moist 
condition it cannot explode. 

Extreme Precautions. 

Or, perhaps, we may be watching one of the many loading machines. There 
is a certain suggestiveness in the way the machines are separated by partitions. The 
man in charge takes a small carrier of powder from a case in the outside wall and 
shuts the door, then carefully empties it into the reservoir of his machine, and 
watches alertly while it packs the proper portions into the waiting shells. He looks 
like a careful man, and needs to be. You do not stand too close. 

The empty carrier then passes through a little door at the side of the building, 
and drops into the yawning mouth of an automatic tube. In the twinkling of an 
eye it appears in front of the operator in one of the distributing stations, where it is 
refilled and returned to its proper loading machine, in order to keep the machine 
going at a perfectly uniform rate; while at the same time it allows but a minimum 
amount of powder to remain in the building at any moment. Each machine has 
but just sufficient powder in its hopper to run until a new supply can reach it. 
Greater precaution than this cannot be imagined, illustrating as it does, that no 
effort has been spared to protect the lives of the operators. 




How does an Artesian Well Keep Up Its Supply of Water? 

Artesian wells are named after the French Province of Artais, where they appear 
to have been first used on an extensive scale. 

They are perpendicular borings into the ground through which water rises to 
the surface of the soil, producing a constant flow or stream. As a location is chosen 

where the source of supply is higher 
than the mouth of the boring, the 
water rises to Uie opening at the 
top. They are generally sunk in 
valley plains and districts where 
ARTESIAN WELL (D^ IN THE LONDON BASIN the formation of the ground is such 

that that below the surface is bent 

into basin-shaped curves. The rain falling on the outcrops of these saturates the 
whole porous bed, so that when the bore reaches it the water by hydraulic pres- 
sure rushes up towards the level of the highest portion of the strata. 

The supply is sometimes so abundant as to be used extensively as a moving 
power, and in arid regions for fertilizing the ground, to which purpose artesian springs 
have been applied from a very remote period. Thus many artesian wells have been 
sunk in the Algerian Sahara which have proved an immense boon to the district. 
The same has been done in the arid region of the United States. The water of most 
of these i& potable, but a few are a little saline, though not to such an extent as to 
influence vegetation- 



WATER SUPPLY FOR ARTESIAN WELL 97 

The hollows in which London and Paris lie are both perforated in many places 
by borings of this nature. At London they were first sunk only to the sand, but 
more recently into the chalk. One of the most celebrated artesian wells is that of 
Crenelle near Paris, 1,798 feet deep, completed in 1841, after eight years' work. 
One at Rochefort, France, is 2,765 feet deep; at Columbus, Ohio, 2,775; at Pesth, 
Hungary, 3,182, and at St. Louis, Mo., 3,843J. Artesian borings have been made 
in West Queensland 4,000 feet deep. At Schladebach, in Prussia, there is one nearly 
a mile deep. 

As the temperature of water from great depths is invariably higher than that 
at the surface, artesian wells have been made to supply warm water for heating 
manufactories, greenhouses, hospitals, fishponds, etc. The petroleum wells of 
America are of the same technical description. These wells are now made with 
larger diameters than formerly, and altogether their construction has been rendered 
much more easy in modern times. 

Boring in the earth or rock for mining, geologic or engineering purposes is 
effected by means of augers, drills or jumpers, sometimes wrought by hand, but 
now usually by machinery, driven by steam or frequently by compressed air. 

In ordinary mining practice a bore-hole is usually commenced by digging a small 
pit about six feet deep, over which is set up a shear-legs with pulley, etc. The boring 
rods are from ten to twenty feet in length, capable of being jointed together by box 
and screw, and having a chisel inserted at the lower end. A lever is employed to 
raise the bore-rods, to which a slight twisting motion is given at each stroke, when 
the rock at the bottom of the hole is broken by the repeated percussion of the cutting 
tool. Various methods are employed to clear out the triturated rock. 

The work is much quickened by the substitution of steam power, water power, 
or even horse power for manual labor. Of the many forms of boring machines now 
in use may be mentioned the diamond boring machine, invented by Leschot, a 
Swiss engineer. In this the cutting tool is of a tubular form, and receives a uniform 
rotatory motion, the result being the production cf a cylindrical core from the rock 
of the same size as the bore or caliber of the tube. The boring bit is a steel thimble 
about four inches in length, having two rows of Brazilian black diamonds firmly 
embedded therein, the edges projecting slightly. The diamond teeth are the only 
parts which come in contact with the rock, and their hardness is such that an enormous 
length can be bored with but little appreciable wear. 

Where do Dates Come From? 

Besides the dried dates which we are accustomed to seeing in this country, they 
are used extensively by the natives of Northern Africa and of some countries of Asia. 

It consists of an external pericarp, separable into three portions, and covering a 
seed which is hard and horny in consequence of the nature of the albumen in which 
the embryo plant is buried. 

Next to the cocoanut tree, the date is unquestionably the most interesting and 
useful of the palm tribe. Its stem shoots up to the height of fifty or sixty feet with- 
out branch or division, and of nearly the same thickness throughout its length. From 
the summit it throws out a magnificent crown of large feather-shaped leaves and a 
number of spadices, each of which in the female plant bears a bunch of from 180 to 
200 dates, each bunch weighing from twenty to twenty-five pounds. 

The fruit is eaten fresh or dried. Cakes of dates pounded and kneaded together 
are the food of the Arabs who traverse the deserts. A liquor resembling wine is made 
from dates by fermentation. 

Persia, Palestine, Arabia and the north of Africa are best adapted for the culture 
of the date-tree, and its fruit is in these countries an important article of food. It is 
uow being introduced into California. 



Tne Story of Rubber 

Rubber is the coagulated sap of more than 300 varieties of tropical trees and 
vines the Landolphia of Africa, the Ficus of the Malay Peninsula, the Guayule 
shrub of Mexico and the Castilloa of South America, Central America and Southern 
Mexico are all important rubber producers, but far more important than all of the 
others together is the Hevea, a native of Brazil. 

Hevea trees are scattered through the dense forests of practically every part 
of the Amazon Basin, a territory more than two-thirds as large as the United States. 

How was Rubber First Used? 

Down in Brazil, several hundred miles up the Amazon River, there stood a great 
forest of trees and in this forest the same as in forests of today were birds and 



p-ajfrK^MMiiaM M j 




j 

INDIANS PLAYING WITH A RUBBER BALL WHEN COLUMBUS CAME IN SIGHT 

Courtesy of the United Stales Rubber Co. 

animals and bugs and beetles, etc. All trees are protected by nature; some are 
protected from bugs eating their leaves, by other bugs eating up these bugs; other 
trees are protected by having a thorny or bristly bark. 

In these forests in which the rubber tree grows there was a wood-boring beetle, 
and this beetle would attack these rubber trees, boring into them; but the tree, 
in order to protect itself, had a poisonous juice, and as soon as the beetle bored into 
the tree, this juice killed him. Then the juice would fill up the hole the beetle had 
made, and the tree would go on growing as before. 

In those days the natives around these forests (who were half Indi&n and half 
Negro) happened to find some of this juice sticking on the tree. They cut it off, 
rolled it together and made a ball, with which they would play games. The first 

(98) 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



99 




IN THE JUNGLE 
LLAMA, DOMESTIC ANIMAL OF THE ANDES, USED TO CARRY RUBBER 

OVER MOUNTAINS 

RAILROAD AROUND THE RAPIDS OF THE MADEIRA TERMINAL 
CRUDE RUBBER "BISCUITS" ON THE BANKS OF THE AMAZON 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 



100 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 




ON THE BANKS OP THE Rio GUAPORE BRAZIL 

Courtesy of the B. F. Goodrich Co 



MMMMM^M* 

mention of it was made by Herrera in his account of the second voyage of Columbus, 

wherein he speaks of a ball used by Indians, made from the gum of a tree which was 

lighter and bounced better than the far-famed balls of Castile 

The way they gather this rubber is very interesting. When it comes from the 

tree it is nothing but a milky juice. The natives of South America soon discovered 

_ that the white man was 

willing to pay them beads 
and other trinkets for 
chunks of this rubber, so 
they became active in 
gathering it. 

What is a Rubber Camp 
Like? 

In this locality the 
rubber harvest com- 
mences as soon as the 
Amazon falls which is 
usually about the first 
of August. When this 
date approaches bands 

... of natives set out from 

their primitive homes and go, in many instances, hundreds of miles into the forest 
lowlands. There, within easy reach of the rubber trees, they set up their camp 
and the actual work of harvesting the rubber crop begins. It usually covers a 
period of about six months, extending from August to January or February. 

The camps are usually great distances from the nearest town and procuring 
supplies is not only difficult but very expensive as well. The natives build their 
huts out of small poles 
covered with palm thatch 
and live in little colonies 
while the rubber harvest 
is going on. The Bra- 
zilian name for a rubber 
gatherer is "seringuero," 
A roof and floor with 
the flimsiest of walls, set 
up on piling for coolness, 
defense against animals 
and insects, and to keep 
the building dry during 
flood season, forms the 
home of the rubber gath- 
erer. The more preten- 
tious and better furnished 
home of the superintendent of the "estate," together with the storehouses, etc., are 
called the "seringal." 

The buildings are usually grouped together at a favorable spot on the banks 
of the Amazon or one of its tributaries. 

Furniture is of the most primitive type. The laborers and their families sleep 
in hammocks or on matting on the floor. Food is largely made up of canned goods 
and the ever-present farina, a sort of tapioca flour. 

The climate of the South American rubber country is usually fatal to white 




RUBBER GATHERER'S HUT NEAR THE AMAZON 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



101 



men, and even among the Indians the fevers, the poisonous insects and reptiles, and 
the other perils of a tropical forest cause a high death rate. The production of 
South American rubber is limited by a shortage of men rather than a shortage of trees. 
In December the rainy season begins. The waters of the Amazon begin to rise 
and the work ceases. The superintendent and many of the workers go down the 
river to Para and Manaos or to villages on higher ground. However, a number of 
the laborers usually remain in the huts, loafing and fighting the animals and insects 




A HOME OP THE RUBBER GATHERERS 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 

that seek refuge from the rising waters. They have but little to eat, and during the 
entire season practically no communication with the outside world. 

At the end of the rainy season, early in May, the laborers return to their task. 
The quick-growing vegetation has filled the estradas and this must be cleared away 
and perhaps new estradas opened. An estrada is simply a path leading from one 
Hevea tree to another and circling back to camp. Each estrada includes about 
one hundred of the scattered Heveas. 

After having established themselves in camp the natives take up their monotonous 
round, which is followed day after day as long as the rubber trees continue to yield 
their valuable sap. When the seringuero starts out he equips himself with a toma- 
hawk-like axe having a handle about thirty inches long. This is called a 
"macheadino." 



102 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 




TAPPING HEVEA RUBBER TREE BRAZIL 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



103 



How is Rubber Gathered by the Natives? 

The trees are tapped very much like maple syrup trees. Only the juice is found 
between the outer bark and the wood. So these men make a cut in the tree through 
the bark, almost to the 
wood. A little cup is 
then fastened to the tree 
with a piece of soft clay 
to press the cup against 
it, and the juice runs 
into this cup. Sometimes 
they have from ten to 
thirty cups on one tree 
and the average yield of 
a tree is ten pounds of 
rubber a year. 

Some two hours after 
the tapping is done the 
flow entirely ceases and 
the tree must be tapped 
anew to secure a fresh flow. 

The film of rubber that forms on the inside of the cup and the bits of rubber 
remaining on the tree are collected and sold as coarse Para. 

The rubber gatherer carries in addition to a macheadino and many small tin 




ON THE BANKS OF THE AMAZON 

Courtesy of the B. F. Goodrich Co. 





GATHERING THE RUBBER MILK BRAZIL 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 



How THE RUBBER MILK DRIPS FROM 

THE GASH IN THE TREE BRAZIL 



cups, a larger vessel for gathering the liquid and carrying it to camp. One man will 
tap as many as 100 trees in a single morning and then cover the same ground again 
in the afternoon or on the following morning, gathering .the sap that drips slowly 



104 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



from the cuts made in the trees. On these journeys the harvester frequently travels 
long distances over paths so buried by the undergrowth of the jungle that they are 

almost invisible to the 
untrained eye. On such 
expeditions rubber gath- 
erers usually go armed 
with rifles to protect 
themselves against wild 
animals, reptiles and sav- 
age Indians. 

How is Rubber Smoked? 

After the juice has 
been gathered in this 
way, the native builds a 
fire; over it he places a 
cover shaped like a large 
bottle with the bottom 

G . , .,, - M knocked out of it. This 

nre is built of oily nuts found in the forest, and the thick smoke arises through what 

would be the neck of the bottle. 

With a stick shaped something like the wooden shovels used at the seashore 

he dipped into the milky juice in the bowl, then turned this stick or paddle around 




A PLANTATION IN BOKNEO 

Courtesy of the B. F. Goodrich Co. 




SMOKING RUBBER ON THE LOWER AMAZON 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 

very rapidly in the smoke until the juice baked on the paddle. He then added more 
juice and went through the same operation again and again until there were between 
five aud six pounds of rubber baked on this paddle. He then cuts this off with 9 






THE STORY OF RUBBER 




SMOKING RUBBER UPPER AMAZON 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 

wet knife which made it cut more rapidly. 
That formed what is called a rubber "bis- 
cuit," and he then started over again for 
his next five or six pounds. Later, as the 
demand for these " biscuits " increased, instead 
of the native using the paddle, he erected two 
short fence-like affairs about six feet apart, 
but parallel with each other, and in between 
was the smoky fire. Then he obtained a 
long pole, stretched it across these two rails 
and poured a small quantity of this juice on 
this pole, over where the smoke came in con- 
tact with it, and rolled the pole around until 
this juice was baked, adding more, until, 
instead of a small five- or six-pound "bis- 
cuit," he would get an immense ball. In 
order to get this off his pole, he would jog 
one end of the pole on the ground until the 
" biscuit" would slide off. This is the way 
crude rubber first came into our market and 
the way it comes today. 

How was Vulcanizing Discovered? 

Up to this time, these "biscuits," when 
exposed to heat, would become very soft 
and sticky, and when exposed to the cold, 
would become hard like a stone. 




REMOVING BISCUIT FROM POLE AFTER 



There was a American by the name courtesy of the 



106 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



of Charles Goodyear who had heard how the natives of the rubber-growing countries 
used this milky juice in many ways for their own benefit. One use they put it to 
was the waterproofing of their cloaks. How could this be done so that our clothing 
would be made water-tight and yet not be sticky in summer or stiff in winter? 
Goodyear devoted a great deal of his time to solving this problem, and, like many 
other great inventors, he passed through many trials. His many failures caused his 
friends to forsake him and he was put in prison for not paying his debts. He per- 
sisted in his quest, however, and it was accident at last that opened the way to 
discovery of the processes of vulcanization for which Goodyear was seeking. 

At Woburn, Mass., one day, in the spring of 1839, he was standing with his 
brother and several other persons near a very hot stove. He held in his hand a 
mass of his compound of sulphur and gum, upon which he was expatiating in his 




INDIAN WATERPROOFING CLOTH BY "PAINTING 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 



IT WITH RUBBER "MILK 



usual vehement manner, the company exhibiting the indifference to which he was 
accustomed. In the crisis of his argument he made a violent gesture, bringing the 
mass in contact with the stove, which was hot enough to melt India-rubber instantly; 
upon looking at it a moment afterwards, he perceived that his compound had not 
melted in the least degree! It had charred as leather chars, but no part of the surface 
had dissolved. There was not a sticky place upon it. To say that he was astonished 
at this would but faintly express his ecstasy of amazement. The result was abso- 
lutely new to all experience India-rubber not melting in contact with red-hot iron! 
He felt as Columbus felt when he saw the land bird alighting upon his ship and the 
driftwood floating by. In a few years more his labors were crowned with success. 

This great invention made it possible for us to have rubber boots and rubber 
shoes and many other things made of rubber. 

Up to this time, all the rubber was called Para rubber, named from the town 
of Para in Brazil, from which all rubber was shipped. The full-grown tree is quite 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



107 







Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 



108 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



large, ranging sixty feet and over in height and about eight feet around the trunk. 
It has a flower of pale green color and its fruit is a capsule containing three small 
brown seeds, with patches of black. These seeds lose their life very quickly, so a 
great deal of care is necessary to pack them if they are wanted to plant in another 
place. The safest way is to lay them loosely in a box of dry soil or charcoal. 

The rubber tree grows best in rich, damp soil and in countries where the tempera- 
ture is eighty-nine to ninety-four degrees at noon-time and not less than seventy-four 




1 



Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. RUBBER TwiGS 

V 

degrees at night, and where there is a rainy season for about six months in the year, 
and the soil and atmosphere is damp the year round. 

The name of this species of tree is Hevea, but many years ago it was called 
Siphonia on account of the Omaqua Indians using squirts made of a piece of pipe 
stuck into a hollow ball of rubber. 

How did Rubber Growing Spread to Other Places? 

Back in the seventies an English botanist, Wickham by name, smuggled many 
Hevea seeds out of Brazil. The tree was found to grow well in the Eastern tropics 
and today the rubber plantations of Ceylon, Borneo, the Malay Peninsula and 
neighboring regions are producing more than half of the world's supply of crude 
rubber. Here the natives work under pleasant climatic conditions and the trees 
under cultivation grow better and yield better than in the forest. 

On these plantations, rubber trees are cultivated just the same as other crops. 
All weeds are removed and great care is used with the young trees. Low-growing 
plants which absorb nitrogen from the air which enriches the soil, such as the passion 
flower and other sensitive plants, were planted around these small rubber trees, for 
it was found that when the weeds were removed to give the trees a chance to grow, 
the ground become hard and dry. 

The method of tapping is different, too. Instead of ten to thirty taps, a series 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



109 




Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 



110 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



of cuts the shape of a V is made on four sides of the tree, from the bottom up to as 
high as a man can reach, and a cup placed at the point of the V. Another way is 
to make one long cut down the tree and then cut out slanting channels about one 
foot apart into this, and put a cup at the bottom of the long cut; another is making 
a spiral around the tree with the cup at the bottom. 

How is Rubber Cured on Modern Plantations? 

With these big plantations some other way to cure the rubber had to be devised 
from the smoking process used in curing the native rubber which comes from South 
America. The milky juice is emptied from the cups into a tank and lime juice is 
added and it is then allowed to stand. The juice, as it comes from the tree, contains 
considerable water: the lime juice is added to separate the rubber from the water. 




A YOUNG RUBBER PLANTATION 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 



Sometimes separators are used much like our cream separators; in fact, the 
whole process and the appearance of the interior of these rubber " dairies" very 
much resembles our own dairies where real milk is made into butter, curds or cheese. 

Para, at the mouth of the Amazon, and Manaos, a thousand miles up, are both 
modern cities of more than one hundred thousand population. They have schools, 
churches, parks, gardens and museums, and, except for the Indians, certain peculiarities 
in architecture and the ever-present odor of rubber, they differ but little from our 
northern cities of equal size. Here the rubber markets are located and here 
the rubber is carefully examined, graded, boxed and shipped to New York or 
Liverpool. 

Plantation rubber usually comes in the form of sheets of various shapes and 
sizes. The rubber shown here is in oblong sheets. Sometimes it is in the form of 
"pancakes" or in "blocks." Often, after being coagulated, it is smoked, and "smoked 
plantation sheet" is, next to Para, the best rubber obtainable. 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



in 




Courtesy of the United States nubber uy, - 



112 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



How is Crude Rubber Received Here? 

Crude rubber is received in many forms under various names. There are more 

than three hundred standard kinds, depending on source and method of handling; 

e. g. t "Sernamby" is simply bundles of Para 
tree scrap and scrap from the cups where 
milk has cured in the open air. "Guayule" 
is a resinous rubber secured from a two-foot 
shrub that grows on the arid plains of Texas 
and Northern Mexico. 

Our picture shows a bin of crude up-river 
Para the finest rubber known. Every "bis- 
cuit" or "ham" has been cut in two to find 
out whether the native has loaded it in any 
way. 

How is Rubber Prepared for Use? 

Now that we have rubber so that it can 
be used, we find there are a great many opera- 
tions necessary between gathering the crude 
rubber and finally the finished rubber coat 
or shoe. These various operations are called 
washing, drying, compounding, calendering, 
cutting, making, varnishing, vulcanizing and 
packing and each one of these main opera- 
tions requires several smaller operations. 

The grinding and calendering depart^ 
ment is the one in which the crude rubber 
is washed, dried, compounded and run into 
sheets ready to be cut into the various 
pieces which constitute a boot or shoe. 
The cultivated rubber comes practically clean, but the crude rubber "biscuits" 

contain more or less dirt and foreign vegetable matter which have to be removed. 

The rubber is softened in hot water for a number of hours and then passed through 

the corrugated rolls of a 

wash mill in which a 

stream of water plays on 

the rubber as it is thor- 
oughly masticated and 

formed into thin sheets. 

These sheets are taken 

to the drying loft. Here 

they are hung up so that 

the warm air can readily 

circulate through them 

and are allowed to re- 
main from six to eight 

weeks, until every trace 

of moisture has been re- 
moved. The vacuum 

dryer is used where rub- 




ANOTHER CEYLON TAPPING METHOD 
THE HERRINGBONE 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 




RUBBER MARKET IN MANAOS 

Courtesy of the B. F. Goodrich Co. 



ber is wanted dry in a short space of time. This is a large oven containing shelves. 
The wet sheets of rubber are cut in square pieces, placed on perforated tin pans and 
loaded into the dryer, which will hold about eight hundred pounds of rubber. The 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



113 




114 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 




TAPPING HEVEA RUBBER TREE ON CEYLON PLANTATION 

Courtesy of the United States Rubber Co. 

doors are closed, fastened, and by the vacuum process the water is extracted, 
leaving the rubber perfectly dry in about three hours' time. 

After the rubber is 
dry, and has been tested 
by the chemist, it goes 
to the grinding mills 
where it is refined on 
warm rolls and made 
ready for the compound- 
ing or mixing. It is 
impossible to make out 
of rubber alone, shoes or 
other products that will 
withstand extreme 
changes in temperature; 
certain amounts of sul- 
SOFTENING VATS phur litharge and other 

Courtesy of the B. P. Goodrich Co. ingredients are necessary 

in combination with the 

pure rubber to give a satisfactory material. The gum from the grinding mills is 
taken to the mixing mills, where, between the large rolls, the various materials 
are compounded into a homogeneous mass. The compounded rubber goes from 
the mixing mills to refining mills, to be prepared for the calenders. 




THE STORY OF RUBBER 



115 







Courtesy o/ the United States Rubber Co. 



116 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



Automobile, motorcycle and bicycle tires, belting, footwear and many other 
rubber articles must have a base or backbone of cotton fabric, and in order that the 
fabric may unite firmly with the rubber it must be "frictioned" or forced full of 

rubber. This is done 
by drawing it between 
enormous iron rollers, 
rubber being applied on 
'*>* surface as it passes 
through. The pressure 
is so great that every 
opening between the 
fibers of cotton, every 
space between threads is 
forced full of rubber. 

The fabric is then 
ready to go with the 
milled rubber to the 
various departments of 
the factory to be incorpo- 




THE MILL ROOM 

Courtesy of the B. F. Goodrich Co. 



rated into rubber goods. The calender is also used to press rubber into sheets of 
uniform thickness. 

How are Rubber Shoes Made? 

In making footwear, the linings and such parts as can be piled up layer on layer 
are cut by dies, usually on the large beam-cutting machines, commonly seen in 
leather shoe factories. The uppers are cut by hand from the engraved sheets, while 
metal patterns are used on the plain stock. The soles are cut by specially designed 
machines. The sheets of rubber from which the uppers and soles are cut are at this 
stage of the wo^k plastic and very sticky. It is necessary on this account to cut the 
various pieces one by one and keep them separate, by placing them between the leaves 
of a large cloth book. In 
an ordinary rubber shoe 
there are from twelve to 
fifteen pieces, while in a 
common boot there are 
over twenty-five pieces. 

The various pieces 
are next delivered to 
the making department, 
where they are fitted 
together on the "lasts" 
or "trees" in such a way 
that all the joints and 
seams are covered and 
the lines of the shoe 
kept exactly. Consid- 
erable skill is required to do this, as all the joints and seams must ^ be rolled down 
smooth and firm to ensure a solid boot or shoe. The goods are all inspected before 
they are loaded on the iron cars to go to the varnishing department, where they 
receive the gloss which makes them look like patent leather. 

From the varnishing department the shoes are taken to the vulcanizers, which 
are large ovens heated by innumerable steam pipes. The shoes remain in these 
vulcanizers from six to seven hours, subjected to extreme heat. This heating or 




MAKING RUBBER BULBS 

Courtesy of the B. F. Goodrich Co, 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 



117 









118 



THE STORY OF RUBBER 





THE STORY OF RUBBER 119 

vulcanizing process fixes the elasticity of the rubber, increases its strength enormously 
and unites the parts in such a way as to make the shoe practically one piece. 

The shoes next go to the packing department, where they are taken off the "lasts," 
inspected, marked, tied together in pairs, sorted and packed. They are then sent to 
the shipping department to be shipped immediately or stored in one of the spacious 
storehouses. 

How are Automobile Tires Made? 

In making tires, the strips of fabric are built together about a steel core to form 
the body or carcass of the tire. The beads are also added. The side strips, the 
breaker strip and finally the tread are applied. All of these pieces are sticky, and 
as they are laid together and rolled down by small hand rollers they adhere to each 
other, and when the tire is completed it looks very much like the tires you see on 
automobiles, but it is not yet vulcanized. The rubber is much like tough, heavy 
dough there is not much stretch to it and in a cold place it would become hard 
and brittle. 

The tire on its steel core is taken to the mold room and placed in a steel box or 
mold, shaped to exactly enclose it. It is then placed with many others on a steel 
frame and lowered into a sort of a well or oven, where it remains for a time under 
pressure in the heat of live steam, after which it is removed, a finished tire. 

Vulcanization is simply the heating of the rubber mixed with sulphur this 
causes a chemical change in the substance; ft becomes tougher, more elastic and 
less affected by heat and cold. 

This process, discovered in 1839, made rubber the useful substance it is today. 
The discoverer, Charles Goodyear, to whom we referred before, was never connected 
in any way except by name with any of the manufacturers of the present day, but 
his discovery was the real beginning of a great industry. 



How did the Expression "Before you can say Jack Robinson" Originate? 

Jack Robinson was a man in olden days who became well known because of 
the shortness of his visits when he came to call on his friends, according to Grose, 
who has looked up the subject very carefully. When the servants at a home where 
Jack Robinson called went to announce his coming to the host and his assembled 
guests, it was said that they hardly had time to repeat his name out loud before he 
would take his departure again. Another man, Halliwell, who has also investigated 
the development of the expression, thinks that it was derived from the description 
of a character- in an old play, "Jack, Robes on." 

It is also interesting to learn that the sandwiches which we all enjoy so much 
at picnics are so called because of the fact that an English nobleman, the Earl of 
Sandwich, always used to eat his meat between two pieces of bread. 

What is an Aerial Railway Like? 

Wonderful ingenuity has been shown in contriving a means to enable people 
to ascend the Wetterhorn Mountain in Switzerland. The sides of the mountain 
are so irregular and rough in their formation that it was found impossible to build 
even the incline type of railway, such as is usually resorted to where the ascent to 
a mountain is particularly steep. So the engineers who studied the problem finally 
contrived two huge sets of cables, securely fastened at the top, and fixed to a landing 
place a short distance from the base of the mountain. Cars, holding twenty pas- 
sengers each, are carried up and down these cables, one car balancing the other, by 
means of a cable attached to each, which passes around a drum at the top. 



120 



WHAT IS AN AERIAL RAILWAY LIKE 




THE WETTERHORN AERIAL RAILWAY 

Reproduced by permission of The Philadelphia Museums. 



HOW FAR AWAY IS THE SKY-LINE 121 



There is probably no railway in all Europe upon which travel affords more 
wonderful scenery than this trip, suspended in the air, up the side of the Wetterhorn 
Mountain, the three peaks of which are all considerably more than two and a quarter 
miles high. 

Why are They Called " Newspapers "? 

Although something like an official newspaper or government gazette existed 
in ancient Rome, and Venice in the middle of the sixteenth century also had official 
news sheets, the first regular newspaper was published at Frankfort in 1615. Seven 
years later the first regular newspaper appeared in England. 

It was customary to print the points of the compass at the top of the early 
single-sheet papers, to indicate that occurrences from all four parts of the world were 
recorded. Before very long, the publisher of one of the most progressive papers 
rearranged the letters symbolic of the points of the compass, into a straight line, and 
printed the word NEWS, and in a very short time practically every newspaper 
publisher decided to adopt the idea. 

It is interesting to find that American colonies were not far behind England 
in establishing newspapers, and equally interesting to know that the most remark- 
able development of the newspaper has been in the United States, where, in propor- 
tion to population, its growth and circulation has been much greater than in any 
other country. Practically a half of all the newspapers published in the world are 
published in the United States and Canada. 

Every trade, organization, profession and science now has its representative 
journal or journals, besides the actual newspapers and magazines of literary character, 
and Solomon's remark might be paraphrased to read: "To the making of newspapers 
there is no end." 

The great and rapid presses of recent years, the methods of mechanical type- 
setting and the cheapness and excellence of photographic illustrations, have all been 
necessary elements of the great sheets and enormous circulations of the present day, 
and the twentieth century newspaper is one of the greatest achievements in the whole 
field of human enterprise. 

How Did the Cooking of Food Originate? 

As soon as man found that he could produce fire by friction, as the result of 
rapidly rubbing two sticks together, he began to have accidents with his fires, just 
as we do today. And it was probably because of one of these accidents, in which 
some food was cooked quite unintentionally, that primitive man made the great 
discovery that most of the meats and fruits and roots that he had been accustomed 
to eating raw, were far better if they were put in or near the fire for a while first. 

How Far Away is the Sky-Line? 

Unless you happen to be of the same height as the person standing next to you, 
the sky-line is a different distance away from each of you, for it is really just a 
question of the distance the eye can see from different heights above the sea-level 
A person five feet tall, standing on the beach at the seaside, is able to see about 
two and three-quarter miles away, while one a foot taller can see about a quarter 
of a mile further. 

A person on the roof of a house a hundred feet high is able to see mo.re than 
thirteen miles away, on a clear day, and a forty-two mile view may be enjoyed from 
the top of a mountain a thousand feet high. The aviator who goes up to a level 
a mile above the sea is able to see everything within a radius of ninety-six miles and 
the further up he goes the larger the earth's circle becomes to him. 



The Story of Rope 



Everybody knows what rope is, but everybody does not know how rope is made 
or of what kinds of fiber it is manufactured. And very few probably know the history 
of rope making, or how it developed from the simple thread to the great cable which 

now holds giant vessels to their wharves 
or aids to anchor them in ocean storms. 
Let us go back and try to trace 
the history of the rope. It is a long 
one, going out of sight in the far past. 
In very early times men must have 
used some kinds of cords or lines for 
fishing, for tying animals, at times for 
tying men. These may have been 
strips of hide, lengths of tough, flexible 

., _ wood, fibrous roots, and such gifts of 

SCENE IN EGYPTIAN KITCHEN, SHOWING na t llrp nr l i n timp nil thp^P WPFP 
USE OF A LARGE ROPE TO SUPPORT A SORT OF re ' , an 

HANGING SHELF twisted together to make a longer and 

stronger cord or rope. 

We have evidence of this. Tribes of savages still have in use cords made of 
various materials and some of them very well made. These have been in use 
among them for long centuries. Take the case of our own Indian tribes. They long 
made use of cordage twisted from cotton and other fibers, or formed from the inner 
bark of various trees and the roots of others, and from the hairs, skins and sinews 
of animals. 

Good rope was made also by the old Peruvians, by the South Sea Islanders, 
and by the natives of many other regions. Those on the seashore made fishing 





REPRODUCTION OF SCULPTURE FROM A TOMB IN THEBES, SHOWING PREPA- 
RATION OF LEATHER CORDS BY PROCESS SIMILAR TO ROPE MAKING 

lines and well-formed nets, and certain tribes, among them the Nootka Indians, 
harpooned the whale, using cords made from the sinews of that animal, these being 
very strong and highly pliable. The larger ropes used by them, two inches in diameter, 
were made from the fibrous roots of the spruce. 

Civilized Rope Makers. 

All the ancient civilized peoples used ropes and cordage, made from such 
flexible materials as their countries afforded. We have pictures of this from ancient 



* Illustrations by courtesy of Plymouth Cordage Co. 



(12 ) 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



123 




CORDAGE MANUFACTURE BY THE ROPE WALK METHOD 

Yarns passing from bobbins through perforated plates in forming of strands. 

Top truck used in laying of rope. 
m Forming machine making strands. 

Closing tarred Russian hemp cable, 15% inch circumference, for Argentine 
Battleship "Rivadavia." 



124 THE STORY OF ROPE 

Egypt, in which the process of twisting strips of leather into rope is shown on the 
walls of their tombs. One workman is seen cutting a long strand from a hide which 
he turns round as he cuts, while another man walks backward with this, twisting 
it as he goes. The Egyptians also made ropes from papyrus and palm fibers, of 
which specimens still exist. Only by the use of large and strong ropes could they 
have moved the massive stones seen in their pyramids and temples. 

When men began to move boats by sails, ropes of some kind must have been 
needed, and the early ships no doubt demanded long and strong cordage. We have 
pictures of these from several centuries before the Christian era, and we are told 
by Herodotus that Xerxes, when he built his famous bridge of boats across the 
Hellespont, 480 B. C., fastened them together by enormous cables which stretched 




EARLY TYPE OF MACHINE FOE SPINNING ROPE YARN 

from shore to shore, a distance of nearly a mile. Twelve of these ropes were used, 
about nine inches thick, some of them being made of flax and others of papyrus. 

During the medieval and later centuries rope making was an active industry 
and America was not long settled before the rope maker became active. John 
Harrison, an English expert in this line, set up a rope walk in Boston in 1641 or 1642, 
and for many years had a monopoly of the trade. But after his death the art became 
common and in 1794 there were fourteen large ropewalks in that city. In 1810 
there were 173 of these industries in the United States, and from that tune on the 
business has grown and prospered. 

Hand Spinning. 

In the period referred to all the work was done by hand, machine spinning being 
of later date. American hemp was used, this softer fiber being spun by hand long 
after Manila hemp was spun by machines. The hand-making process, long used, 
is an interesting one. The first step was to " hackle" the hemp. The hackle was a 
board with long, sharp steel teeth set in it. This combed out the matted tow of 
the hemp into clean, straight fiber. The instrument used in spinning was a large 
wheel turned by hand, and setting in motion a set of " whirls" or revolving spindles, 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



125 




FOUR-STRAND COMPOUND LAYING MACHINE MAKING STRANDS AND LAYING 
ROPE IN A SINGLE, CONTINUOUS OPERATION 



126 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



which twisted the hemp by their motion. The spinner wrapped a quantity of the 
hackled hemp around his waist and attached some of the fibers to the whirls, which 




SlXTEEN-lNCH TOWLINE WITH EYE SPLICE 

twisted the hemp as he walked backward down the ropewalk, pulling out new fiber 
from his waist by one hand and pressing it into form and size with the fingers of the 
other. 

In forming a small rope, two of the yarns thus formed were twisted together 




FORMATION OF SLIVER (FOR SPINNING) ON FIRST BREAKER 

in a direction opposite to that of the first twist. Then a second twisting followed, 
the direction being again reversed. Thus rope making may be seen to consist in a 
series of twisting processes, each twist opposite to the former, the rope growing in 
size and strength at each operation. Horse power or water power was used when 
the ropes became too large to be made by hand. 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



127 




128 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



Machine-made Ropes. 

The old ropewalk is today largely obsolete, the rope-making machine taking the 
place of the hand-making process, which was not adapted to produce the large 
cables which in time were called for. Steam-driven machines were first introduced 
about 1838. These are now used alike in making fine threads and yarns and in 
large ropes. 

There are two methods in the modern system of rope making. In one the strands 

are formed on one type of machine and 
twisted into a rope on another. In the 
second method both operations are per- 
formed on a single machine. The latter 
saves space, but is not so well fitted for 
large ropes as the former. A plant for the 
two-part method comprises two or more 
horizontal strand-forming machines, sev- 
eral bobbin frames, and a vertical laying- 
machine. The former twists several 
strands into a rope, the latter several 
ropes into a cable. 

The yarns, which are wound around 
bobbins, are drawn from them through 
perforated plates, these so placed that 
the yarns converge together and pass 
into a tube. In this they are compressed 
and at the same time twisted by the rev- 
olution of a long carriage or flyer, which 
can be made to vary in speed and direc- 
tion. After being twisted the strands 
are wound around reels in readiness for 
the second, or laying process. 

In this the full reels are lifted by 
overhead chains and are placed in the 
vertical flyers of the laying-machine. 
Here again the strands are made to pass 
through openings and converge into a 
central tube, through which they pass to 
the revolving flyers, which perform the 
final duty of twisting them into rope. 
The finished product is delivered to a 
belt-driven coiling reel on which it is 
wound. 

The most complete rope-making 
machine yet reached is that in which 
these two machines are combined into 
one. It economizes space, machinery 
and workmen, and also is more rapid in reaching the final result. But there are dis- 
advantages which render it unfit for the larger sizes of rope, and it is therefore 
used only on a limited range of sizes. 

American Hemp. 

Among the fibers employed in rope making that of the hemp plant long held 
the supremacy, though in recent years it has been .largely supplemented by other 
and stronger fibers. This plant is a native of Asia, but is now grown largely in other 




REMOVING REEL WITH COMPLETED STRAND 
FROM FORMING MACHINE 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



129 




How PINE TAB is MADE IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES 

1. Building the kiln. 
2. Starting fire. 3. Racking back coals. 

4. Tar coming from kiln. 
5. Dipping and barreling. 6. Working around kiln. 

7. After hard day and night. 
8. Tar makers at home. 9. Burning completed. 



130 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



continents, taking its name from the country in which it is raised, as Russian hemp, 
Italian hemp, and American, or Kentucky, hemp, it having long found a home in the 
soil of Kentucky. It differs from the Manila fiber, which has now very largely sup- 
planted it, by being much softer, though of less strength. In the old days of the 
sailing vessel hempen rope was largely used for the rigging o' merchant and war 
ships, but the use of other fibers and of wire for rigging has greatly reduced the 
market for Kentucky hemp. There are various other fibers known under the name 
of hemp, the New Zealand, African, Java, etc., but the Manila and Sisal fibers, since 
the middle of the last century, have largely taken their place. 

Manila and Sisal Fibers. 

Manila hemp, as it is called, is a product of our Philippine dependency, being 
obtained from a species of the banana plant which grows abundantly in those islands. 




AMERICAN HEMP STACKED IN FIELDS 

Its fiber is very long, ranging from six to ten feet, and is noted for its smoothness 
and pliability, a feature which makes it ideal for rope making. Gloss and brilliancy 
are also characteristics of good quality Manila. 

Manila hemp is obtained from the leaf stalks of the Philippine plant known as 
the Abaca, the leaf stems of which are compressed together, and constitute the trunk 
of the plant. It is obtained by scraping the pulp from the long fibers, drying these 
when thoroughly cleaned, and baling them for market. 

The high price of the Manila product, however, has brought a cheaper fiber, 
of American growth, into the market; this being that known as Sisal, extracted from 
henequen, a cactus-like plant of Yucatan. As a substitute for or rival of Manila hemp 
it has come into common use. Its cheapness recommends it despite the fact that 
it is not of equal strength, and .also that its fibers are shorter, being from two to four 
feet in length. Sisal also lacks the flexibility of Manila, being much more stiff and 
harsh. The development of the self-binding reaper on our western grain -fields has 
opened a gold mine for Sisal cordage. Of the annual import of this fiber to the 
United States, 300,000,000 pounds in quantity, a large proportion finds its way 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



131 




PHILIPPINE HEMP CART 




LOADING FIBER FROM SISAL FIBER PLANT ONTO PLANTATION CAR 



132 



THE STORY OF ROPE 



to the wheat fields of the West. It is also used in all other wheat-yielding 
countries. 

Henequen is now grown on large plantations, the plant being about five years 
old before the long, sword-like leaves are ready to cut. It continues to yield a supply 
for ten or twenty years, this lasting until the flower stalk, or "pole," appears, after 
which the plant soon dies. As Manila fiber is at times adulterated with Sisal, so 
has the latter its adulterant in a plant called Istle, which grows in Mexico and has 
hitherto been chiefly used in brush making. 

These are the chief plants used in rope making. To them we may add con-, 
obtained from the brush of the cocoanut, which has been long used in India, and 





NEW ZEALAND HEMP OB 
FLAX 



CRUDE HAND METHOD OF CLEANING MANILA 
FIBER ON PLANTATION 



has come into use in Europe in recent years. It is fairly strong and has the advantage 
of being considerably lighter than hemp or Manila. And, unlike these, it does not 
need to be tarred for preservation, as it is not injured by the salt water. Two other 
rope-making fibers of importance are the Sunn hemp of India and cotton, ropes of 
the latter being largely used for certain purposes, such as driving parts of textile 
machinery. 

Wire Ropes. 

We have not completed the story of rope making. There is the wire rope to 
consider, a kind of cordage now largely used in many industries, in which it has 



THE STORY OF ROPE 




I 

I 

I 

E 



PQ 

p 

I 



134 



THE STORY OP ROPE 



superseded hemp ropes and chains. These seem to have originated in Germany 
about 1821. In the bridge at Geneva, built in 1822, ropes of untwisted wire, bound 
together, were used, and some fifteen years later " stranded" wire ropes were employed 
in the Harz mines. These at first were made of high-class wire, but only steel is 
now used in their manufacture. A strand of wire rope generally consists of from six 
to nine wires and sometimes as many as eighteen, but much larger ropes are made 
by twisting these strands -together. They are generally -galvanized to prevent them 
from rusting. 

The applications of wire ropes are very numerous, an important one being for 
winding and hauling purposes in mines. For aerial ropeways they are extensively 
employed, and are of high value in bridge building, the suspension bridge being 
sustained by them. The strength of the steel wire used for ropes varies from 




HANK OF MANILA FIBER TWELVE FEET LONG 

seventy to over one hundred tons per square inch of sectional area, the weight of 
a hemp rope being about three times that of a wire rope of equal strength. 

Pine Tar for Ropes. 

Who does not know of the tarred rigging that once meant so much to the rope 
maker? Its very odor seems to cling to the pages of seafaring books. When steam 
power took the place of wind power in ships the use of tarred rigging naturally 
declined, yet tarred goods still form an important branch of the rope business. .Pine 
tar is the kind best suited for cordage, the yellow, longleaf, or Georgia pine holding 
the first rank in the United States for tar making. This tree is found along the 
coast region from North Carolina to Texas. 

In tar-kiln burning only dead wood is used, the green tree yielding less tar and 
of lower quality. It is a slow process, as a brisk fire would consume the wood with- 
out yielding tar. As the tar comes from the kiln it is caught in a hole dug before the 
outlet and is dipped up and poured into barrels, the average yield being one barrel 
of tar to the cord of wood. As above said, it is indispensable to protect cordage 
exposed to the effects of moisture, except in the case of coir ropes. Oiling is also an 
important process in the manufacture of ropes from hard fibers, as Manila, Sisal 



THE STORY OF ROPE 




INSPECTING MANILA FIBER AT DOCK 




SHIPPING PLATFORM OF A LARGE FACTORY 



136 THE STORY OF ROPE 

and New Zealand. This softens them and makes them more workable, and it also 
acts as a preservative. 

Why does Rope Cling Together? 

This is probably due to a degree of roughness in the surface of fibers, often 
imperceptible to the eye, yet preventing them when in close contact from slipping 
easily upon each other. This is greatly increased by twisting the fibers together, 
and is added to by the toughness of the fibers themselves, the whole giving to rope 
a great resisting power. In the case of wire rope it is the firmness with which the 
metal holds together that gives it its great resisting strength. It is also not unlikely 
that the pressure of gravitation takes part in rope making, by holding the fibers in 
close contact, even if we do not know how this force operates. 

What is Rope Used for? 

This is a question that has already been answered in great part. Its uses, in 
fact, are innumerable. It serves to hold things together, and also to hold them apart; 
to lift things into the air and to hold them down to the ground; to pull things forward 
and pull things back but not to push things forward. For the latter something 
less flexible than rope is needed. Animals are tied or tethered by it and led by it, 
and man, himself, is one of its victims. This is especially the case in the dismal 
way in which man's career upon earth has so often been ended by lifting him from 
the ground by the aid of a rope loop around his neck. It is of some comfort to know 
that this brutal use of the rope is being replaced by more humane methods of ending 
the lives of condemned criminals. 



How did the Expression " A-l " Originate? 

We have all become so accustomed to hearing the term "A-l" used to designate 
a thing as perfect that it does not occur to many of us to wonder how' it originally 
came to be used in that connection. Its first use was as a symbol in the code by which 
vessels were graded in the register of shipping kept by Lloyd's, the originators of 
marine insurance. "A-l" was the best rating given to the highest class vessels, 
"A" standing for perfect condition of the hull of the ship and "1" meaning that 
the rigging and whole equipment was complete and in good order. 

How has Man Helped Nature Give Us Apples? 

The original of all the varieties of the cultivated apple is the wild crab, which 
is a small and extremely sour fruit, and is native of most of the countries of Europe. 
We use the crab-apple for preserving even now, although man's ingenuity has suc- 
ceeded in inducing nature to give us many better tasting kinds. 

The amazingly large number of different varieties which we have today have 
all been brought into existence through the discovery of the process of "grafting." 
There are a half a dozen or more different methods of grafting. The method most 
commonly practiced in working with apple trees is called "bud-grafting," and con- 
sists of transferring a plate of bark, with one or more buds attached, from one tree 
to another. 

The wood of apple trees is hard, close-grained and often richly colored, and 
is suitable for turning or cabinet work. Apple-growers classify apples into three 
different kinds, each consisting of a great many separate varieties. The three 
general divisions are table apples, which are characterized by a firm, juicy pulp, 
a sweetish acid flavor, regular form and beautiful coloring; cooking apples, which 
possess the quality of forming by the aid of heat into a pulpy mass of equal con- 
sistency, and also by their large size and keeping properties; and cider apples, which 
have a considerable astringency and a richness of juice. 



HOW HAS MAN HELPED APPLES 



137 




138 WHAT KIND OF CRABS CLIMB TREES 

What Kind of a Crab Climbs Trees? 

Besides the water-crabs that we are most of us used to 3eeing and eating, there 
are several different kinds of land-crabs. Probably the most interesting of them all 
is the great Robber-crab, which is found on certain islands of the Pacific. He is a 
creature of immense strength and climbs palm trees in order to pick, and break open, 
the cocoanuts. He lives in a den which he digs for himself in the ground. 

Darwin gives an interesting description of these extraordinary animals: "I 
have before alluded to a crab which lives on cocoanuts; it is very common on all 
parts of the dry land, and grows to a monstrous size. The front pair of legs terminate 
in very strong and heavy pincers, and the last pair are fitted with others weaker 
and much narrower. It would at first be thought quite impossible for a crab to open 
a strong cocoanut covered with husk, but Mr. Liesk assures me that he has repeatedly 
seen this effected. The crab begins by tearing the husk, fiber by fiber, and always 
from that end under which the three eye-holes are situated. When this is com- 
pleted, the crab commences hammering with its heavy claws on one of the eye-holes 
till an opening is made. Then turning round its body, it extracts the white albuminous 
substance with its posterior and narrow pair of pincers. 

"Every night it is said to pay a visit to the sea, no doubt for the purpose of 
moistening its gills. The young are likewise hatched, and live for some time, on the 
coast. These crabs inhabit deep burrows, which they hollow out beneath the roots 
of trees, and there they accumulate surprising quantities of the picked fibers of the 
cocoanut husk, on which they rest as a bed. To show the wonderful strength of the 
front pair of pincers, I may mention that Captain Moresby confined one in a strong 
tin box, the lid being secured with wire; but the crab turned down the edges and 
escaped. In turning down the edges, it actually punched many small holes through 
the tin!" 

How are Files Made? 

A good tool-kit holds a number of files of various shapes. Some are flat, others 
half-round, three-sided, square and round. They are generally thickest in the middle, 
while their teeth are of various degrees of fineness and of different forms. 

A file whose teeth are in parallel ridges only is called single-cut or float-cut. 
Such are mostly used for brass and copper. When there are two series of ridges 
crossing each other the file is double-cut, which is the. file best suited for iron and steel. 

Rasps are files which have isolated sharp teeth separated by comparatively wide 
spaces, and are chiefly used for soft materials such as wood and horn. 

Each of these three classes of files is made in six different degrees of fineness, the 
coarsest being called rough, the next middle, followed by bastard, second-cut, smooth 
and superfine or dead-smooth, each a degree finer than that which precedes it. 

Files are usually made with the hand, file-cutting machines not having been as 
yet perfectly successful on account of the delicacy of touch required in the work. 

The blanks, as the steel before it has teeth is called, are laid on the anvil and 
struck with the chisel, which rests obliquely on the blank, each blow raising a ridge or 
tooth. The strength of the blow depends on the hardness of the metal, and when one 
part is harder than another the workman alters his blows accordingly. When one 
side is covered with single cuts if the file is to be double cut he adds in the same 
manner a second series, crossing the others at a certain angle. 

In making fine files a good file-cutter will cut upwards of two hundred teeth 
within the space of an inch. The files, except those that are used for soft substances, 
are hardened by heating them to a cherry-red color and then dipping them in water. 
They are then finished by scouring and rubbing over with olive oil and turpentine. 



The Story of Self -Loading Pistols* 

Colt Pistols. 

The machine gun of the present day, the murderous weapon which has numbered 
its victims by the hundreds of thousands during the European war, had its origin 
in the mind of a man whose birth dates back to almost exactly one hundred years 
before this war began, that of Samuel Colt, born at Hartford, Conn., on July 19, 1814. 

The small arm of the previous period, the old " Brown Bess/ 7 used in the British 
army for 150 years, was a muzzle-loading, flint-lock musket of the crudest make. 




OUSTER'S LAST STAND 
The revolver played a large part in Indian warfare. 

The only important improvement made in it during that long term of service was 
the substitution of the percussion cap for the flint lock. This took place in the last 
period of its use. A breech-loading rifle was also invented about this time. This 
was the " Needle Gun/' of which 60,000 were issued to the Prussian army in 1841, 
and which was first used in 1848, in the German war with Denmark. 

The Colt pistol had appeared before this date. The idea of it grew in the mind 
of young Colt when he left his father's silk mill and shipped as a boy sailor in the 
ship "Carlo," bound from Boston to Calcutta. While on this voyage the conception 
of a revolving pistol came to him, and he whittled out a rude model of one with a 
penknife from a piece of wood. 

* Illustrations by courtesy of Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Co. 

(139) 



140 



THE STORY OF SELF-LOADING PISTOLS 






THE STORY OF SELF-LOADING PISTOLS 



141 



When he returned he sought in vain to interest his father and others in his idea 
of a pistol with a revolving cylinder containing six chambers to be discharged through 
a single barrel. This boyish notion won no converts, and at the age of eighteen 




GUN MOUNTED ON LANDING CARRIAGE WITH SHAFT ATTACHMENT 

he went on a lecture tour on chemistry, under the dignified title of Dr. Coult. These 
lectures met with success, and he used the money made by them in developing his 
pistol, which was in a shape to patent by 1835. Patents were taken out by him in 




PACK SADDLE FOR CARRYING AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUN AND COMPLETE EQUIPMENT 

this and the following year in the United States, Britain and France, and in 1836 
he established the "Patent Arms Company" at Paterson, N. J., with a paid-in capita 1 * 
stock of about $150,000. This was a bold move by the young inventor, then just 
escaped from boyhood, 



142 



THE STORY OF SELF-LOADING PISTOLS 




THE STORY OF SELF-LOADING PISTOLS 



143 



Young Colt tried in vain to 
interest government officials in 
his new weapon, their principal 
objection being that he used in 
it the new percussion caps in- 
stead of the time-honored flint- 
lock. But success came during 
the Seminole War of 1837, when 
some of the officers, who had 
seen the new revolving pistol, 
decided to give it a trial and 
sent to the factory for a supply. 

Its value was soon proved. 
The Indians looked on this 
weapon that could be fired six 
times after one loading, as some- 
thing magical. It was too much 
for their philosophy and the war 
soon came to an end. At a 
later date it was used by the 
Texans in their war against Mex- 
ico, and from that time on every 
Texas ranger wanted a revolver. 
It has ever since been the favorite 
weapon of the cowboy and fron- 
tiersman. 

But wars ran out, the market 
closed, and the "Patent Arms 
Company" failed. What put 
Colt on his feet again was the 
Mexican war a few years later. 
General Taylor offered Colt a 
contract for one thousand revol- 
vers at $24 each, and though 
the young inventor was looked 
upon as a ruined man he took the 
contract, got together the neces- 
sary capital, and built a factory 
on the Connecticut at Hartford. 
From that time on there was no 
want of a market. The "Forty- 
Niners" took revolvers to Cali- 
fornia, foreign governments sent 
orders for them, and armories 
were built in England and in 
Russia for their manufacture. 
Colt died in 1862, but the Civil 
War had previously opened a 
great market for his pistols, and 
before the conflict ended the Colt 
factory at Hartford was in a 
highly flourishing state. In the 
following years the revolver be- 




AUTOMATTC PISTOL GOVERNMENT MODEL, 

CALIBER .45 

In this model the slide remains open after firing 
the last cartridge. When reloading the arm in this 
position, insert the magazine, then press downward the 
slide stop (to the rear of the trigger as illustrated). 
The slide goes forward, inserting a cartridge without 
any movement of the slide by hand. The slide stop 
is operated by the thumb of the hand holding the 
pistol. 




POLICE-POSITIVE REVOLVER 

Adopted by the Police Departments of the principal 
cities of the United States and Canada. 




AUTOMATIC PISTOL POCKET MODEL, HAMMERLESS 
The action of this pistol is automatic except that 
the trigger must be pulled to fire each shot; continued 
discharge will not result from one pull of the trigger. 



144 



THE STORY OF SELF-LOADING PISTOLS 




THE STORY OF SELF-LOADING PISTOLS 



145 



came a prime necessity in dealing with the Indians of the West, and a school-book 
statement of that date was to the effect that: "The greatest civilizer of modern 
times is the Colt revolver." Another writer, speaking of the "Peacemaker," an 
effective weapon produced after 1870, said: "It has the simplicity, durability, and 
beauty of a monkey-wrench." 

Machine Guns. 

The revolving idea was applied to guns about 1861 by Richard J. Gatling, the 
first Gatling guns fitted for use with metalling ammunition being produced by the 
Colt Company in 1870. These guns had ten barrels revolving around a central shaft 
and in their developed form were capable of being fired at the rate of one thousand 
shots a minute. The first of these to be used prominently in warfare was the French 




AUTOMATIC GUN MOUNTED ON AUTOMOBILE 

mitrailleuse, used by France in the war of 1870-71. The Gatling soon made its 
way widely, and its rapidity of fire became a proverb. If anything moved quickly 
it was said to "go like a Gatling" or "sound like a Gatling." 

Other guns of this type are the Hotchkiss, the Nordenfeldt and the Gardner, 
and a more recent one is the Maxim, which, after the first shot is fired by hand power, 
continues to fire shot after shot by means of the power derived from the explosion 
of each successive cartridge. In the early form of the revolver the empty cartridge 
cases had to be ejected from the cylinder singly by an ejector rod or handy nail. 
In 1898 a new type was introduced with a lateral swinging cylinder which permitted 
the simultaneous ejection of all the empty shells. , 

Near the time of the Spanish- American War appeared what is known as the 
Colt automatic gun, operated by the action of the powder gases on a piston and lever 
near the muzzle of the barrel. This could be fired at the rate of 400 to 500 shots a 
minute, and by reason of its light weight could be very easily carried. The British 
used it effectively in the Boer War. 

Today the Colt Company manufacture revolvers in which the simultaneous 

ejection of the cartridge-cases and recharging of the chambers is combined with a 

strong, jointless frame; automatic magazine pistols in which the pressure of the 

powder gases, as above said, is utilized after giving the proper velocity to the pro- 

10 



146 THE STORY OF SELF-LOADING PISTOLS 

jectile, it requiring only a slight continued pressure on the trigger for each shot; 
automatic machine guns firing at will single shots or volleys while requiring only a 
slight pull upon the trigger; and the improved manually-operated Gatling gun firing 
the improved modern ammunition. The cartridges are carried on a tape which feeds 
them with the necessary rapidity into the barrel. 

What would be the history of the European War without the machine gun is 
not easy to state, but as a highly efficient weapon of war its quality has been 
abundantly proved. 



How does the Poisonous Tarantula Live? 

When the National Guardsmen from all over the Union were concentrated 
along the Mexican border, many reports were sent home of thrilling experiences 
with tarantulas, to whose bite the natives of Mexico, Italy and many other warmer 
countries have ascribed a disease called "tarantism." The Italian peasants believe 
that this disease can only be cured by a certain kind of music. 

The tarantula, like many other members of the spider family, is an expert in 
the making of burrows. Its burrows are artfully planned. At first there is a sheer 
descent four or five inches in depth, but at that distance below the surface the tunnel 
turns aside before dipping straight down again to its termination. It is at the angle 
or elbow of the tunnel that the tarantula watches for the approach of enemies or 
prey, like a vigilant sentinel, never for a moment off its guard, lying hidden during 
the day, if nothing disturbs it, and coming out at nightfall to seek its prey. 

Unlike most other spiders, it hunts its game without the aid of webs or snares. 
It does, however, possess the ability to spin the silk which we have all seen other 
spiders make, for, in digging its hole, it makes neat little packages of the dirt it has 
scraped up, bound together with silk and slime from its mouth, and flips them to 
one side out of the way. When it comes to hunting, it makes sure that it can pounce 
on its prey, by building the entrance of its hole about two inches in diameter and 
up from the surface an inch or so, so that it can spread its legs for the leap. 

How do the Indians Live Now? 

The Indians of the United States are now largely gathered into reservations 
and their former dress, arms and habits are being gradually changed for those of 
the whites. Civilization is invading their homes and driving out their older char- 
acteristics. This is especially the case with the large numbers now dwelling in the 
former Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, although those confined in the reservations 
of Arizona, New Mexico and Montana are clinging more to their old modes, as is 
shown in the accompanying illustrations. 

In ancient times the body was covered with furs and skins according to the 
seasons, but now the white man's clothes and blanket have generally superseded 
the native dress; though the moccasin of deer or moose hide, and, in the wilder tribes, 
the ornamental leggings and head-dresses are still retained. Their dwellings are 
made of bark, skins and mattings of their own making, stretched on poles fixed in 
the ground. The arms of the wilder tribes consist of the bow and arrow, the spear, 
tomahawk and club, to which have been added the gun and knife of the whites, 
Canoes are made of logs hollowed out, or of birch bark stretched over a light frame, 
skilfully fastened with deers' sinews and rendered water-tight by pitch. 

The American Indian is described as of haughty demeanor, taciturn and stoical; 
cunning, brave and often ferocious in war; his temperament poetic and imaginative, 
and his simple eloquence of great dignity and beauty. They have a general belief 
in Manitous, or spiritual beings, one of them being spoken of as the Great Spirit. 



HOW DO THE INDIANS LIVE NOW 



147 




MOEE PlCTUKESQUE THAN BEAUTIFUL 

The Apaches, formerly one of the most powerful and warlike of the Indian tribes, are 
now confined to reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. 



148 



HOW DO THE INDIANS LIVE NOW 




HOW DOES THE BEACH GET ITS SAND 149 

They believe in the transmigration of the soul into other men and into animals, 
and in demons, witchcraft and magic. They believe in life after death, where the 
spirit is surrounded with the pleasures of the "happy hunting grounds." They 
adopt a "totem" or symbol of the family and this is generally some animal, the 
turtle, bear and wolf being favorites. 

The number of Indians in the United States at the taking of the Federal Census 
in 1910, was 265,683; and there are about 130,000 in the British possessions, 1,500,000 
in Central America and 4,000,000 in Mexico. In all North America there are some- 
where about 6,000,000 and there are probably 10,000,000 more in South America, 
many of them being more or less civilized. 

How does the Beach Get Its Sand? 

Most of the sands which we find on the beaches and in other places are the ruins 
of rocks which have come apart, usually as the result of the action of water. A 
large part of the ocean bottom is made up of "sandstone" and the continual washing 
of the water over this causes particles to break away and float off, whereupon they 
are swept up upon the beaches by the waves. 

Sands differ in color according to the rocks from which they are derived. In 
addition to the sands on the beaches, they occur very abundantly in many inland 
locations, which were formerly sea bottoms, and very extensively in the great deserts 
of the world. 

Valuable metallic ores, such as those of gold, platinum, tin, copper and iron, 
often occur in the form of sand or mixed with that substance. Pure siliceous sands 
are very valuable for the manufacture of glass, for making mortar, filters, ameliorating 
dense clay soils, for making molds in founding and for many other purposes. 

The silica, which is the principal ingredient of sand, as well as of nearly all the 
earthy minerals, is known as "rock crystal" in its naturally crystallized form. 
Colored of a delicate purple, these crystals are what we call "amethysts." Silica 
is also met with in the "carnelian" and we find it constituting jasper, agate, cat's- 
eye, onyx and opals. In the latter it is combined with water. Many natural waters 
present us with silica in a dissolved state, although it is not soluble in pure water. 
The resistance offered by silica to all impressions is exemplified in the case of "flint" 
which consists essentially of silica colored with some impurity. 

How did Nodding the Head Up and Down Come to Mean " Yes "? 

Like a multitude of other things, the signs which we give by the movements 
of our heads to indicate "yes" and "no" were copied from animal life. 

When the mother animal brought her young a choice morsel of food she would 
hold it up temptingly before its mouth and the quick forward movement of the head, 
with mouth open, showed the young animal's desire and acceptance of the offer. 
Even today when we make a forward movement of our heads to indicate "yes" 
it is observed that the lips are usually quite unconsciously opened a little. 

In much the same manner, when the young had been well fed and were no longer 
hungry, a tightly closed mouth and a shaking of the head from side to side were 
resorted to, to keep the mother from putting the food into their mouths. Our 
natural impulse now is to slightly clinch our teeth when we shake our heads to 
mean "no/' 

Why do We Call a Man " a Benedict " When He Marries? 

We call men "benedicts" when they become married because that was the 
name of a humorous gentleman in Shakespeare's play, "Love's Labor Lost," who 
was finally married to a character named "Beatrice." 



The Story in Firecrackers and 
Sky-Rockets* 

The blaze and noise, indispensable to patriotic celebrations among all peoples, 
was produced a century ago in America by simple agencies. Washington's Birthday 
was ushered hi by cannon salutes in every garrisoned place hi the United States, 
and boys the country over built bonfires as they still do hi old New England towns 
to celebrate the day. But the Fourth of July was the great hurrah tune of the year, 
when every youth who owned a gun or could borrow one, brought it into use as a 
contribution to the general noise. He might lack shoes and be short of shot and 
bullets for hunting, but for this occasion no young man was so poor as to have failed 
to lay hi a hornful of powder, and at the stroke of twelve midnight, which began 
the day, he and his companions blazed away with guns loaded to the danger point, 
and kept up then* fusillade as long as ammunition lasted. For demonstrations on 
a larger scale, a small cannon was secured if possible, but lacking this, two black- 
smith's anvils were made to do the same service, the hole in the top of one being 
filled with powder, a fuse laid into it and the second anvil placed as a stopper upon 
the first before the charge was exploded. 

A favorite firearm for celebration purposes was one of the old " Queens Arm" 
muskets which were common in country communities, being trophies captured from 
the British during the Revolutionary War. One of these cumbersome flintlock 
pieces might be loaded halfway to the muzzle and fired without bursting, and would 
roar in the discharge hi a way highly pleasing to patriotic ears. 

It was near the close of the eighteenth century that Chinese firecrackers first 
came into use hi celebrating the American Independence Day. For many years 
they were used sparingly and only hi large cities. They had been known in the 
New England coast cities ever since the year 1787, when Elias Haskett Derby's 
ship of Salem, the first American vessel to engage in deep-water commerce, returned 
from her voyage to Calcutta, China and Isle of France. Among the things she 
brought back more as a curiosity than as an article of cargo was a, consignment 
of Chinese firecrackers. Then- capabilities in aiding the uproar on the Fourth of 
July were quickly recognized, and thereafter every ship that made the voyage from 
Massachusetts Bay to India or China brought back firecrackers with the tea, silks 
and rice. In tune, rockets, squibs and torpedoes were included hi the consignment, 
but it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that their use became 
general in America. 

The tune when the more complicated fireworks, which we owe both to Europe 
and the Orient, came into vogue hi this country, no one perhaps could now definitely 
tell. Then* use was known to our seafaring men in the "forties," for it was in that 
decade that Capt. Decimus Forthridge, of the American brig "Independence," 
showed his Yankee pluck and resource in defeating an attack of Malay pirates with 
no other armament than fancy fireworks. During his voyage in the East Indies 
he had laid in a supply of fireworks with which to celebrate the Fourth of July in a 
manner worthy an American captain. For some reason no ammunition was avail- 
able for swivels or muskets, when, hi the mid-watch of the night, two war proas, 
deeply laden with armed Malays, were seen coming quickly up on the vessel's 

* Illustrations by courtesy of Consolidated Fireworks Company of America. 

(150> 



STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SKY-ROCKETS 151 




152 STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SKY-ROCKETS 




STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SOT-ROCKETS 153 




154 STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SKY-ROCKETS 

quarter as she lay becalmed off Firabader Point in the Island of Sumatra. The 
cry of "All hands on deck to repel pirates" brought the crew on deck in haste, but 
without ammunition the chance that they would beat the enemy off was a long shot 
compared with the probability that the throat of every man on board would be cut 
as a preliminary to plundering and scuttling the vessel. Even in their extremity 
the crew laugned and jeered when the captain ranged them along the quarter rail 
with boarding pikes and empty muskets in hand to give the enemy the idea that 
they were ready for business, and then, opening the box of fireworks, he began to 
shoot rockets and roman candles at the pirates. If the crew laughed, the Malays 
did not, and when the captain of one of the proas was struck by a rocket, both crafts 
rested oars and came no nearer. But while Captain Forthridge was attending to these, 
a third proa came up unobserved under the port quarter, and the first that was known 
of its presence was the attempt of its occupants to board the vessel by the chains. 
To make matters worse it was discovered that the paper wrappings of the fireworks 
in the box were on fire. While the crew with clubbed muskets and boarding pikes 
kept the Malays outside the rails, Captain Forthridge picked up the blazing box, 
carried it to the chains, and while the mate and sailors warded the spears and 
krises from him, dropped it into the proa. The box was blown to pieces the minute 
it struck, scattering the fireworks through the proa, and with firecrackers snapping 
and jumping and fiery serpents running round among their bare legs, the Malays 
chose to take their chances with the sharks, and all hands went overboard into the 
water at double-quick. A little breeze came up and the brig drew away from the 
pirates, leaving the two proas to pick up those Malays from the water that the 
sharks had missed. 

In the days of the China clippers, those famous ships sailed many a race from 
Hong Kong and Canton, with New York & the goal, to get there with " first tea" 
and to forestall the Fourth of July market with a cargo of firecrackers. 

In China and the East Indies, fireworks, like "the fume of the incense, the 
clash of the cymbal, the clang and the blaze of the gong," are a part of the worship 
of the gods, as well as a feature of coronations and weddings. China is the birth- 
place of fireworks. From China the knowledge of them spread to India, and in 
both these lands rockets were used as missiles of war as early as the ninth century. 
The Chinese war rocket was a long, heavy affair, fitted at the end with a barb-like 
arrow, and to a foe unacquainted with firearms, it must have seemed a formidable 
missile. After gunpowder was introduced in Europe, fireworks came into use on 
the continent, and the use of both explosives undoubtedly was learned from the 
Chinese. 

Fireworks were manufactured in Italy as early as 1540, and in France we have 
accounts of then- employment in great celebrations between the years 1606 and 1739. 
Long before this time, some form of rocket, now unknown, that would burn in water, 
constituted the famous Greek fire which struck terror to the hearts of invaders- 
from Northern Europe in medieval times when the Saracens launched it against 
their ships. Early in the present century during the Napoleonic Wars, the rocket 
perfected by Sir William Congreve was used in the siege of Boulogne and in the 
battle of Leipsic. The conditions of modern warfare have so changed that the 
rocket is no longer of practical use in fighting except as a signal. In case of ship- 
wreck it is often employed to carry a line from the shore to a stranded vessel. It 
is noteworthy that while almost every kind of fireworks is manufactured in Europe 
and the United States, the small firecrackers are still imported from China. But 
larger quantities are now manufactured in the United States, and it is only a matter 
of time when the "Young American" salute will take the place of the Chinese 
firecrackers. 

It was about ten years before the Civil War that "set pieces" began to form a, 



STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SKY-ROCKETS 155 




156 STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SKY-ROCKETS 




STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SKY-ROCKETS 157 




pa 


K 



158 STORY IN FIRECRACKERS AND SKY-ROCKETS 

part of fireworks celebrations. In those days the most famous pyrotechnic display 
in the whole country was given on Boston Common on the Fourth of July, and the 
country boy who was so lucky as to see that display, with the miracle of George 
Washington's benign face illuminated amid spouting flames and a shower of fireballs 
and rockets, had something to talk about for the rest of the year. 

The American Civil War whicii did so much toward the modern development 
of firearms and munitions of war, brought also a great advance in pyrotechny, and 
soon after the close of the struggle, extensive manufacture of fireworks began in 
this country, with New York as the headquarters of the principal firms engaged in 
the business. 

In 1865 the first displays of fireworks in the United States, illustrating his- 
torical events, were made by a company in New York City. They were the pioneers 
in this line of displays. Their success was immediate, and from these displays has 
grown the successes of today in pyrotechnics. 

Fireworks now enter into the celebration of every important event in our 
national, political and business life. The celebrations at Washington, D. C., at the 
inaugurations of our Presidents, the coronations of emperors and kings in lands 
beyond our borders, are all brought to a close by brilliant displays of fireworks. 

The writer, in visiting the plant of a large fireworks manufacturer, found that 
they were turning out large quantities of time fuses and primers for shrapnel shells 
for the foreign powers, and are working night and day on orders for the United States 
government on aeroplane bombs and signals. They have also worked out a search- 
light projectile which is arranged to burst in the air, throwing out a number of 
luminous bodies that light up the surrounding country and reveal the movements 
of the enemy. 

All large displays of fireworks are now fired by electricity and every known color 
and effect is produced by the pyrotechnist of the present day. 

The water displays are scarcely less varied, consisting of flying fish, diving 
devils, prismatic fountains, floating batteries, fiery geysers and submarine torpedoes, 
all of which, being ignited and thrown into the water, go through their stunts as 
readily as other kinds do on land and in the air. 

From every part of the civilized world, from Mexico, Central and South 
America and Europe, orders for fireworks come in increasing numbers to American 
firms, who now lead the world in this art. The Philippines will soon be a customer 
for them, and with the general opening up of China to modern civilization, from 
causes now in operation, it will not be strange if some day we should supply fireworks 
to the land of their origin. 



What Makes a Chimney Smoke? 

Smoky chimneys are usually caused either by the presence of other buildings 
obstructing the wind and giving rise to irregular currents of air, or by improper 
construction of the fireplace and adjacent parts of the chimney. 

The first may generally be cured by fixing a chimney-pot of a particular con- 
struction, or a revolving cowl, on the chimney top, in order to prevent the wind 
blowing down; in the second case the narrowing of the chimney throat will generally 
create a better draft. 

The longer a chimney is, the more perfect is its draft, provided the fire is 
great enough to heat the column of air in it, because the tendency of the smoke to 
draw upwards is in proportion to the difference of weight between the heated air in a 
chimney and an equal column of external air. 

The first we hear of chimneys, for the escape of the smoke from a fire or furnace, 
is in the middle ages, 



WHAT ARE DRY DOCKS LIKE 



159 




160 



WHAT ARE DRY DOCKS LIKE 




WHAT ARE DRY DOCKS LIKE 161 

What are Dry Docks Like? 

Although divers are able to go down under the water to examine the bottom 
of a ship while it is afloat, it is usually necessary to have it up on dry land when 
thorough inspections or repairs have to be made. So a berth something like a huge 
box stall in a stable is built, with the part where a horse would stand in the stall full 
of water, and a door, either made like swinging gates opening in the middle, or a 
caisson which is operated up and down like a window, at the end. The ship is 
floated into the dock and then after the door is shut to prevent any more coming 
in, all of the water is pumped out until the vessel rests on a lot of great big wooden 
blocks and supporting props with which the bottom and sides of the dock are lined. 
Supports are also placed between the vessel and each side of the dock. Then, when 
the work has been finished, and the ship is ready to go to sea, water is let back either 
by pumping it in or else by gradually opening the door at the end, and the vessel 
is able to float out into the river or harbor again. 

Although all of the navy yards and some private corporations in this country 
have docks of this kind, they are not of as much importance here as in England, 
where they are used, without pumping put the water, for the loading and unloading 
of vessels, because of the very great rise and fall of the tides there straining and 
otherwise damaging ships tied up to ordinary docks. 

There are nine important navy yards in the United States, located at Brooklyn, 
N. Y.; Boston, Mass.; Portsmouth, N. H.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Portsmouth. Va.; 
Mare Island, Cal.; New London, Conn.; Pensacola, Fla.; Washington, D. C., 
and Port Orchard, Wash. 

There is another kind of dry dock, called "floating docks/' which float on the 
surface of the water and may be sunk sufficiently to allow of a vessel being floated 
into them, and then raised again by pumping the water out of the tanks around the 
sides. They are usually built of iron, with water-tight compartments, and not 
closed in at either end. They are sunk to the required depth by the admission of 
water into so many of the compartments, till the vessel to be docked can float easily 
above the bottom of the dock, and then they are raised by pumping out the water 
until the ship can be propped up as in the land dry dock. 

Why does a Lightning Bug Light Her Light? 

The lightning bugs or fireflies which are seen so often on summer evenings in 
the country and among the trees in the parks of the city, are similar to the species 
of beetle called the glowworm in Great Britain, although the glowworm there does 
not give as much light as the firefly in America. 

In reality it is only the female which is the lightning bug, for the male is not 
equipped with any lighting power. He has the bad habit of going out nights, and 
so the female has had to make use of her ability to make part of her body shine with 
a sort of a phosphorus green light .in order to show him the way home, very much 
as a dweller in a poorly-lighted street keeps a light in the window or on the porch 
to guide visitors or the late home-comer to the proper house. She seems to possess 
the power of moderating or increasing the light at will. 

The most brilliant fireflies are found only in the warmer regions of the world. 
The ordinary firefly to which we are accustomed gives off a very much brighter light 
if placed in warm water. Fine print may be read by the light of one kind which is 
found in the West Indies; in Cuba the ladies have a fashion of imprisoning them in 
bits of netting or lace of a fine texture and wearing them as dress ornaments, and 
in Hayti they are used to give light for domestic purposes, eight or ten confined in 
a vial emitting sufficient light to enable a person to write, 

a 



The Story in the Making of a Picture* 

Let us suppose, for the purposes of explanation, that as far as seeing goes, any 
object is made up of countless infinitesimal points of light, and that the business 
of the eye is to gather them in and spread them out at the back of the eye in exactly 
the same relation they bore to each other on the object. The points of light, so 
duplicated, would thus form the image of the object. 

The camera works very much the same way. The lens at the front of the 
camera is the eye, and the plate or film at the back of the camera corresponds to 
che back of the eye. The lens collects all the points of light of the object we wish 
to photograph, and directs them to the plate or film in such fashion that they occupy 
exactly the same relative position that they did before. An image of the object is 
formed. 

Now if we could look inside the camera and the image were visible, we would 
see that it was upside down. The reason for this is very simple, as the accompanying 

diagram shows. The ray of light from 
"A" at the bottom of the object passes 
through the lens at an angle, and con- 
tinues in a straight line until interrupted 
by the film or plate. It started at the 
bottom of the object and ended at the 
top of the image. The position of all the 
points of light is just reversed, although 
their relative position remains the same. 
"Then here," you say, "is where 
SHOWING INVERSION OF THE IMAGE your analogy between the camera and 

the eye falls down." 

Not at all. It is true that we do not see things upside down, but this is because 
of mental readjustment during the passage of the impressions from the eye to the 
brain. 

Now let us suppose that we have pur camera loaded with film, and that mother 
has succeeded in keeping the baby quiet long enough for us to uncover the lens for 
an instant and let the points of light through to the film. The next question is, 
how are we going to make the resulting image permanent. We know that it is there, 
but in its present state it is not going to do us a great deal of good. In fact, if we 
should peek in the back of the camera, and to do so would ruin the exposure, we 
could not even see it. 

But let us go back a bit. We ought to know a little something about the compo- 
sition of this film on which the image has been projected. 

In brief, film is a cellulose base coated with silver bromide and gelatine. If 
we were using a plate the only difference would be that instead of cellulose as a base 
we would have a sheet of glass. The gelatine is there to afford lodgment to this 
sensitized silver. The silver, being sensitive to the action of light, is there to record 
the image. As soon as one of these silver particles has been touched by light, it 
becomes imbued with the power of holding whatever the lens has transmitted to it. 
The image was formed, we remember, by points of light grouped in the same relative 
positions as the points of light of the object we were photographing. Consequently 

* Illustrations by courtesy of Eastman Kodak Company. 

tltt) 




THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PICTURE 163 

it is only those silver particles within the image-forming area that are affected, because 
that is where the light struck. 

The lens, then, gathered in the points of light and dispersed them on the film 
so as to form an image. The silver particles held this image, but not visibly it is 
a latent image, and it is the purpose of development to bring it out. 

It ie the particular business of a chemical called "pyro" to release this latent 
image. When attacked by pyro, those silver bromide particles which have been 
affected by light and only those change to black metallic silver. After all the 
silver bromide particles, the ones that held the image, have been transformed into 
metallic silver, another chemical called "hypo" effectively disposes of all the silver 
bromide that was not affected by light. Now only the image-forming silver bromide 
particles remain, and these have been transformed to metallic silver. The result 
is a permanent image a negative. 

But it is a negative, so called because everything in it is reversed not only 
from left to right, but in the details of the image. Mother's dark blue gown looks 
light, for example, and baby's white dress, dark. 

To get our picture as it should be, we must place the negative in contact with a 
sheet of paper coated with a gelatine containing silver. This emulsion, as the coating 
is called, is, as we might readily infer from the presence of the silver, sensitive to 
the action of light in much the same manner as was the original film. We place the 
negative and paper in contact, then, in what is called a printing frame, so that light 
may shine through the negative and impress the image on the sensitive paper. It 
is obvious that the light parts of the negative will let through the most light, and 
that consequently the silver emulsion on the paper underneath will be most blackened, 
while the dark parts will hold back the light and the emulsion on the paper under- 
neath will be less affected. In other words, the very faults that we noted in the 
negative, from a picture point of view, automatically right themselves. Mother's 
dress looks dark and baby's dress white just as the lens saw it. 

We then have the picture in its finished form. 

The story of the making of the camera is as interesting as that of the making 
of the pictures by the camera. 

Back in 1732, J. H. Schulze discovered that chloride of silver was darkened 
by light and all unwittingly became the father of photography. In 1737, Hellot, 
of Paris, stumbled on the fact that characters written with a pen dipped in a solu- 
tion of silver nitrate would be invisible, until exposure to light, when they would 
blacken and become perfectly legible. However, it was not until early in the 
nineteenth century that these two discoveries were put to any practical use, as far 
as photography was concerned. 

People of an artistic turn of mind had been in the habit of making what were 
called "silhouettes." The sitter was so posed that the light from a lamp threw 
the profile of his face in sharp shadow against a white screen. It was then easy 
enough to obtain a fairly accurate silhouette, by either outlining the profile or cutting 
it out from the screen. 

It occurred to a man by the name of Wedgwood that this profile might be 
printed on the screen by using paper treated with silver nitrate, and he not only 
succeeded in accomplishing this, but also in perfecting what was then called tha 
"camera obscura," the forerunner of the kodak of today. The camera obscura 
consisted of a box with a lens at one end and a ground glass at the other, just like a 
modern camera. It was used by artists who found that by observing the picture 
on the ground glass they could draw it more easily. Wedgwood tried to make 
pictures by substituting his prepared paper for the ground glass, but the paper was 
too insensitive to obtain any result. Sir Humphrey Davy, continuing Wedgwood's 
experiments, and using chloride of silver instead of nitrate, succeeded in making 



164 THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PICTURE 




ARTOTYPE COPY OF THE EARLIEST SUN- 
LIGHT PICTURE OF A HUMAN FACE 

Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper, taken 
by her brother, Prof. John W. Draper, 
M.D., LL.D., in 1840. 

powdered, to facilitate the exposure. An 
exposure today with a modern camera, 
under similar conditions, could be made 
in 1/1000 of a second. 

It was impossible, of course, to find 
many sitters as patient as Miss Draper 
try keeping perfectly quiet for even a 
minute if you would know why Miss 
Draper should be ranked as a phono- 
graphic martyr and many experiments 
were made in an attempt to materially 
shorten the time of exposure. The only 
real solution, of course, was to find some 
method where the light had to do only a 
little of the work, leaving the production 
of the image itself to chemical action. 

The first great step in this direction 
was taken by Fox Talbot in 1841. He 
found, that if he prepared a sheet of 
paper with silver iodide and exposed it in 
the camera, he got only a very faint 
image, but if, after exposure, he washed 
over the paper with a solution of silver 
nitrate and gallic acid, the faint image 
was built up into a strong picture. And 
not only was Fox Talbot the first to 



photographs through a microscope, by 
using sunlight. These were the first pic- 
tures made by means of a lens on a photo- 
graphic material. But none of these 
pictures were permanent, and it was not 
until 1839 that Sir John Herschel found 
that "hypo," which he had himself dis- 
covered in 1819, would enable him to 
"fix" the picture and make it permanent. 
At about this time, Daguerre an- 
nounced discoveries that gave photog- 
raphy at least a momentary impetus, but 
the Daguerre process did not long survive, 
as it was slow, costly and troublesome. 
The daguerreotype was made on a thin 
sheet of copper, silver plated on one side, 
polished to a high degree of brilliancy, and 
made sensitive by exposing it to the fumes 
of iodine. The first daguerreotype made 
in America, that of Miss Catherine Draper, 
was exposed for six minutes in strong sun- 
light, and the face of the sitter thickly 




OLD-FASHIONED PHOTOGRAPHIC 
EQUIPMENT 






THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PICTURE 165 

develop a faint or invisible image; he was also the first to make a negative and use 
it for printing. 

In spite of all these advances, photography was almost exclusively a studio 





THE FIRST KODAK (1888), SHOWING 
ROLL HOLDER AND ROLL FILM FOR 100 
EXPOSURES 



THE FIRST DAYLIGHT LOADING METHOD 





THE FIRST "FOLDING KODAK" FITTED 
FOR PLATES OR ROLL FILM 



"DOPE" BARREL 



proposition, when, in 1880, experiments were begun which were to result in photography 
that could be universally enjoyed photography as we know it today. Of course 
there were amateurs even in those early photographic days, but they were few and 
far between. There was something about the bulk and weight of the old-time 
photographic outfit that failed to beget general enthusiasm. 



166 THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PICTURE 




HAW STOCK ROLLS, KODAK PABK 



THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PICTURE 



167 




168 THE STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PICTURE 

To lighten the camera burden, and to simplify the various photographic pro- 
cesses, were the problems that confronted the American inventor. The first step 
toward film photography and it was film photography that relegated camera bulk 
to the scrap heap was a roll film made of coated paper to which a sensitive emulsion 
was applied, but the real goal was reached when cellulose was substituted as a film 
base. This made practicable the present flexible, transparent film with its attendant 
convenience and dependability. 

The kodak was the natural outcome of the roll film system. The first one 
appeared in 1888, and its development, which proceeded simultaneously with the 
film discoveries, soon reached the point where the loading and unloading could be 
done in daylight. Daylight developing soon followed, and the dark room, as far 
as the kodaker was concerned, took its proper place as a relic of the dark ages. 

With 1914 came autographic photography, so that now with a kodak in one 
pocket and a handful of film in the other, the amateur is equipped for a picture- 
making tour of the world not simply a pictorial record, but a written record as 
well, for autographic photography permits the dating and titling of each negative 
directly after exposure. 

Photography, not so many years ago an exclusive pleasure for the few, is now 
easy fun for millions. 




FILTER ROOM, KODAK PARK 
Cellulose Acetate Manufacturing 



WHY DO WE CALL THEM X-RAYS 169 

How Deep is the Deepest Part of the Ocean? 

Man has not been able to tell definitely just what the greatest depth of the 
ocean is, because it would be a practically unending task to go over every bit of it 
to take measurements. A great many exploring expeditions have been sent out 
to determine that interesting information so far as possible, however, and one of 
these, the Murray-Challenger expedition, has reported that the greatest depth 
that could be found in the Atlantic Ocean is 27,366 feet, in the Pacific Ocean 30,000 
feet, in the Indian Ocean 18,582 feet, in the Southern Ocean 25,200 feet and in the 
Arctic Ocean 9,000 feet. They also stated that the Atlantic Ocean has an area in 
square miles, of 24,536,000; the Pacific Ocean, 50,309,000; the Indian Ocean, 
17,084,000; the Southern Ocean, 30,592,000 and the Arctic Ocean, 4,781,000. 

Why do We Say " Get the Sack "? 

The use of the expression "get the sack," when we mean "to be discharged, " 
originated through the impression made upon people in this country when stories 
were brought to them of the way the Sultan of Turkey disposed of members of his 
harem of whom he had tired. When he wanted to get rid of one of his harem he 
was said to have had her put into a sack and thrown into the Bosporus. People 
who heard of this report repeated it to others and they became so used to telling 
the tale that they slipped quite naturally into the habit of saying "to get the sack" 
when they meant that they expected to be put out of a position suddenly. 

In very much the same way the phrase "Hobson's choice" is supposed to have 
resulted from the story told here of a livery-stable keeper at Cambridge, England, 
called Hobson, who obliged each customer to take the horse nearest the stable door, 
when a wish to hire one was expressed, even though he might permit customers to 
make the rounds of all the stalls, examining and perhaps selecting other horses. 
Since the interest inspired by that report, "Hobson's choice" has come to mean a 
choice without any alternative, or the chance to take the thing which is offered or 
nothing. 

Why do We Call Them X-Rays? 

At the time the discovery of X-rays was announced by Prof. Wilhelm Conrad 
Rontgen of the University of Wiirzburg, Germany, he was not sure of their exact 
nature, and so he named them "X-Rays," because "X" has always been understood 
to be the symbol for an "unknown quantity." 

They are invisible rays transmitted through the air in a manner similar to light. 
They are produced by passing unidirectional electric current of from twenty to one 
hundred thousand volts pressure through a specially constructed high vacuum tube, 
within which rays radiating from the surface of a concave cathode (the negative 
electrode of a galvanic battery) , are focused upon and bombard a target of refractory 
material such as tungsten, iridium, platinum, from which focus spot the X-rays 
radiate in all directions. 

They are used in medicine and surgery, to photograph the skeleton and all 
the internal organs of the human body, as an aid in diagnosis; also to destroy 
diseased tissue without the aid of surgery. Cancers and tumors of certain kinds 
and a number of skin diseases are said to be made to disappear by their use. When 
the apparatus is used, the subject is placed on a long table and the X-ray tube, in its 
lead glass shield container, is brought over the part of the body to which the rays 
are to be applied. 

The most up-to-date apparatus consists of a high-tension transformer and 
rectifier, driven by a rotary converter, which derives power from direct-current 
electric service and delivers alternating current to the high-tension transformer. 



170 



WHY DO WE CALL THEM X-RAYS 




WHEN DOES A TORTOISE MOVE QUICKLY 171 

How did the Term " Yankee " Originate? 

Although some people maintain that the word "Yankee" originated with the 
way white men interpreted the Indians' name for the early settlers, most of those 
who have wondered about it have decided that it came to be used as a nickname 
for persons born in the United States, because of a farmer, named Jonathan Hastings 
and living in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the eighteenth century, using it to 
describe some good, home-made cider of his making, as "Yankee cider." The word 
was taken up by the students of Harvard University, and gradually spread throughout 
the whole country. 

Why do We Say " Kick the Bucket "? 

A great many years ago a man called Bolsover became crazed by some unhappy 
experiences and decided to kill himself by fastening a rope around his neck and 
hanging from a cross-beam overhead. In selecting a place to tie the rope high enough 
to accomplish his purpose he found that he would have to stand on something in 
order to reach it, and so he reached for the nearest thing, which happened to be a 
bucket; after the rope was firmly adjusted he kicked the bucket out from under 
his feet and his full weight hung suspended from the rope about his neck. The 
publicity given his act resulted in the adoption of the phrase "to kick the bucket" 
as meaning "to die," and that is the explanation which most people who have tried 
to look up the origination of the term give as its first use. 

When does a Tortoise Move Quickly? 

Tortoises lay their eggs in underground nests, where they remain for almost a 
year, and, strange to say, they have a very curious way of drilling holes for these 
nests with their tails. A tortoise picks a spot where the earth is bare, and then 
stiffens its tail by contracting the muscles strongly, placing the tip firmly against 
the ground and boring a hole by moving it round and round in a circle, until a cone- 
shaped cavity is produced, wide at the top but tapering to a point below. When 
this operation is completed, it immediately sets to work to enlarge the hole with the 
help of its hind legs. It does this by scooping out "shovelfuls" of dirt, first with one 
of its hind feet and then with the other, and heaping it up like the wall of a fortress 
around the pit. Tortoises use their feet like hands when they do this, very carefully 
placing the dirt in a circle at some little distance from the edge of the cavity, and 
the work is continued until the hole is dug down as deep as the hind legs will reach. 
When it finds that no more soil can be removed, that is, at the end of an hour or more 
of steady digging, the tortoise accepts the job as completed and proceeds to deposit 
its eggs inside very carefully, just as you would put hen's eggs into a basket. While 
all this is going on the body is scarcely moved and the head is kept inside the shell. 

There are usually nine eggs and they just about fill the bottom of the nest, which 
measures approximately five inches across and is itself shaped more or less like an 
egg, being wider inside than at the top. After about half an hour's rest, the hardest 
part of the work is begun that of filling up the hole and leveling the ground. The 
dirt is placed carefully over the eggs, a "handful" at a time, the hind legs being used 
alternately again for that purpose. As the cavity is gradually filled up the tortoise 
presses the earth down with the outer edge of its foot. It takes another half hour's 
rest after all the dirt has been carried back again, and then commences the part of 
the operation where the tortoise moves quickly enough to merit another racing title. 
It beats down the dirt-mound and stamps it firm and flat with the under side of its 
hard shell, raising the hind end of its body and then hurriedly letting it drop to the 
ground again, turning round and round in a circle very briskly in the meantime, 
at the same time doing all it can to remove any traces which might lead to the 
discovery of its nest. 



The Story in a Newspaper 



Among the marvels of machinery of the present day there are none more com- 
plicated and bewildering in appearance than that by which the news of the world 
is sent adrift within the daily newspaper and none more marvelously effective in 
its operation. If we go back to the days when the seeds of the modern press were 
planted, we find them in the hand-printing done by the Chinese with their engraved 

blocks, and with the sim- 
ple press used by Guten- 
berg about 1450, when he 
printed the first book from 
movable types. 

His press consisted of 
two upright timbers held 
together by cross pieces at 
top and bottom. The flat 
bed on which the types 
rested was held up by 
other cross timbers, while 
through another passed a 
wooden screw, by the aid 
of which the wooden 
"platen" was forced down 
upon the types. The 
"form" of type was inked 
by a ball of leather stuffed 
with wool, the printer then 
spread the paper over it, 
laying a piece of blanket 
upon the paper to soften 
the impression, after which 
the screw forced the platen 
down on the paper and 
this on the type. This 
press was not original, 
since similar cheese and 
linen presses were then in 
use. 

For 150 years this crude method of printing continued in operation, the first 
known improvement being made by an Amsterdam printer about 1620, he adding 
a few parts to render the work more effective. Such was the simple press still 
employed when Benjamin Franklin began his work as a printer a century later. In 
1798 the Earl of Stanhope had a cast-iron frame made to replace the wooden one 
and added levers to give more power to the pressman. Woodcuts were then being 
printed and needed a stronger press. 

We must go on with the old Gutenberg method and its tardy improvements, 
for another century, or until about 1816, when George Clymer, a printer of Phila- 




THE BLAEW PRESS, 1620 



* Illustrations by courtesy of R. Hoe & Co. 



(172) 



THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 



173 



delphia, did away with the screw and employed a long and heavy cast-iron lever, 
by the aid of which the platen was forced down upon the type, the operation being 
assisted by accompanying devices. 

As will be seen, the growth of improve- 
ments had until then been very slow. 
From this time forward it became far more 
rapid, some useful addition to the press 
being made at frequent intervals. The 
"Washington" press, used at this time by 
R. H. Hoe & Co., of New York, embodied 
these improvements, and became one of the 
best hand-printing presses so far made. 
The first steam-power press was introduced 
by Daniel Treadwell, of Boston, in 1822, 
the bed and platen, or its successor, the 
cylinder, being used in these and in the 
improved forms that followed until after 
the middle of the century. 

The idea of replacing the platen by a 
cylinder was not a new one. It was employed 
in printing copper-plate engravings in the 
fifteenth century, a stationary wooden 
roller being employed, beneath which the 
bed, with its form and paper, was moved 
backward and forward, a sheet ^ being 
printed at each movement. With this idea 
began a new era in the evolution of the 

STANHOPE PRESS, 1798 

printing press. A vast number of 
patents have since been issued for 
printing machines in which the cylinder 
is connected with the bed and later 
for the operation of two cylinders 
together, one holding the form of type 
and the other making the impression. 
But all these were for improvements, 
the underlying principle remaining the 
same. The conception of a press of 
this character in which the paper was 
to be fed into the press in an endless 
roll or "web" goes back to the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century, though 
it was not made available until a later 
date. 

Meanwhile, however, patent after 
patent for the improvement of the 
cylinder press were taken out and the 
art of printing improved rapidly, the 
firm of Hoe & Co. being one of the 
most active engaged in this business, the United States continuing in advance of 
Europe in the development of the art. The single small cylinder and double 
small cylinder introduced by this firm proved highly efficient, the output of the 





CLYMER'S COLUMBIAN PRESS, 1816 



174 



THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 



former reaching 2,000 impressions per hour, while the double type, used where more 
rapid work was needed, yielded 4,000 per hour. 

But the demands of the newspaper world steadily grew and in 1846 a press known 

as the Hoe Type Revolving 
Machine was completed and placed 
in the office of the Public Ledger, 
of Philadelphia. By increasing 
the number of cylinders the pro- 
duct was rapidly added to, each 
cylinder printing on one side 2,000 
sheets per hour. 

In 1835 Sir Rowland Hill sug- 
gested that a machine might be 
made that would print both sides 
of the sheet from a roll of paper 
in one operation. A similar double 
process had been performed for 
many years in the printing of 
cotton cloth. This remained, 
however, a mere suggestion until 
many years later, and the one- 
side printing continued. But, by 
adding to the number of cylinders, 
a speed of 20,000 papers thus 
printed was in time reached. 

To prevent the possible fall 
of types from a horizontal cylin- 
der, the vertical cylinder was introduced by the London Times, but this danger was 
overcome in the Hoe presses, and by the subsequent invention of casting stereotype 




PETER SMITH HAND PRESS, 1822 




TREADWELL'S WOODEN-FRAME BED AND PIATEN POWER PRESS, 1822 



THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 



175 



plates in a curve the final stage of perfection in design was reached. In 1865 
William Bullock, of Philadelphia, constructed the first printing press capable of 
printing from a web or continuous roll of paper, knives being added to cut the 
sheets, which were then carried through the press by tapes or fingers and delivered 
by the aid of metal nippers. There were difficulties in this series of operations, 
but these were overcome in the later Hoe press, in which the sheets were merely 
perforated by the cutter, and were afterward fully separated by the pull of accele- 
rating tapes. 

The old-time rag-paper had disappeared for newspaper work, being superseded 
by wood-pulp paper, the cheapness of which added to the desire to produce presses 
of greater speed and efficiency. It 
was also desirable that papers 
should be delivered folded for the 
carrier, and this led to the inven- 
tion of folding machines, one of 
the earliest of which, produced in 
1875, folded 15,000 per hour. 

We have in the foregoing pages 
told the main story of the evolution 
of the printing press from the crude 
machine used by Gutenberg in 
1450 to the rapid cylinder press of 
four centuries later. There is 
little more to be said. Later 
changes were largely in the matter 
o f increase of activity, by dupli- 
cation and superduplication of 
presses until sextuple and octuple 
presses were produced, and by 
adding to the rapidity and per- 
fection of their operation, and the 
extraordinary ingenuity and quick- 
ness with which the printed sheets 
were folded and made ready for 
the convenience of the reader. 
Sir Rowland Hill's dream of a 
press which would print both sides 
of the paper at one operation in 
due time became a realized fact, while vast improvements in the matter of inking 
the forms, and even the addition of colored ink by which printing in color could 
be done, were among the new devices. 

What we have further to say is a question of progress in rapidity of action rather 
than of invention. The 20,000 papers printed per hour, above stated, has since been 
seen passed to a degree that seems fairly miraculous. The quadruple press of 1887 
turned out eight-page papers at a running speed of 18,000 per hour, these being cut, 
pasted and folded ready for the carrier or the mails. Four years later came the 
sextuple press (the single press six times duplicated) with an output of 72,000 eight- 
page papers per hour, and in a few years more the octuple press, its output 96,000 
eight-page papers per hour. Larger papers were of course smaller, but its capacity 
for a twenty-page paper was 24,000 per hour. 

As may well be conjectured, the twentieth century has had its share in this 
career of progress, the perfected press of 1916 being credited with the astounding 
output of 216,000 eight-page papers in an hour, all folded, cut and counted in lots. 




WASHINGTON HAND PRESS, 1827 



176 



THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 




THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 



177 




178 



THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 



< 




SINGLE SMALL CYLINDER PRESS, 1835-1900 




DOUBLE CYLINDER PRESS, 1835-1900 
These presses were built up to 1900 and this picture shows the latest design brought out about 1882. 



THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 



179 




DOUBLE OCTUPLE NEWSPAPER WEB PERFECTING PRESS, 1903 




ELECTMC-HEA.TED PNEUMATIC MATRIX- 
DRYING MACHINE, 1911 



180 THE STORY IN A NEWSPAPER 

Where part of the pages are printed in three colors this press has still a running speed 
of 72,000 per hour. This machine is composed of 27,100 separate pieces, it being 47 
feet long, 8 feet wide and 13 feet high, while such a mighty complication of whirling 
wheels and oscillating parts nowhere else exists. 

A word more and we are done. To feed such giant presses the old hand method 
of setting and distributing type has grown much too slow. The linotype machine 
has added greatly to the rapidity of this centuries-old process. To this has been 
added the later monotype, of similar rapidity, while type distributing has become 
in large measure obsolete, the types, once used, going to the melting pot instead 
of to the fingers of the distributors. 



What do We Mean by the " Flying Dutchman "? 

The Flying Dutchman is a phantom ship said to be seen in stormy weather off 
the Cape of Good Hope, and thought to forbode ill luck. One form of the legend 
has it that the ship is doomed never to enter a port on account of a horrible murder 
committed on board; another, that the captain, a Dutchman, swore a profane oath 
that he would weather the Cape though he should beat there till the last day. He 
was taken at his word, and there he still beats, but never succeeds in rounding the 
point. He sometimes hails vessels and requests them to take letters home from him. 
The legend is supposed to have originated in the sight of some ship reflected from the 
clouds. It has been made the ground-work of one or two novels and an opera by 
Wagner. 

Why does a Duck's Back Shed Water? 

Nature has provided the duck with a protection against water just as she has 
so wisely protected all animals against such elements as they have to live in. 

The feathers on a duck are very heavy and close together, and at the bottom of 
each feather is a little oil gland that supplies a certain amount of oil to each feather. 
This oil sheds the water from the back of a duck as soon as it strikes the feathers. 

Canvasback ducks are considered the finest of the water-fowls for the table. 
The canvasback duck is so called from the appearance of the feathers on the back. 
They arrive in the United States from the north about the middle of October, some- 
times assembling in immense numbers. The waters of Chesapeake Bay are a favorite 
locality for them. Here the wild celery, their favorite food, is abundant, and they 
escape the unpleasant fishy flavor of the fish-eating ducks. 

Why doesn't the Sky ever Fall Down? 

The sky never falls down because there is nothing to fall. What we see and call 
the sky is the reflection of the sun's rays on the belt of air that surrounds the earth. 
That beautiful blue dome that we sometimes hear spoken of as the roof of the earth 
is just the reflected light of the sun on the air. 

The atmosphere of the earth consists of a mass of gas extending to a height 
which has been variously estimated at from forty-five to several hundred miles, 
possibly five hundred, and bearing on every part of the earth's surface with a pressure 
of about fifteen pounds per square inch. 

How are Sand-Dunes Formed? 

Sand-dunes are composed of drift sand thrown up by the waves of the sea, and 
blown, when dry, to some distance inland, until it is stopped by large stones, tree 
roots or other obstacles. It gradually accumulates around these, until the heaps 
become very large, often forming dunes or sand-hills. * 






WHAT DO WE MEAN BY AN ECLIPSE 



181 



What do We Mean by an " Eclipse "? 

Any good dictionary will tell us that an eclipse is an interception or obscuration 
of the light of the sun, moon or other heavenly body by the intervention of another 
and non-luminous heavenly body. Stars and planets may suffer eclipse, but the 
principal eclipses are those of the sun and the moon. 

An eclipse of the moon is an obscuration of the light of the moon occasioned by 
the interposition of the earth between the sun and the moon; consequently all eclipses 
of the moon happen at full moon; for it is only when the moon is on that side of the 
earth which is turned away from the sun, and directly opposite, that it can come 
within the earth's shadow. Further, the moon must at that time be in the same 
plane as the earth's shadow; that is, the plane of the ecliptic in which the latter 
always moves. But as the moon's orbit makes an angle of more than five degrees 




DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING THE THEORY OF ECLIPSES. 

with the plane of the ecliptic, it frequently happens that though the moon is in 
opposition it does not come within the shadow of the earth. 

The theory of lunar eclipses will be understood from Fig. 1, where S represents 
the sun, E the earth, and M the moon. If the sun were a point of light there would 
be a sharply outlined shadow or umbra only, but since the luminous surface is so 
large, there is always a region in which the light of the sun is only partially cut off 
by the earth, which region is known as the penumbra (P P). Hence during a lunar 
eclipse the moon first enters the penumbra, then is totally eclipsed by the umbra, 
then emerges through the penumbra again. 

An eclipse of the sun is an occultation of the whole or part of the face of the 
sun occasioned by an interposition of the moon between the earth and the sun; thus 
all eclipses of the sun happen at the time of new moon. 

Fig. 2 is a diagram showing the principle of a solar eclipse. The dark or central 
part of the moon's shadow, where the sun's rays are wholly intercepted, is here the 
umbra, and the light part, where only a part of them are intercepted, is the penumbra; 
and it is evident that if a spectator be situated on that part of the earth where the 
umbra falls there will be a total eclipse of the sun at that place; in the penumbra 
there will be a partial eclipse, and beyond the penumbra there will be no eclipse. 

As the earth is not always at the same distance from the moon, and as the moon 



182 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY AN ECLIPSE 

is a comparatively small body, if an eclipse should happen when the earth is so far 
from the moon that the moon's shadow falls short of the earth, a spectator situated 
on the earth in a direct line between the centers of the sun and moon would see a ring 
of light around the dark body of the moon; such an eclipse is called annular, as 
shown in Fig. 3; when this happens there can be no total eclipse anywhere, because 
the moon's umbra does not reach the earth. 

An eclipse can never be annular longer than twelve minutes twenty-four 
seconds, nor total longer than seven minutes fifty-eight seconds; nor can the entire 
duration of an eclipse of the sun ever exceed two hours. 

An eclipse of the sun begins on the western side of his disc and ends on the 
eastern; and an eclipse of the moon begins on the eastern side of her disc and ends 
on the western. 

The average number of eclipses in a year is four, two of the sun and two of the 
moon; and as the sun and moon are as long below the horizon of any particular 
place as they are above it, the average number of risible eclipses in a year is two, 
one of the sun and one of the moon. 

What are Dreams? 

The dictionary tells us that a dream is a train of vagrant ideas which present 
themselves to the mind while we are asleep. 

We know that the principal feature, when we are dreaming, is the absence of our 
control over the current of thought, so that the principal of suggestion has an 
unlimited sway. There is usually a complete want of coherency in the images that 
appear in dreams, but when we are dreaming this does not seem to cause any 
surprise. 

Occasionally, however, intellectual efforts are made during sleep which would 
be difficult to surpass when awake. 

It is said that Condillac often brought to a conclusion in his dreams, reasonings 
on which he had been employed during the day; and that Franklin believed that he 
had been often instructed in his dreams concerning the issue of events which at that 
time occupied his mind. Coleridge composed from two to three hundred lines during 
a dream; the beautiful fragment of "Kubla Khan," which was all he had committed 
to paper when he awoke, remaining as a specimen of that dream poem. 

The best thought points to the fact that dreams depend on natural causes. 
They generally take their rise and character from internal bodily impressions or from 
something in the preceding state of body or mind. They are, therefore, retrospe tive 
and resultant, instead of being prospective or prophetic. The latter opinion has, 
however, prevailed in all ages and among all nations, and hence the common practice 
of divination or prophesying by dreams, that is, interpreting them as indications of 
coming events. 

What Makes Our Teeth Chatter? 

When one is cold there is apt to be a spasm of shivering over which the brain 
does not seem to have any control. The spasm causes the muscles of the jaw to 
contract very quickly and as soon as they are contracted, they let the jaw fall again 
of its own weight. This occurring many times in rapid succession is what causes the 
teeth to chatter. 

There are two kinds of spasms, " clonic " and " tonic." In the former, the muscles 
contract and relax alternately in very quick succession, producing an appearance of 
agitation. In the latter, the muscles contract in a steady and uniform manner, and 
remain contracted for a comparatively long time. 



The Story in a Honey -Comb* 



When one thinks of honey one instinctively closes the eyes and a mental picture 
of fruit trees laden with snowy bloom, of beautiful clover fields, of green forests in 
a setting quiet and peaceful, comes before the mind so realistic that the delicate 
perfume of the fragrant blossoms is almost perceptible and the memory of the musical 
hum of the little honeybee as she industriously flits from blossom to blossom, or 
wings her homeward way heavily laden with the delicious nectar, rests one's jaded 
nerves. Into this picture fits closely the old bee master among his old-fashioned skeps, 
with the atmosphere of mystery that has so long been associated with the master 
and his bees that one is almost reluctant to think of the production of honey as a 
great commercial industry, employing great factories in the manufacture of bee- 
hives and other equipment necessary for the modern beekeeper that he may take 
full advantage of the wonderful and almost 
inconceivable industry of the honeybee in 
storing the golden nectar of the blossoms. 

The development of the industry has 
been very slow; only during the past 
fifty years has real progress been made, 
although honey formed one of the principal 
foods of the ancients, which was secured 
by robbing the wild bees. During the 
early history of the United States, beekeep- 
ing was engaged in only as a farmer's side 
line, a few bees being kept in any kind of a 
box sitting out in the backyard, boarding 
themselves and working for nothing. Even 
under such conditions amazing results were 
often obtained. Lovers of nature and 
the out-of-doors were attracted by the 
study of bee life, and early beekeepers were 
invariably bee lovers. The mysteries of 

the hive as revealed in the story of the family life of the bee typical in many ways 
of our modern city life is as fascinating as a fairy tale. 

The average population of the modern beehive varies from forty to sixty 
thousand, with a well organized system of government. Intense loyalty to the 
queen mother is apparent in all their activities and arrangements. The close observer 
will discover a well-defined division of labor, different groups of bees performing; 
certain operations. The housekeeping operations seem to be delegated to the young 
bees under sixteen days old, while the policemen are the older ones whose dispositions 
are not so mild and who would be more likely to detect a stealthy robber. It was 
this intensely interesting side of bee life that attracted the attention of a clergyman 
in failing health, forced to seek out-of-door occupation, in the early. forties. He began 
to investigate bee life from a commercial standpoint, and about 1852 devised the 
movable hanging frame, which entirely revolutionized the bee business, making 
modern commercial beekeeping possible. Up to this time the box hive and straw 
skep were the only ones known, the combs being fastened to sticks, or the roof of the 
box, making it impossible to have any control over the activities of the hive. The 
new device or frame to which the bees fastened their combs in which brood was 




FERTILIZING A PUMPKIN FLOWER 



"Illustrations by courtesy of the A. I. Root Co. 



(183) 



184 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 




AN ITALIAN ARMY OF BEES 






ITALIAN DRONE ITALIAN QUEEN ITALIAN WORKER 

(All are enlarged to about three times their size.) 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 



185 



reared could be removed, one or all, at any time desired. This opened up undreamed- 
of possibilities in the bee business, which up to this time could hardly be called an 
industry. 

The man who has been most active in developing practical bee culture and who 
has contributed more to the growth of the industry in the United States than any 
other person, lives in Medina, Ohio. In 1865 this man was a successful manufacturer 




A STRANGE HOME BUT THE BEES ARE MAKING HONEY 

of jewelry in the village of Medina. One day his attention was attracted to a swarm 
of bees flying over. One of his clerks noticing his interest asked what he would 
give for the bees. He replied that he would give a dollar, not expecting that by any 
means the bees could be brought down. Shortly after, he was much astonished to 
have the workman bring the bees safely stored inside a box and demand his dollar, 
which he promptly received, while his employer had the bees and soon developed a lot 
of bee enthusiasm. The returns from that swarm of bees convinced him that there 
were possibilities in the bee business, and very soon he gave up the jewelry business 



186 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 







THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 



187 




"ALL HAIL, THE QUEEN" 



to engage in the bee business and manufacture of beehives. In this new move he 
encountered the opposition of his family and friends, for the general impression was 
that any man who would spend money or time on bees was either lazy or a fool. Know- 
ing that this particular man wasn't lazy he was 
called a fool to risk so much on an uncertain enter- 
prise. In his defense he remarked that he expected 
to live to see the time when honey would be sold in 
every corner grocery; but we doubt if he expected 
to see his prophecy fulfilled to the extent it has been, 
for not only is honey sold over every grocer's counter 
his own private brand is sold in all the principal mar- 
kets of the United States. 

Shortly after securing his first swarm of bees he 
commenced the manufacture of beehives in the same 
room where he had his jewelry business, using a large 
windmill for power. Soon the business outgrew the 
small quarters and was moved to the present location 
of the plant. Hardly a year has passed that additions 
or new buildings have not been added, and the mammoth 
plant as it stands today covers sixteen acres of floor space, 

giving steady employment to several hundred people, and for many years modern 
agricultural appliances have gone from this factory to all parts of the world. 

The old method of straining honey has long since been replaced by the centrifugal 
honey extractor, which simply empties the cells of honey, not injuring the cornbs. 
The combs are then replaced in the hive to be refilled by the bees, thus saving them the 
labor of rebuilding the costly structure, increasing the quantity of extracted honey 
which a single colony can produce, while comb honey is produced so perfect in appear- 
ance as to cause some to believe it to be manufactured by machinery; but comb 

honey, nature's most exquisite product, 
comes in its dewy freshness untouched by 
the hand of man, from the beehive to the 
table, a food prepared in nature's laboratory 
fit for the Gods. 

As beekeeping developed as an industry, 
the close relationship to fruit growing and 
horticulture became apparent, as bees were 
discovered to be the greatest pollen carry- 
ing agents known. The government than 
began to spend more money on the develop- 
ment of the various branches of agriculture; 
a Department of Apiculture was established 
and through the work of this department 
beekeeping is recognized as one of the most 
profitable branches of agriculture. 

The intense enthusiasm of this pioneer 
beekeeper was contagious and resulted in 
many taking up beekeeping. As no 
attention had been given to developing a 
market for honey and production increased, 




THE RESULT op A BEE'S STING 



older beekeepers ^ became alarmed and raised the cry that he was making too many 
beekeepers. Seeing the need for some means of increasing the demand for honey, a 
small honey business was started to dispose of the product of customers who had no 
market. Soon a definite educational campaign on the value of honey as a food was 



188 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 




A LARGE SWARM OF ITALIANS ON A YOUNG LOCUST TREE 





ARRANGEMENT OF CELLS IN COMB 



HIGHLY MAGNIFIED EGG 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 



189 



started, enlisting the co-operation of beekeepers wherever possible. Immediately the 
necessity for more care in selecting and marketing honey was apparent. 

The introduction of Italian bees into the United States in the early sixties marked 
an epoch in beekeeping, as they soon demonstrated their superiority as honey gatherers, 




AN OLD-STYLE HIVE What is inside? 

their gentleness and other traits proving them more adaptable to domestication and to 
modern methods of beekeeping. The marked superiority of some colonies over others 
attracted the^attention of beekeepers to the possibility of race improvement by careful 
breeding, which gradually developed a new branch of beekeeping aside from honey 



190 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 




LOADING AN UP-TO-DATE CENTRIFUGAL EXTRACTOR 




IN ACTION FOJS A FEW MINUTES ONLY 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 



191 



production that of queen rearing as it was discovered that improvement of stock 
must come through the queen mother. The average production of honey per colony 
has been materially increased, due not alone to improved methods, but to improve- 
ment in stock by careful breeders; and there are many beekeepers engaged exclusively 
in this branch of the industry who enjoy international reputation as breeders of 




A MAN-SIZE HIVE OF ITALIAN BEES 

superior strains of queens, and many thousands are annually sent through the mails 
to all parts of the world. Live bees are shipped by express as easily as poultry or 
other live stock. 

m The honey industry is unique in this respect, that there is hardly a part of the 
United States where one cannot engage in it with profit. Locality has much to do 
with the flavor and quality of honey, owing to the different sources from which it is 



192 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 




WE MUST BRUSH THE BEES OFF So THAT WE CAN SEE 
THE COMB 




APTEB CELL CAPPINQS ARE Cur OFF READY TO EXTRACT 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 



193 



produced. Honey is simply blossom nectar gathered by the bees, distilled or evapo- 
rated in the beehive with the same distinctive flavor as the perfume of the blossoms from 
which it was gathered; consequently we have as many different flavors of honey as 
plants that bloom in sufficient profusion to produce honey. For this reason it is easy 
to recognize the distinct flavors of honey produced in different localities. In California 
orange honey we get the delicate aroma of the orange blossoms, and the water-white 
honey from the mountain sage has its characteristic flavor. Throughout the states 
east of the mountains and west of the Mississippi, are produced the well-known vari- 




" FRESH AIR BEES" No hive needed. 



eties of honey alfalfa, sweet clover and other honeys from fall flowers. From the 
Middle West and Eastern states comes the matchless white clover honey, basswood 
and the dark aromatic buckwheat. The Southern states produce a multitude of 
different honeys, the sweet clover, tupelo, and the palmetto being the most common. 
The total annual production of honey in the United States as given by the best 
authorities is approximately 55,000,000 pounds. This, compared with other crop 
reports, may appear very small, but when considered from the standpoint of the 
enormous amount of bee labor represented, it is stupendous. Undoubtedly present 
reports will greatly exceed those given. 

a 



194 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 




QUEEN CELLS Note size compared with worker cells. 




MAGNIFIED VIEW PF SECTION OF HONEYCOMB 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 



193 




SOME OF THE BEST HONEY COMES FROM SUCH LOCALITIES 




A NICE, EVEN FRAME OP BEES 



196 



THE STORY IN A HONEY-COMB 




A MODEL ARRANGEMENT FOR KEEPING BEES FOR PLEASURE 



REMOVING BEES FROM COMB 




SECTIONS OF HONEY AS TAKEN FROM THE SUPERS 



198 



WHERE DO FIGS COME FROM 




URUK GIRLS SPREADING FIGS 




TYPICAL SMYRNA FIG ORCHARD 



WHERE DO FIGS COME FROM 199 

Where do Figs Come From? 

The fig tree, which is of the mulberry family, belonged originally in Asia Minor, 
but it has been naturalized in all the countries around the Mediterranean. It grows 
from fifteen to twenty, or even thirty, feet high. 

In good climates it bears two crops in a season; one in the early summer, from 
the buds of the last year; the other, which is the chief harvest, in the autumn, from 
those on the spring growth. 

Figs, particularly dried figs, form an important article of food in the countries 
of the Levant, and are exported in large quantities to America and Europe. The 
best come from Turkey. 

What are " Fighting Fish "? 

Fighting fish are a small fish and belong to the climbing perch family. They are 
natives of the southeast of Asia and are remarkable for their pugnacious propensities. 

In Siam these fish are kept in glass globes, as we keep goldfish, for the purpose of fight- 
ing, and an extravagant amount of gambling takes place about the result of the fights. 

When the fish is quiet its colors are dull, but when it is irritated it glows with 
metallic splendor. 

How is the Exact Color of the Sky Determined? 

An instrument called a "cyanometer," meaning "measurer of blue," is used for 
ascertaining the intensity of color in the sky. 

It consists of a circular piece of metal or pasteboard, with a band divided by 
radii into fifty-one portions, each of which is painted with a shade of blue, beginning 
with the deepest, not distinguishable from black, and decreasing gradually to the 
lightest, not distinguishable from white. The observer holds this up between himself 
and the sky, turning it gradually round till he finds the tint of the instrument exactly 
corresponding to the tint of the sky. 

What is a " Divining Rod "? 

A divining rod is a wand or twig of hazel or willow used especially for discovering 
metallic deposits or water beneath the earth's surface. 

It is described in a book written in 1546 and it has also a modern interest, which 
is set forth by Prof. W. F. Barrett, F.R.S., the chief modern investigator. The use 
of the divining rod at the present day is almost wholly confined to water rinding, and 
in the hands of certain persons it undoubtedly has produced results along this line 
that are remarkable, to say the least. The professional water-finder provides himself 
with a forked twig, of hazel, for instance, which twig, held in balanced equilibrium in 
his hands, moves with a sudden and often violent motion, giving to the onlooker the 
impression of life within the twig itself. This apparent vitality of the twig is the 
means whereby the water-finder is led to the place where he claims underground water 
to exist, though its presence at that particular spot was hitherto wholly unsuspected. 
While failure is sometimes the outcome of the water-finder's attempts, success as 
often and, indeed, according to the testimony of Professor Barrett, more often crowns his 
efforts. Various explanations, scientific and other, of the phenomenon have been 
advanced. Professor Barrett ascribes it to " motor-automatism " on the part of the 
manipulator of the divining rod, that is, a reflex action excited by some stimulus 
upon his mind, which may be either a sub-conscious suggestion or an actual impres- 
sion. He asserts that the function of the forked twig in the hands of the water-finder 
may be to act as an indicator of some material or other mental disturbance within 
him. While a hazel or willow twig seems to be preferred by the professional water- 
finders, twigs from the beech, holly or any other tree are employed; sometimes even 
a piece of wire or watch spring is used, with apparently as good results. 



The Story of Electricity in the Home* 

How wonderful to youth always has been the magical story of Aladdin and 
the wonderful lamp which, through its supernatural powers, he could gently stroke 
and thereby make genii of the unknown world his slaves. 

In the rush of modern affairs there is that which is even more fascinating, even 
more wonderful, than the story of Aladdin and the magical power exerted through 
his lamp, but which is given but a passing thought because of the rapid changes 
through which we are passing. 

Mythical as it may sound, yet nevertheless it is true, that man has harnessed 
for his use every snowflake that falls in the mountain tops and settles itself in the 
banks of perpetual ice and snow. How man has tapped the mountain fastnesses 
and converted the melting snows into a servant more powerful, more magical, more 
easily controlled, than Aladdin's genii, should be known to everyone. This servant 
is electricity. 

This silent, invisible servant is ever present, always ready at the touch of a 
button or the snap of a switch, without hesitation, without grumbling, to do silently, 
swiftly, without dirt, without discomfort, without asking for a day off or for higher 
wages, the work which is laid out for it. 

The use of electricity is so common today that the average person does not stop 
to think of it as a magical power wielding a tremendous influence for betterment 
in every-day affairs. 

Electricity has rapidly found its way into the home for domestic purposes, 
eliminating at its entrance a host of cares of the household. 

So recently, as to seem almost yesterday, the genius of man's brain coupled 
electricity with mechanical devices for the comfort and efficiency of the home. 

Although a number of attempts have been made to build appliances for use 
in the home that would utilize electricity, the real beginning of the present almost 
universal use of electrical appliances seems to have been in the manufacture of the 
electric iron. One instance, at least, coupled with the manufacture of this household 
necessity, offers something of romanticism. 

To a certain western state, a young electrical engineer betook himself, obtaining 
a position as superintendent of an electric power company and establishing his abode 
in a tent far up a canyon, more for the benefit of his wife's health than for the thought 
of being near the power plant and his work. The melting snow which gathered in 
little rivulets made a roaring mountain stream which generated such an excess of 
power for the company, that the young electrical engineer began looking about 
for other means of utilizing it than for lighting the homes of the villages below the 
mouth of the canyon. He designed a crude electric iron, placed a number of them 
in use, and found they gave fairly good service and at the same time enabled the 
power company to sell additional current. Development of the device was rapid, 
so rapid, in fact, that the young engineer's time was soon taken up with it and he 
resigned from his position with the power company to organize a small concern for 
the purpose of manufacturing electric irons which at first were sold to the consumers 
of the power company and later to a large nearby city. 

These irons met with such a ready reception and were so popular with house- 
wives because of the time saving and the convenience, that attention was next 
turned to other appliances which could be used in the home and which would assist 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the Hotpoint Electric Heating Co. 

(200) 






THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 201 



the power company in the sale of current. About one hundred electric cooking 
sets were manufactured, consisting of ovens and crude round stoves. These were 
distributed among the customers of the power company and thenceforth their opera- 
tion was carefully watched and improvements made from time to time, using always 
the suggestions offered by the housewives to make an appliance that would meet 
the needs of the home. 

This particular company, which was started but little more than ten years 
ago in a small room of a store building in a small town of Southern California, has 
grown rapidly from that time when its complete office and factory force consisted 
of a man and two boys. It now places in homes well toward a million appliances 
each year. 

Since the home can now be operated almost exclusively with electrical appli- 
ances, including everything from the electric iron to the modern labor-saving electric 
range, it is well to note briefly some of the many 
reasons for the success of electrically-heated 
appliances. 

Perhaps most noticeable is cleanliness and 
the absolute absence of dirt and grime in using 
pure electric heat. There is no soot, no smoke 
nor discoloration. There are none of the bad 
effects so often caused by the air becoming 
vitiated, due to the burning up of oxygen in the 
air by gas and other fuels. There is no cor- 
rosion, oxidization or other form of deterioration. 

Perfect and absolute control of heat seems 
to be secured. The easy snap of the controlling 
switch on the electric burner gives a certain inten- 
sity of heat which remains at that temperature 
so long as the switch remains in that position. 
Thus, with modern appliances, the housewife 
operates them at high, medium or low to suit 
her desires. 

Fire risk is reduced to a minimum, because there are no matches, no kindlings, 
no kerosene cans, no oil barrels and nothing of the sort to endanger life and property. 

The efficiency obtained through the operation of electrical appliances soon 
becomes evident to the user. The heat generated for ironing, for instance, is all 
utilized. This is true as well with heating or cooking appliances, and this utiliza- 
tion of practically all of the heat units naturally results in economy in operation 
in communities where the lighting or power company has made a favorable rate. 

Because the electric iron seems to have been the forerunner of electrical appli- 
ances for the home, it is well first to describe briefly the processes of manufacture 
necessary before the iron can be placed in the home and take its position as one of 
the modern labor-saving devices. 

One of the first irons to be manufactured, an illustration of which is shown here- 
with, did not offer the pleasing appearance nor give the service of its youngest sister, 
the illustration of which is also shown. One of the first problems was to control the 
heat at the iron, and to do this a separable switch plug was developed, enabling the 
operator to connect or disconnect the current supply at the iron. 

The real problem, the one of most vital importance from the point of efficiency, 
was that of the heating element that would do more than heat the center of the sole 
plate. One of the pioneer manufacturers, after numerous experiments, concluded 
that, since the point or nose of an iron comes first in contact with the damp goods, 
naturally it should have first and most heat applied to it. The result was a double 




ORIGINAL ELECTRIC IRON 



202 THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 

heating element in the form of a V, the resistance wire used being symmetrically 
wound on a flat, thin mica core. This V-shaped element, the point of the V coming 
up into the nose of the iron, insured a hot point, as well as hot sides, center, back 
and heel, where the terminals were connected with the switch plug receptacle. Another 
development which followed was that of an attached stand, eliminating the necessity 





ELECTBIC IRONS, 1916 





FIG. 1. POURING MOLTEN METAL 
INTO MOLDS FOR CASTING IRON SOLE 
PLATES 



FIG. 2. WORKMAN POLISHING SOLE 
PLATES 



of lifting the iron on and off a stand many times during the ironing. At first the 
iron was heavy and clumsy, being built of cast iron, but modern manufacture has 
made it possible to build the sole plate of cast iron and the top of pressed steel. 

The illustrations show some of the steps necessary before the iron reaches the 
shipping room. Fig. 1 shows the workman pouring an earthen ladle of molten metal 
into the molds in which the sole plates are cast. Fig. 2 shows the sole plate in the 
hands of the workman, held against a rapidly revolving polishing wheel, after it 
has been run through a milling machine and ground to a perfect size. Fig. 3 shows 
a huge punch press which cuts the blank of steel that is afterwards drawn to the 
shape of the iron top. The workman is seen holding in his hand the blank cut from 



THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 203 



a sheet of steel (Fig. 4). The blanks of flat steel of such irregular shape are next 
passed to a mammoth draw press which draws blanks into the perfect shape to be 
fitted over the top of the pressure plate which holds the heating element firmly against 
the sole plate. At the operator's left hand is a 
stack of blanks and in his left hand he holds 
one ready to be placed in the draw press. In 
his right hand is a top just pulled from the 
press, and at the extreme right a large truck full 
of finished tops ready for the polishing wheels. 

Mica, which so many people know as isin- 
glass, is one of the most important materials in 
the manufacture of the standard electric iron. 
The highest grade mica comes from India and 
the open box in the picture shows thin, trans- 
parent pieces just tumbled out (Fig. 5). At 
the edge of the table is a stack of mica strips 
known as cores. Hanging over the top of the 
board are several cores on which the resistance 
wire has been wound, showing the V-shaped 
heating element. 

One of the most important and yet seemingly simple parts of an electric iron 
is the switch plug which connects the electric light socket with the iron. The operator 
in Fig. 6 is shown assembling switch plugs and is in the act of driving home a screw 
which holds in place the fiber bar over which the cord bends. 




FIG. 3. BLANKING THE STEEL TOPS 




4. DRAWING THE BLANKS INTO THE PERFECTLY SHAPED TOPS 



204 THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 





OPERATOR HOLDING ELEMENT BEFORE 
STRONG LIGHT TO DETECT DEFECTS IN 
THE MICA 



FIG. 5. SHOWING A Box 
MICA 



OP IMPORTED 




Above on the table, a stack of "cores" 
and several elements ready for insertion in 
the iron. Notice the V shape. 



INSPECTOR WITH CAREFULLY TRAINED, 
SENSITIVE FINGERS INSPECTING FIN- 
ISHED IRONS BEFORE THEY ARE ENCASED 
IN THE CARTON 





FIG. 6. OPERATOR ASSEMBLING SWITCH 
PLUGS 



FIG. 7. ELECTRIC BOUDOIR SET THREE- 
POUND IRON 

Stand for converting the iron into small 
stove, curling tongs heater, felt bag. 



THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 205 

A standard six-pound iron consists of seventy-nine parts and represents two 
hundred and ten distinct factory operations. Every part is carefully inspected 
before being routed to the assembling department, and after being fully assembled 
the irons are placed on a traveling table where each is examined in its turn by an 
inspector with carefully trained fingers, sensitive as those of a miller who tells the 
quality of flour by pinching it between his thumb and forefinger. This inspector 
can quickly detect in the handsome finish a defect that is unnoticeable to the 
average person. 

The Traveler's Iron. 

Electric current is so nearly universally obtainable that milady who travels 
much has come to carry in her grip or suitcase a light-weight iron, usually of about 
three pounds, and to aid to further convenience, the manufacturer has supplied with 
this iron, curling tongs, curling tongs heater and an attached stand so that the iron 
can be inverted and its sole plate 
used as a small disc stove. The 
entire outfit is placed in a neat felt 
bag as shown by Fig. 7. 

Electric Cooking Appliances. 

It is stated that not until the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth did women 
begin to take over generally the 
handling of the kitchen work. 
Their absence from this important 
part of the household is not so 
much to be wondered at when we 
consider the size of the joints served ELECTRIC TOASTER STOVE 

prior to the time of that well-known 

queen and the crude methods of preparing the meal. On the other hand, it may 
have been due to the fact that the Armada called for men, and the women had 
to go into the kitchen irrespective of conditions. Be that as it may, we naturally 
conclude that the evolution of the kitchen and kitchen work began at about that 
time, for very shortly after the open fire gave way to some of the more crude 
methods of contained fire pots. 

It was many years after Good Queen Bess' reign that electricity was introduced 
in England for cooking purposes; in fact, not until as late as 1891, when H. J. 
Dowsing, one of the pioneers of electric cooking, exhibited electric cookers and 
heaters at the Crystal Palace Electrical Exposition in London, was much interest 
manifested. 

Divided into Three Classes. 

Electric cooking appliances can very conveniently be divided into three classes: 
table appliances, and the light and heavy duty kitchen appliances; the latter being 
those requiring special wiring. Among table appliances are toasters, coffee perco- 
lators, electric teapots, chafing dishes and numerous other articles that add to the 
convenience of preparing food. These are termed light-duty appliances, as they 
operate from the light socket. 

It might be well to explain that the lamp-socket appliances are those operating 
from the light socket and are built to carry not over 660 watts of current. Should 
you attach an appliance of heavier wattage to a light socket you will doubtless "blow" 
a fuse. 




206 THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 



Electric Toaster. 

In the rush and hurry of modern life, we are inclined to go back to the days of 
barbarism, when real home life was unknown. Instead of all members of the family 
gathering about the breakfast table when the meal is ready, they come straggling 
in one by one. This made it very difficult for the housewife to serve the breakfast 
hot, and particularly the toast, which is a favorite dish of our breakfast table. The 
necessary steps back and forth from the breakfast room to the kitchen to prepare 

hot, crunchy toast made this portion of 
breakfast-getting a not agreeable feature. 
The thought, taken up by electrical engi- 
neers, brought out an electric toaster, rect- 
angular in shape, with handsome frame, 
nickel supports and wire heating element. 
This was indeed very efficient and could be 
used also as a small stove. This type of 
toaster was followed a little later by an 
upright toaster (Fig. 8). The heating ele- 
ment is of the radiant type, made of flat 
resistance wire wound on mica and placed 
in a vertical position between the two 
bread racks. When the current is switched 
on, the heating element becomes red and 
the bread is inserted under the gravity- 
operated bread clamps on each side. The 
bread clamp is simply raised at the edge of 
the slice of bread, and holds the bread firmly 

in place. This appliance toasts bread evenly, rapidly, and costs very little to 
operate. The flat top can be used for keeping a plate warm for the toast. 




FIG. 8. ELECTRIC UPRIGHT TOASTER 



Electric Coffee Percolator. 

Lovers of good coffee want it served hot, but 
boiling spoils coffee. The modern electric perco- 
lator, which can be operated on the dining table, 
has solved coffee-making problems. The particu- 
lar style of percolator shown in Fig. 9 has no 
valves or floats or traps that continually get out 
of order and that make the cleaning of a perco- 
lator so disagreeable. This valveless percolator 
is very easily cleaned and requires no brush. 
The heating element of this type percolator is in 
the bottom of the pot in the center of the water 
space, and is of the immersion type, protruding 
up from the center of the bottom of the pot. 
The heating element is made of flat ribbon resist- 
ance wire wound on mica, then bent into the 
form of a cylinder to fit into the German silver 
shell. A screw-operated spreader in the center FlG - 9 -~ ELE ^ R I c c ^ I T K R EL VALVELESS 
presses the heating element tightly against the 

entire surface of the shell and insures rapid conduction of the heat from the element to 
the water. A study of the illustration showing the inside of the percolator (Fig. 10) will 
make clear to you the method of operation. With this style of electric percolator, perco- 
lation begins within thirty seconds after the water has been placed in the pot 




THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 207 



the current turned on, and delicious coffee, clear as amber, is ready to pour in ten 
minutes. 

Percolators of this type are made by the manufacturer from sheet copper spun 
in perfect shape, and also aluminum spun. The latter makes an especially desirable 
percolator. 




FIG 10. X-RAY SHOWING THE 
VALVELESS MECHANISM, ELECTRIC 
PERCOLATER 

The above gives a comprehen- 
sive insight into the general con- 
struction, equipment and operation 
of valveless Percolators. 1-- Glass 
globe. 2 Aluminum coffee bas- 
ket. 3 Element, with German- 
silver shell completely surrounded 
by water. (Highly efficient.) 4 
Interchangeable switch-plug. 5 
Ebonized wood always-cool han- 
dle. 6 Copper body nickeled 
and highly polished. 7 White 
metal spout. 8 Lid securely 
fastened hinge. 




FIG. 11. ELECTRIC MACHINE TYPE 
VALVELESS PERCOLATOR 



Machine Type Percolator. 

Because some prefer to draw coffee from a faucet rather than pour it from a 
spout, manufacturers have made a percolator of this type called the machine style. 
These are sold in various patterns from the Colonial design, like the illustration 
shown (Fig. 11), to those patterned after the Grecian urn. 

We have already mentioned how an electrical engineer, shortly after placing 
irons in the homes of his customers, followed them with a number of small stoves 
and ovens. These required special wiring, as the wattage was too heavy to allow 
of their operation from the light socket. Principally, they were used in the kitchen 
on one end of the table or on a small shelf. This method necessitated carrying con- 
siderable food to the dining room after it was cooked, and brought out the thought 
of a means of preparing breakfast or a luncheon at the dining table. For this pur- 
pose a small stove seemed desirable, and the result was a small disc stove made of 
cast iron, highly nickel plated and polished. 



208 THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 




On this little stove, herewith illustrated (Fig. 12), minor cooking operations 
can be performed, such as frying, boiling, etc., and it is used by many for toasting 
bread by placing a piece of metal screen on top. It is also very serviceable for 
frying hot cakes. The heating element is of the same construction as that in the 
iron; the mica is clapped tightly against the metal top and below this is a plate 
of asbestos which prevents the downward radiation of the heat. 

This disc stove was first made in single heat, but the later improved stoves of 
this same type are made in three-heat style. 

Many improvements have been made on the disc stoves and they are sold not 
only as single, but as double or twin, and triple discs. 

One often finds it inconvenient, when traveling, to obtain hot water whenever 

needed. The light four-inch disc 
stove has proved to be a very desir- 
able possession in cases of this kind. 
Its size makes it very convenient to 
pack in trunk or grip, and since it 
operates from any light socket, it is 
very handy, not only for the traveler 
and in the kitchen, but is a boon 
to many a bachelor man or maid. 

Perhaps, before going further, it 
is well to explain the meaning of 
single and three-heat. Let us sup- 
pose that you are operating one of 
the small disc stoves and that the 
stove will carry 600 watts of current. 
If that stove is equipped with a single 
heat, you will be using the full 600 watts whenever the switch is on. If it is equipped 
with a three-heat switch, it can be adjusted to 600 watts at full, 300 at medium 
and 150 at low, which means a great saving in current for most small cooking 
operations. 

Two Distinct Types of Heating Elements. 

There are two very distinct types of electric heating elements or burners, the 
disc or closed type, and the open-coil type. These two types operate on entirely 
different principles. The disc stove conveys the heat to the food by the principle 
of conduction, i. e., the heated metal top of the stove in turn conducts the heat to 
the metal of the dish and thereby heats the food within the dish. 

The open-coil type of element operates on the principle of radiant heat. The 
heat rays from the element are focused on the dish in which the food is being pre- 
pared. In the former style burner, sufficient time is required to heat the metal top 
of the stove before the heat can be utilized, while in the latter, the heat is almost 
instantaneously effective. Below the coils of the radiant type of grills and heaters 
shown in this section is placed a highly polished, nickeled disc which serves to 
reflect all the heat unite that are directed downward, back to the dish in which the 
food is being prepared, thereby utilizing a maximum of the heat units produced. 

One very distinct advantage in the open -coil over the disc type is that in the 
former practically all the utensils found in the average home can be satisfactorily 
used, granite and enamel-ware being especially desirable, while in the disc-type stoves, 
it is necessary to have dishes with smooth, clean bottoms and that they fit very 
closely in order to make metallic contact over the entire surface. 

The lightness, convenience, and general utility of the small open-coil stove 
has been responsible for a number of designs being manufactured and sold in enormous 



FIG. 12 ELECTRIC Disc STOVE 



. 



THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 209 



quantities, these being made 
up not only as stoves, but as 
grills. The accompanying 
illustration (Fig. 13) is of a 
rectangular grill, made of 
pressed steel and highly pol- 
ished, designed to operate 
from any electric light socket. 
The heating element is of the 
open-coil reflector type and is 
so placed in the frame that 
cooking can be done both 
above and below the glowing 
coils at the same time. This 
is a convenience and economy, 
as one is able to cook two 
dishes of food at the cost of 
one. This particular grill is 
furnished with three dishes, 
any ODS of which can be used 
either above or below the coils. 
When cooking above the coils 
only is desired, the small flat 
pan is placed in a groove 
below the coils to reflect to 
tiie cooking operation any 
heat that would be thrown 
downward from the heating 
element. The shallow pan 
also serves as a cover for either 
of the deeper dishes or for a 
hot-cake griddle. 

This radiant grill is light 
in weight, occupies a small 
space and is a most desirable 
appliance in the home, to be 
used in either the living room 
or dining room for the prepa- 
ration of a light luncheon or 
afternoon tea service. 

Of the same manufacture 
is the radiant grill shown in 
Fig. 14. This grill, you will 
note, is round, which particu- 
larly adapts it to the use of 
utensils ordinarily found in the 
kitchen of the average home. 
You will note that there are 
two dishes to this grill, a top 
dish with a broiling grid, to be 
used ^ underneath the coils for 
broiling chops, and a shallower 
dish to be used above the coils 

14 




FIG. 13. ELECTRIC RECTANGULAR GRILL 




FIG. 14. ELECTRIC THREE-HEAT GRILL 




FIG. 15. ELECTRIC RADIANT STOVE 



210 THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 

for frying operations. There is furnished also a reflector which is so designed that it 
serves equally well as a cover for either dish and makes a very choice griddle for 
baking hot cakes. 

While this particular grill is furnished with a wattage providing for operation 
from a lamp-socket, it is of the three-heat style already spoken of as so desirable 
in appliances of this character. A companion grill to this is of the same design, 
excepting that it is furnished in single heat only and lists at a somewhat lower price. 

You will remember that in explaining the many advantages of the open-coil 
type of burner, it was stated as one of these that the housewife could use cooking 
utensils ordinarily found in the home, and because of this peculiar adaptability the 
round grills here spoken of and illustrated are having an exceedingly large sale. 
These open-coil grills are also very efficient as toasters, the bread being placed on 





FIG. 16. ELECTRIC CHAFING DISHES 

top of the grating, which protects the coils from injury. Where only chops, toast, 
and coffee are to be had for breakfast, chops can be prepared below the coils, the 
toast above, while the coffee gurgle-gurgles in the percolator. 

Some people who have not felt any need of a grill have desired an open-coil 
stove, and of this same general type of manufacture there is the open-coil radiant 
stove herewith illustrated (Fig. 15). It is equipped with the same kind of a burner 
or element with a reflector underneath, and can be used very efficiently with ordinary 
cooking utensils and is also very serviceable as a toaster. Using this stove in combi- 
nation with the ovenette, which will be illustrated further on, the owner is provided 
with a table range which meets most of the requirements in a small family. 

A line of cooking utensils would not be complete without suitable designs of 
chafing dishes, and these are made in several styles, both with and without heating 
elements, the latter being used on the disc and open-coil stoves already illustrated, 
while the former contains a heating element very much along the lines of the perco- 
lator. These are furnished, as you will note from the illustration (Fig. 16), with 
suitable cooking pans for the preparation of chafing-dish dainties. 

Baking and Roasting. 

It is only natural to suppose that manufacturers of electric stoves of both light 
and heavy duty should next turn their attention to ovens, since oven cooking is even 
primary to cooking that is done on open burners and is now coming to be even of 
more importance. The first oven herewith shown (Fig. 17) is of the lamp-socket 
type, equipped with three heats, providing a very efficient oven for small operations. 
The second one illustrated (Fig. 18) is of standard size and accommodates a quantity 
of food equal to that of any large range oven. It is provided with a heavy wattage 
and therefore requires special wiring. 

To meet the requirements of the many families in which such a small amount 
of baking is done, and to cater particularly to apartment-house dwellers, the manu- 




THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 211 



facturers of the line of radiant stoves described and illustrated have brought forth 
a small cylindrical oven called the ovenette. This little oven fits either the radiant 
stove or the round radiant grill. It is made of pressed steel and finished in highly 
polished nickel. This ovenette, in combination with either the radiant stove or the 
round radiant grill, provides complete cooking equipment upon which an entire 
meal can be prepared, whether it be heating rolls and preparing crisp bacon or chops* 
for breakfast, or baking a roast, a loaf cake or even bread for the dinner. It will 
bake pies, cake, biscuit, potatoes, roast meats, etc., up to its capacity, at a less 





Fia. 17. ELECTRIC LAMP-SOCKET OVEN 



FIG. 18. ELECTRIC STANDARD OVEN 



current cost than is possible with the larger oven and in less time. This ovenette 
has what is called a middle ring, which makes it adjustable to two sizes when large 
or small quantities of food are to be prepared. 

So you see. the woman of today who utilizes current furnished through the 
light socket, can bring to her command genii as wonderful as those at the command 
of Aladdin when he stroked the wonderful lamp. Her household duties are made 
easier. There is far less preparatory work and she is able to place her home on a 
much more efficient basis than with ordinary methods. 

The home electrical is not complete without containing at least some of the 
electrical appliances which have been designed for the purpose of alleviating pain. 
One of these is an electric heating pad made of steel units, so hinged as to make the 
appliance sufficiently flexible to be wrapped around an arm or limb and to conform 
to the curves of the body. The other is a pad made of aluminum which is concave 
on one side and convex on the other and may be used in a wet pack. Each of these 
heating pads is covered with a high-grade cover of eiderdown which provides a soft 
contact for the skin. 

Perhaps next in importance along this line of electrical appliances is the small 
immersion heater shown in Fig. 19, and which requires so little space that it can be 
easily carried even in a woman's handbag. This style of heater will quickly heat a 
glass of water by simply immersing the heater in the water. This device is very 
extensively used by mothers in heating milk for the baby, by men in heating water 
for shaving, and by doctors and dentists who require small quantities of hot water 
for sterilizing and other uses. 

One thing most desirable in connection with practically all of the lamp-socket 
appliances described and illustrated in this section is the very small cost of operation. 
Lighting companies have so reduced the cost of current within the last two or three 



212 THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 

years that a breakfast may now be prepared electrically for not more than a couple 
of cents, while one of the pads may be used an entire night at a cost of less than one 
cent in soothing rheumatic pains or in driving away the chill for outdoor sleepers. 

But one of the hardest domestic tasks is that of keeping the house clean. To 
obviate the difficulties encountered in this connection and to make the home sanitary, 



FIG. 19. ELECTRIC IMMERSION HEATER 



ELECTRIC ALUMINUM COMBO 




ELECTRIC FLEXIBLE COMFO (Metal) 



FIG. 20. ELECTRIC VACUUM CLEANER 



electric vacuum cleaners are provided by several manufacturers, a very recent 
acceptable type being illustrated in Fig. 20. This type of vacuum cleaner, which 
is reasonable in price, is made of steel and finished in very highly polished nickel. 
It operates from any light socket and consumes but a very small amount of current, 
much less than is consumed by a toaster. It can also be purchased with different 
attachments with which curtains, radiators, clothes and walls may be cleaned. 
The possession in the home of one of these vacuum cleaners makes it unnecessary 



THE STORY OF ELECTRICITY IN THE HOME 21$ 



to take up rugs, carpets, tear down curtains and go through the semi-annual worry, 
wear and tear of house cleaning. The vacuum cleaner will do it better and many 
times quicker without removing a single article of furniture or disturbing a rug or 
curtain; and instead of scat- 
tering the dust-laden germs 
in the air, to be drawn into 
the nostrils and lungs of the 
family, the cleaner sucks 
them up into a dust-tight bag 
from which they can be de- 
posited on a paper and 
burned. 

The evolution in cooking 
and heating appliances for 
the home in the last ten 
years has ineeed been rapid, 
but it is very recently indeed 
that the housewife has been 
able to satisfy the longing 
and the desire that has kept 
getting stronger from day to 
day, since first she began to 
use electric cooking appli- 
ances. She has been dream- 
ing of that which would 
make her kitchen a domestic- 
science laboratory, and her 

dream can come true because ^ 21. ELECTRIC RANGE 

now she can purchase an elec- 
tric range patterned in general style after the more acceptable gas or other fuel 
ranges, but infinitely more efficient. 

The particular type of range herewith illustrated (Fig. 21) uses a burner of the 
open-coil type, both for the surface burners and for the oven. The ovens are highly 
insulated with a thick packing of best grade mineral wool, which reduces air leakage 
to a minimum and retains the heat generated for a long period. Many cooking 
operations which are performed in ordinary ovens with the burners on, can be pre- 
pared in this particular style of oven by using stored heat for the last half of the 
operation. The range is simplicity itself in operation. Each burner is operated by 
an indicating snap switch which has three separate heats, full, medium and low; 
medium being one-half of full and low one-half of medium. There are no matches; 
there is no danger from fire. There is no vitiated, foul air because of noxious gases 
from ordinary cooking stoves. There is no soot or grime, no ashes, no wood or coal 
to carry; there are fewer steps; there is less watching of the range; practically none 
at all, because when a burner is turned to medium, for instance, you know that you 
have a certain degree of heat for just as long as the switch is in that position. Results 
are eminently satisfactory and there is a sufficient saving in the weights and the 
nutritive value of foods cooked, especially in the oven, to make the electric range 
indeed a most desirable and economical addition to any home. 

Today, the housewife, whether the provider of the home be a laborer or a 
merchant prince, can, with a simple touch of the button or a snap of the switch, 
bring to her immediate command, and subservient to her wishes, that subtle some- 
thing which came in the snowflake, and which, while invisible, yet provides the 
greatest boon to mankind electricity. 




214 GASOLINE ELECTRIC STREET CAR 

Why is there Always a Soft Spot in a Cocoanut Shell? 

A cocoanut shell always has a soft spot at one end because this is the provision 
nature has made to allow the embryo of the future tree to push its way out of the 
hard shell. 

Cocoanuts, as most of us know, have a thick, hard shell, with three black scars 
at one end. The soft scar may easily be pierced with a pin; the others are as hard 
as the rest of the shell. Outside of this hard shell we are accustomed to seeing 
another covering of considerable thickness, of an extremely fibrous substance. When 
cocoanuts are picked, however, they have still another covering an outer rind 
which has a smooth surface. 

The tree which produces the cocoanut is a palm, from sixty to a hundred feet 
high. The trunk is straight and naked, and surmounted by a crown of feather-like 
leaves. The nuts hang from the summit of the tree in clusters of a dozen or more 
together. 

Food, clothing and the means of shelter and protection are all afforded by the 
cocoanut tree. The kernels are used as food in a number of different forms, and 
when pressed, they yield an oil which is largely used in candle making and in the 
manufacture of soaps. When they are dried before the oil is pressed out they are 
known as " copra." 

We have given the name "milk" to the sweet and watery liquid, of a whitish 
color, which is inclosed in considerable quantity in the kernel. 

By boring the tree itself, a white, sweetish liquid called "toddy" exudes from 
the wound. This yields one of the varieties of the spirit called "arack" when dis- 
tilled. A kind of a sugar called "jaggery" is also obtained from the cocoanut juice. 

The fibrous coat of the nut is made into a preparation called "cellulose," which 
is described in another story in this book, and also into the well-known cocoanut 
matting. The coarse yarn obtained from it is called "coir," and it is also used for 
cordage. The hard shell of the nut is polished and made into cups and other domestic 
utensils. The fronds are wrought into baskets, brooms, mats, sacks and many other 
useful articles; and the trunks are made into boats, and furnish timber for the con- 
struction of houses. Altogether the cocoanut palm will be seen to be a very useful 
member of the plant kingdom. 

How does a Gasoline Motor Run an Electric Street Car? 

A gasoline-electric railroad train was introduced in Germany in 1913. It com- 
prises a power car and ten other cars, each of a five-ton capacity, which trail along 
behind. The power car carries two gasoline engines of a hundred and twenty-five 
horse-power each which drive a dynamo installed in the center. The current is trans- 
mitted to the electric motors, actuating each of the wheels of the power car and 
the trailers. The General Electric Company has perfected a similar car for use on 
the suburban branches of street railroads in this country. Most of them are equipped 
with a two hundred horse-power gasoline engine directly connected to a dynamo 
from which power is generated and transmitted to the motors, which are located on 
the car axles. Cars of this type can be made of a larger seating capacity than is 
customary and can easily attain a speed of a mile a minute. 

Gasoline engines offer great advantages over steam because of the absence of 
boilers, coal and ashes, and a much higher efficiency is obtainable, a consumption 
of one pint of gasoline per horse-power hour being good practice for well-designed 
motor engines and a total efficiency of from ten to thirty-five per cent of the energy 
in the fuel being available, as against one to twenty per cent for steam averages. 
The utilization of the gasoline engine to generate electric power for surface cars, 
in instances where it is not practical to transmit energy from power stations, presents 
wonderful possibilities. 




GASOLINE ELECTRIC STREET CAR 



215 





I 

I 



216 HOW "CARRIER PIGEONS" CARRY MESSAGES 

How do " Carrier Pigeons " Carry Messages? 

The real carrier pigeon is a large bird with long wings, a large tuberculated mass 
of naked skin at the base of the beak, and a circle of naked skin round the eyes, but 
the variety generally employed to carry messages more resembles an ordinary pigeon. 

The practice of sending letters by pigeons belongs originally to Eastern countries, 
though in other countries it has often been adopted, more especially before the inven- 
tion of the electric telegraph. An actual post-system in which pigeons were the 
messengers was established at Bagdad by the Sultan Nureddin Mahmud, who died 
in 1174, and lasted till 1258, when Bagdad fell into the hands of the Mongols and was 
destroyed by them. 

These birds can be utilized in this way only hi virtue of what is called their 
" homing" faculty or instinct, which enables them to find their way back home from 
surprising distances. But if they are taken to the place from which the message is 
to be sent and kept there too long, say over a fortnight, they will forget their home 
and not return to it. They are tried first with short distances, which are then grad- 
ually increased. The missive may be fastened to the wing or the tail, and must be 
quite small and attached so as not to interfere with the bird's flight. 

By the use of microphotography a long message may be conveyed in this way, 
and such were received by the besieged residents in Paris during the Franco-Prussian 
War of 187O-71 the birds being conveyed out of the city in balloons. 

Seventy-two miles in two and one-half hours, a hundred and eighty in four and 
one-half, have been accomplished by carrier pigeons. Large numbers of these birds 
are now kept in England, Belgium, France, etc., there being numerous pigeon clubs 
which hold pigeon races to test the speed of the birds. These pigeons are also kept 
in several European countries for military purposes. 

What Family has Over 9,000,000 Members? 

Each female cod has more than 9,000,000 eggs, but the numbers are kept down 
by a host of enemies. 

The most interesting species is the "Common" or "Bank Cod." Though they 
are found plentifully on the coasts of other northern regions, such as Britain, Scandi- 
navia and Iceland, a stretch of sea near the coast of Newfoundland is the favorite 
annual resort of countless multitudes of cod, which visit the "Grand Banks" to feed 
upon the molluscous animals abundant there, and thus attract fleets of fishermen. 

The spawning season on the banks of Newfoundland begins about the month of 
March and terminates in June; but the regular period of fishing does not commence 
before April, on account of the storms, ice and fogs. The season lasts till the end of 
June, when the cod commence their migrations. 

The average length of the common cod is about two and one-half or three feet, 
and the weight between thirty and fifty pounds, though sometimes cod are caught 
weighing three times as much. The color is a yellowish gray on the back, spotted 
with yellow and brown; the belly white or red, with golden spots in young specimens. 

Few members of the animal creation are more universally serviceable to man than 
the codfish. Both in its fresh state and when salted and dried, it is a substantial and 
wholesome article of food. The tongue is considered a delicacy. The swimming- 
bladders or "sounds," besides being highly nutritious, supply, if rightly prepared, 
isinglass equal to the best of that which is brought from Russ : a, The oil, which is 
extracted from the liver, is of great medicinal value, and contributes considerably to 
the high economic value of the cod. 

The finest and palest oil is made from fresh and carefully cleaned liver, the oil 
being extracted either in the cold or by a gentle heat. Only the pale oils are used 
in medicine; the dark oils are too rank and acrid, and they are only used in dressing 
leather. 






The Story in the Telephone* 

On March 10, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell, standing in a little attic at No. 5 
Exeter Place, Boston, sent through his crude telephone the first spoken words ever 
carried over a wire, and the words were heard and understood by his associate, 
Thomas A. Watson, who was at the receiver in an adjacent room. On that day 
the telephone was born, and the first message went over the only telephone line in 




DR. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL AT THE OPENING OP THE TRANSCONTINENTAL LINE 

In front of Dr. Bell is the replica of his original telephone, and to his left is the glass v,oo 
containing a piece of the wire over which Dr. Bell and Mr. Watson carried on the first tele- 
phone conversation in the world. 

the world a line less than a hundred feet long. On January 25, 1915, less than forty 
years later, this same Alexander Graham Bell, in New York, talked to this same Thomas 
A. Watson, in San Francisco, over a wire stretching 3,400 miles across the continent. 
In that memorable year of 1876, Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, while visiting 
the Philadelphia Centennial, was attracted to Bell's modest telephone exhibit, 
picked up the receiver, listened as Professor Bell talked at the other end of the 
room, and, amazed at the wonder of the thing, cried out, "My God it speaks!" 

"Illustrations by the courtesy of the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. 

(217) 



218 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



From that time, the first telephone exhibit became the center of attraction at the 
exposition. Had Dom Pedro lived to see the Panama-Pacific Exposition he might 
have listened to Professor Bell talking not merely from the other end of a room, 
but from the other side of a continent. 

Some idea of the rapid growth of the telephone business in the United States 
may be gathered from the statistician's figures, which show that in 1880 there were 
less than 100,000 telephones in use in this country, and in 1915 there were more 
than 9,000,000 telephones in the Bell System alone. Of the 14,000,000 telephones 
in the world, 10,000,000 are in this country. Sixty-five per cent of all the telephones 
in the world are in this country, although it has only five and five-tenths per cent of 




CENTRAL TELEPHONE EXCHANGE, NEW YORK CITY, 1880 

the world's population. The Bell System alone reaches 70,000 places, 5,000 more 
than the-number of post-offices and 10,000 more than the number of railroad stations. 
The telephone wire mileage in the United States is over 22,000,000 miles. In 
the Bell System there are over 18,000,000 miles of wire which carry over 26,000,000 
telephone talks daily -or nearly 9,000,000,000 per year. 

Essential Factor in American Life. 

Such broad use is made of the telephone service of America that the progress 
in telephony is an essential factor in all American progress. 

A visiting Englishman envying the light, airy accommodations in the tall 
office buildings in American cities, has sagely said that the skyscraper would be 
impossible without the adequate telephone service which is here provided. 

In the housing of the people the telephone is a pioneering agent for better condi- 
tions. In the cities telephone service is indispensable in apartment houses and 
hotels which raise people above the noise and dust of the street. In the suburbs the 
telephone and the trolley make the waste places desirable homes, and although a 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



219 




220 THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 

man may walk some distance to reach some transportation line, the telephone must 
enter his own dwelling place before he is content to live there. 

This desirable decentralization of the population in which the telephone has 
been so important a factor extends beyond the suburbs to the rural districts, and 
the American farmer with his wife and family is blessed by facilities for communica- 
tion unknown in any other part of the world. The fact that the farms and ranches 
in this country, and especially in the west, have been of comparatively large area, 
has had a tendency to make American farm life particularly lonely. It is safe to 
say that nothing has done more to relieve this loneliness and prevent the drift from 
the farms to the cities, than the widespread establishment of rural telephone service. 

The telephone development of the United States is not confined to the large 
centers of population, but is well distributed, the large number of farm telephones 
in this country being in strong contrast to the small number of farm telephones in 
European countries. 

It is obvious that the ordinary methods of commerce and manufacture would 
have to be radically made over if the telephone service should lose any of its present 
efficiency or if it should fail to advance so as to meet the constantly increasing 
demands made upon it. With the first day of telephone congestion ordinary busi- 
ness would come to a standstill, and when an adjustment was made, everybody 
would find himself slowed down, doing less work in longer hours and at greater 
expense, and being unable to take advantage of opportunities for advancement 
which he had come to consider an inalienable right. 

Not only would methods be changed, but the physical structure of business, 
especially in cities, would be completely metamorphosed. The top floors of office 
buildings and hotels would be immediately less desirable. In tall buildings the 
multitude of messengers and the frequent passing in and out would demand the 
increase in elevator facilities and even the enlargement of halls and doorways. 
Many of the narrower streets would be impassable. Factories and warehouses 
now located in the open country where land is cheap and the natural conditions of 
working and living are most favorable, would be relocated in cities as close as possible 
to their administrative and merchandising headquarters. 

It would be hard to find a line of business where progress would not be seriously 
retarded by an impairment of the present telephone efficiency. 

America Leads in Telephone Growth. 

It is a far cry from BelPs first telephone to Universal Service. 

BelPs invention had demonstrated the practicability of speech transmission, 
but there were many obstacles to overcome and many problems to be solved before 
the telephone could be of commercial value and take its place among the great 
public utilities. 

Professor Bell had demonstrated that two people could talk to each other from 
connected telephones for a considerable distance. In order to be of commercial 
value, it was necessary to establish an intercommunicating system in which each 
telephone could be connected with every other telephone in the system. This has 
been accomplished through the invention of the multiple switchboard and a great 
number of inventions and improvements in all the apparatus used in the transmission 
of speech. 

But it was an unexplored field into which the telephone pioneers so courageously 
plunged. There were no beaten paths, and the way was beset with unknown perils; 
there was no experience to guide. A vast amount of educational work had to be 
done before a skeptical public would accept the telephone at its true value, yet 
courage and persistency triumphed. Discoveries and inventions followed scarcely 
less important than Professor Bell's original discovery. 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



221 




SECTIONAL VIEW OF A 
TELEPHONE BUILDING 

A TYPICAL AMERICAN CENTRAL OFFICE BUILDING, SHOWING THE EFFICIENT ARRANGE- 

MENT OF THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS 



222 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



That the United States has from the beginning far outstripped the rest of the 
civilized world in the growth of the telephone is shown by comparison. 

In all Great Britain there are but 700,000 telephones as against 10,000,000 
in the United States. France has slightly more than half as many as Greater New 
York. In Germany the telephone development is only one-fifth of that of the United 
States. Italy has not as many telephones as San Francisco, and all Russia, fewer 
than Chicago. Sweden, Norway and Denmark show a higher telephone develop- 
ment than the other European countries, but even in Denmark, where the telephone 
development is highest, we find but 3.9 telephones per hundred population less than 
half the development in the United States. 

The total number of telephones in all other European countries is considerably 





POLE LINE RUNNING THROUGH PRINCIPAL 
STREET IN AN ITALIAN TOWN 



A TYPICAL EXAMPLE OP AMERICAN POLE 
LINE CONSTRUCTION 



less than may be found in two American cities, Chicago and Philadelphia; all of 
South America has less than Boston, and the remainder of the world, including 
Asia, Africa and Oceanica, has less than the City of New York. 

American Telephone Practice Superior. 

The superior telephone development in America is largely due to the efficiency 
of American telephone equipment and practice. The mechanical development 
has not only kept pace with public needs, but has anticipated them. 

It is the practice of the Bell System, for example, to make what are called 
"fundamental development plans," in which a forecast is made of the telephone 
requirements of each American city twenty years ahead. The construction in each 
city is begun with these ultimate requirements in view. Underground conduits 
are built, central offices located and cables provided with an eye to the future, and 
if these plans are carried out important economies are obtained. If the plans are 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



223 




AMERICAN METHOD OP RAISING POLES ONE OF THE VARIED TYPES OP DESK 
BY DERRICK WITH POWER FURNISHED BY TELEPHONES USED IN FRANCE 

MOTOR-TRUCK. 




THE STANDARD AMERICAN DESK TELEPHONE TILE CONDUITS USED IN AMERICAN UNDER- 
GROUND CONSTRUCTION 



224 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



abandoned, the loss may be very great. Furthermore, there are sure to be times 
when the service will be interrupted and seriously impaired if such plans for the 
future are not made and consistently carried out. 

It is characteristic of the best telephone management that while it cannot 
always perfectly forecast the direction of immediate growth, it should be built far 
enough ahead of present requirements to have a pair of wires ready for each new 
customer. The fact that New York and other large American cities have a con- 
siderable investment in telephone plant constructed to meet a prospective demand, 




THIS PRIVATE SWITCHBOARD, IN ONE AMERICAN HOTEL, is LARGER THAN MANY A 
SWITCHBOARD ABOARD, WHICH SERVES A WHOLE CITY 

is the price which must be paid by any telephone management which really supplies 
the wants of the American people. Every additional subscriber that is connected 
with the system, requires sooner or later an outlay of new capital' for his propor- 
tionate share of the whole plant, including equipment, wires, poles, cables, switch- 
boards and real estate. In America the new subscriber finds his need anticipated 
and the facilities provided. 

It is characteristic of private management that plans can be made for the 
future with reasonable assurance that the necessary funds will not be arbitrarily 
withheld, or that the work of the past will not be ruthlessly cast aside. 

Another factor of telephone service in America is promptness. Local connec- 
tions are made in a few seconds. In the case of interurban and long-distance calls, 
to prevent the long waiting for a turn, which abroad sometimes is a matter of hours, 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



225 



the American engineer provides enough long-distance trunks, so that, except in cases 
of accident, customers at the busiest times of the day are connected with distant 
points without delay. 

The First Transcontinental Line. 

The opening of the first transcontinental line between New York and San 
Francisco on January 25, 1915, was an epoch-making event in telephone history. 
The line is 3,400 miles long. It crosses thirteen states; it is carried on 130,000 poles. 
Four hard-drawn copper wires, .165 of an inch in diameter, run side by side over 
the entire distance, establishing two physical and one phantom circuit. The ordinary 




THIS PICTUHE SHOWS THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTEEED IN HAULING POLES IN A MOUNTAINOUS 
SECTION ALONG THE TRANSCONTINENTAL LINE OF THE BELL SYSTEM 

telephone connection consists of two wires technically called a telephone circuit, 
each wire constituting one "side" of the circuit. A phantom circuit is a circuit 
superimposed on two ordinary circuits by so connecting the two wires or "sides" 
of each ordinary circuit that they can be used as one side of the phantom circuit. 
In this way three practical talking circuits can be obtained from four wires. One 
mile of single wire used in the transcontinental line weighs 435 pounds, the weight 
of the wires in the entire line being 5,920,000 pounds, or 2,960 tons. 

In addition to the transmission wires, each circuit uses some 13,600 miles of 
fine hair-like insulated wire .004 of an inch in diameter in its loading coils. 

It was, perhaps, little more difficult to string wires from Denver to San Fran- 
cisco than from New York to Denver, but the actual construction of the line was 
the least of the telephone engineer's troubles. His real problem was to make the 
line "talk," to send something 3,000 miles with a breath as the motive power. 
In effect, the voyage of the voice across the continent is instantaneous; if its speed 



220 THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



should be accurately measured, a fifteenth of a second would probably be nearly 
exact. In other words, a message flying across the continent on the new trans- 
continental line, travels, not at the rate of 1,160 feet per second, which is the old 
stagecoach speed of sound, but at 56,000 miles per second. If it were possible for 
sound to carry that far, a "Hello" uttered in New York and traveling through the 
air without the aid of wires and electricity would not reach San Francisco until four 
hours later. The telephone not only transmits speech, but transmits it thousands 
of times faster than its own natural speed. 

But while the telephone is breaking speech records, it must also guarantee safe 
delivery of these millions of little passengers it carries every few minutes in the way 
of sound waves created at the rate of 2,100 a second. There must be no jostling 
or crowding. These tiny waves, thousands and thousands of varying shapes, which 
are made by the human voice, and each as irregular and as different from the other 
as the waves of the sea, must not tumble over each other or get into each other's 
way, but must break upon the Pacific coast as they started at the Atlantic, or all 
the line fails and the millions of dollars spent upon it have been thrown away. And 
in all this line, if just one pin-point of construction is not as it should be, if there is 
one iota of imperfection, the miles of line are useless and the currents and waves 
and sounds and words do not reach the end as they should. It is such tremendous 
trifles, not the climbing of mountains and the bridging of chasms, that make the 
transcontinental line one of the wonders of the ages. 

The engineer in telephony cannot increase his motive power. A breath against 
a metal disk changes air waves into electrical currents, and these electrical currents, 
millions of which are required for a single conversation, must be carried across the 
continent and produce the same sound waves in San Francisco as were made in 
New York. Here is a task so fine as to be gigantic. It was to nurse and coax this 
baby current of electricity 3,000 miles across the continent, under rivers and over 
mountains, through the blistering heat of the alkali plains and the cold of snow- 
capped peaks, that has taken the time and thought and labor of the brightest minds 
of the scientific world. 

This great problem in transmission was due to the cumulative effect of improve- 
ments, great and small, in telephone, transmitter, line, cable, switchboard and every 
other piece of apparatus and plant required for the transmission of speech. 

The opening of the transcontinental telephone line has been followed by the 
extension of " extreme distance" transmission into all the states of the Union, by 
applying these new improvements to the plant of the Bell System. It is now pos- 
sible to talk from points in any one state to some points in every other state of the 
Union, while over a very large part of the territory covered by the Bell System, it 
is possible for any subscriber to talk to any other subscriber, regardless of distance. 

Wireless Speech Transmission. 

During the year 1915 very notable development in radio-telephony, the trans- 
mission of speech without wires, was made. 

On April 4th the Bell telephone engineers were successful in transmitting speech 
from a radio station at Montauk Point, on Long Island, to Wilmington, Del. 

On the 27th of August, with the Bell apparatus, installed by permission of the 
Navy Department at the Arlington, Va., radio station, speech was successfully 
transmitted from Arlington, Va., to the Navy wireless station equipped with Bell 
apparatus at the Isthmus of Panama. 

On September 29th speech was successfully transmitted by wire from the 
headquarters of the company at 15 Dey Street, New York, to the radio station at 
Arlington, Va., and thence by radio or wireless telephony across the continent to the 
radio station at Mare Island Navy Yard, Cal. 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 227 




SETTING POLES ACROSS A SHALLOW LAKE IN NEVADA DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF 
THE TRANSCONTINENTAL LINE OF THF ^EU* SYSTEM 



228 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 



On the next morning, at about one o'clock, Washington time, wireless telephone 
communication was established between Arlington, Va., and Pearl Harbor in the 
Hawaiian Islands, where the Bell engineer, together with United States naval officers, 
distinctly heard words spoken into the apparatus at Arlington. 

On October 22d, from the Arlington tower in Virginia, speech was transmitted 
across the Atlantic Ocean to the Eiffel Tower at Paris, where the Bell engineers, in 
company with French military officers, heard the words spoken at Arlington. 

On the same day, when speech was being transmitted by the Bell apparatus 
at Arlington to the engineers and the French military officers at the Eiffel Tower 
in Paris, the telephone company's representative at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, together 




BY MEANS OP THE UNIVERSAL BELL SYSTEM THE NATION MAY BE PROMPTLY ORGANIZED 
FOR UNITED ACTION IN ANY GREAT NATIONAL MOVEMENT 

with an officer of the United States Navy, heard the words spoken from Arlington 
to Paris. 

It is believed that wireless telephony will form a most important adjunct and 
extension to the existing schemes of communication. By its means communication 
can be established between points where it is impracticable to extend wires. For 
many reasons wireless telephony can never take the place of wire systems, but it 
may be expected to supplement them in a useful manner. Wireless telephone 
systems are subject to serious interference from numerous conditions, atmospheric 
and others. For many uses the fact that anyone suitably equipped can listen in 
on a wireless telephone talk would be a serious limitation to its use. 

The Mobilization of Communication. 

Besides these radio experiments, a demonstration has been given of the avail- 
ability of the Bell System and its wonderful potentiality in case of an emergency 
which would require quick and satisfactory intercommunication between the different 



THE STORY IN THE TELEPHONE 229 

departments of the government and its scattered stations and officers throughout 
the whole country. 

From 4 P. M., May 6, to 8 A. M., May 8, 1916, the United States Navy Department 
and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company co-operated in a general 
mobilization of the forces of communication. It was a test of what could be done 
in a sudden military emergency, and was gratuitously undertaken by the company 
at the request of the Secretary of the Navy. 

It was a sort of war game that brought into play the latest scientific develop- 
ments of telephone and telegraph communication, by wire and by wireless, and 
demonstrated an efficiency that has not been attained in any other country. 

For some time the officers of the United States Navy had been working together 
with the engineers of the Bell System in the study of wire and wireless communic4- 
tions, and the Navy Department had permitted the telephone engineers to use its 
towers for long-distance wireless telephone experiments. 

So, in the latest demonstration, the land towers of the navy were utilized in 
connection with a wireless telephone installation on the U. S. S. "New Hampshire," 
and Captain Chandler, cruising off shore, talked directly with the Secretary's office 
in Washington. 

For the time being the operating forces of the telephone company all over the 
country were placed at the disposal of Captain W. H. G. Bullard, Chief of the Bureau 
of Communications, and General Superintendent of Plant F. A. Stevenson, of the 
American Telephone and Telegraph Company, was assigned as his aide. While 
all the facilities of the Bell System were available, only about 53,000 miles of wire 
were necessary to connect all the navy yards and stations for telephonic and telegraphic 
communication. 

The successful demonstration showed that in case of any trouble requiring any 
such service, because of the central control of the Bell System, the government could 
have ready-made at its immediate disposal a plant, equipment and operating staff 
which, for completeness and efficiency, would not be possible in any other way. 



Why do They Call Them " Fiddler-Crabs "? 

There is one member of the crab family for which the Latin name is Gelasimus, 
which means "laughable." He certainly is appropriately named, for he is a very 
queer little fellow. The male has one claw of immense size, the other being quite 
small. The big claw is brightly colored, and when he runs he waves it about as if 
he were energetically beckoning, or playing some very stirring tune on a violin; 
hence he is often known as a "Calling-crab" or a "Fiddler-crab." 

Fiddler-crabs inhabit various parts of the world, and are usually found in large 
numbers on muddy or sandy flats left dry by the tide, where they may be seen 
hurrying over the sand or peering out of their holes, into which they immediately 
vanish when alarmed. The holes, which usually are about a foot deep, are made 
by the crab persistently digging up and carrying away little masses of mud or sand. 
When he is doing this the crab presents a very funny appearance. Scraping up a 
quantity of sand into a little heap, he grasps it with three of the legs on one side 
and hurries away with it to some little distance. Having deposited his load, he 
raises his eyes, which he can do quite effectively, as they are situated at the end of 
very long, slender stalks, peers curiously around, and scuttles back to the hole for 
another load of sand. 

How Far can a Powerful Searchlight Send Its Rays? 

Searchlights have recently been made capable of being seen nearly a hundred 
miles away. Such lights are very valuable for signaling purposes in time of war, 



230 HOW FAR CAN A SEARCHLIGHT SEND ITS RAYS 




WHY ARE WINDOWS BROKEN BY EXPLOSIONS 231 

and they are also much used on warships, enabling the officers to detect the approach 
of an enemy in the dark and to guard against torpedo boats. 

We are all familiar with the less powerful ones which are universally used on 
automobiles for night driving and in a multitude of other every-day practices. The 
illustration shows a battery of powerful searchlights, the use of which furnished some 
very effective displays during the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco in 
1915. 

Searchlights are ordinarily electric arc lights of great candle-power, arranged 
with a parabolic reflector so that the rays are sent almost wholly in one direct line, 
forming a path of light which may be projected for miles. 

What Started the Habit of Touching Glasses Before Drinking? 

Just as athletes shake hands before the beginning of a contest today, the people 
who fought duels in the olden days used to pause before their fighting long enough 
to each drink a glass of wine furnished by their friends. In order to make sure that 
no attempt was made to forestall the results of the duel by poisoning the wine in 
either cup, they developed the habit of pouring part of the contents of each glass into 
the other, so that if either contestant was poisoned the other would be too. 

This habit has continued up to the present tune, although there is no thought 
given now to the danger of poison, and in the present day the ceremony of actually 
pouring the drink from one glass to another has been omitted, merely the motion, 
as if to touch the glasses, sufficing as an expression of friendliness and good will. 

Touching glasses together in drinking, preparatory to a confidential talk, has 
come to be nicknamed " hob-nobbing" because of the equipment incidental to 
that action years ago. A "hob" was the flat part of the open hearth where water 
and spirits were warmed; and the small table, at which people sat when so engaged, 
was called a "nob." 

Why are Windows Broken by Explosions? 

When the large cannons in the forts on our coast are discharged during target 
practice, there are usually a lot of windows broken in the nearby houses. In Jersey 
City, N. J., several freight cars and boats loaded with dynamite and ammunition 
full of high explosives furnished the power for an explosion which, in July, 1916, 
broke considerably over a hundred thousand dollars worth of windows in the lower 
part of New York City. 

The force of an explosion, whatever its source, throws back the air in huge waves, 
very much like the waves of the ocean, and whatever they come in contact with 
must have a sort of a tug-of-war with them, the weaker side being crumpled up and 
pushed back by the other. Broad expanses of glass, unprotected and without any 
support, except at the extreme edges, present an easy mark for air waves, there- 
fore, and the amount of damage done to windows by explosions is usually only 
limited by the power of the explosives which produce the force of air waves. 

The earth beneath, and the roof and walls of a building above, all receive the 
effects of these air waves in exactly the same way as do windows, and the resulting 
disaster is in direct proportion to their resisting capacity as against the pressure 
caused by the explosion. Many striking examples of the power of explosives have 
been accidentally furnished of late, in the course of making munitions for the 
European war. 

What does the Expression " Showing the White Feather " Come From? 

We say people "show the white feather" when they display cowardice, because 
a white feather in a bird marks a cross breed, and it is not found on a fighting 
game-cock. 



The Story in Elevators and Escalators 



Going up and down stairs is a duty every man, woman and child finds it neces- 
sary to perform daily and in many cases hourly, and some means for doing this is 
necessary in every modern household. Even in the old-time one-story house, steps 
from the outside to the inside were usually necessary, and when the two or more 
storied houses came into use the stairway became an indispensable feature . In 
modern times the art of building has had such an upward trend that edifices looming 
far into the air, hotels, stores, apartment houses, office buildings, etc., have come 
into use, one notable specimen, the Woolworth building in New York, towering 




IN ORDER TO ASCEND 

MORE EASILY, MAN DE- 
VISED THE STAIRWAY, FROM 
WHICH, IN TURN, WAS DE- 
VELOPED THE ESCALATOR, IN 
ORDER TO FURTHER ELIMI- 
NATE PHYSICAL EFFORT 




PRIMITIVE MAN PULLED 
HIMSELF UP A LADDER WHEN 
HE WANTED TO Go FROM 
ONE LEVEL TO ANOTHER 



upwards to fifty-four stories in height. This upward tendency has rendered the 
elevator, or lifting apparatus, an indispensable necessity, alike for passengers and 
freight, and it has been installed abundantly in all our large cities. 

The elevator is not exactly a new idea. Its pioneer form may be traced back 
to the Middle Ages, when heavy weights were lifted by aid of an apparatus worked 
by hand power. But it was not until well on into the nineteenth century that the 
steam-power elevator came into service. The first example is said to have been pro- 
duced by Elisha Graves Otis, who applied steam power to an elevating machine in 
a little shop at Yonkers, on the banks of the Hudson, New York. A few years 
later, at the International Exhibition of 1853 in New York, he displayed the first 
elevator with a safety device to prevent the car from falling in case of a broken 
cable. 

The elevator was then a novelty. It has long since grown into a necessity. 
It is to be seen in all hotels and high buildings, and the art of getting up stairs has 
in very many cases changed into that of being lifted up by a moving car in an 
enclosed shaft or cage. The steam elevator, at first used, has now in great measure 
been replaced by the electric elevator, the first moved by an electric motor being 



"Illustrations by courtesy of the Otis Elevator Co. 



(232) 



THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 233 

the Otis elevator installed in the Demarest Building, New York, in 1889. This 
is still in active use. 

The first electric elevators were confined to the drum type of machine, these 
having a grooved drum around which the hoisting cables were wound, the drum being 
revolved through worm gearing by an electric motor. But the erection of buildings, 
ranging from 200 to 700 feet in height has put this type of traction out of business 
on account of the great size of drums required and the necessary slowness of motion. 
It has been replaced by the electric traction elevator. In this the hoisting cables 
from which the car is suspended have at the other end a counterweight and pass 
around driving sheaves in place of a drum. This, in its latest form known as the 
gearless traction elevator, does away with all intricate machinery, and yields a 
machine moving with equal speed whatever the height- 




AN ELEVATOR OF THE MIDDLE AGES 
History tells us this form of elevator was used in monasteries for hoisting passengers and supplies. 




(234) ELEVATOR INSTALLATION IN THE WOOLWORTH BUILDING, NEW YORK 



THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 235 



To obviate danger from accidents, safety devices are installed for gripping 
the rails in case of the car attaining excessive speed. Another feature of security 
is the oil cushion buffer. One of these is placed in the hoistway under the car and 
one under the counterweight, they being capable of bringing a car to rest from full 
speed without discomfort to 
those in the car. The oil in 
the buffer is driven by the 
impact of the car from one 
chamber of the buffer to 
another, but this is made to 
take place at a fixed rate of 
retardation, the oil acting as a 
liquid cushion which stops the 
car gradually and without 
shock. 

To do business in the 
modern lofty building with- 
out the aid of elevators (or 
lifts, as they are called in 
England) is today out of the 
question, while the great 
grain-transporting edifices in 
cities in which our annual 
crops are lifted and lowered, 
are known by the specific 
name of elevators. There is, 
however, another means of 
getting up and down stairs 
which is coming somewhat 
rapidly into use and in which 
the old stairway is restored. 
It is one in w^hich the stair 
itself does the moving instead 
of the passengers upon it. 
This new and interesting de- 
vice is known as an escalator. 




The Escalator ^TEAM-DRIVEN ELEVATOR OF EARLY DATE 

The earliest way to get 
upward from the ground was 

that adopted by climbing animals in clambering up tree trunks, and by man him- 
self in ''shinning" up trees by aid of his arms and legs. This was followed by the 
plank leading from a lower to a higher level, by the ladder, and finally by the stair- 
way. In our days the stairway has been put on a set of revolving wheels and 
moves upward itself, carrying its passengers with no need on their part to use their 
feet. This simple but effective device is known as the escalator. 

It is a very useful contrivance for tired shoppers needing to make their way 
from floor to floor in the great department stores, for travelers on subway or elevated 
railways, for large mills, theaters, or other places where easy getting up and down 
stairs is necessary. The escalator is a simple device. No intricate machinery is 
needed. It is so arranged as to be always going, traveling upwards or downwards, 
and returning out of sight below. It has been called "an elevator with the doors 
always open." It is capable of carrying all the passengers who can crowd upon it, 



236 THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 




I 

4 

5 



THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 237 



ELECTRIC DUMBWAITER INSTALLA- 
TION WITH MACHINE IN BASEMENT , 
SHOWING CALL BUTTONS 






Mii 



tl 









A COMPLETE INSTALLATION 
OP A 2 : 1 ELECTRIC TRACTION 
PASSENGER ELEVATOR, SHOWING 
MACHINE AND CONTROLLER AT 
TOP OF HATCHWAY 

This elevator is used where 
the slower speeds are required 
as in department stores. 




238 THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 




ESCALATOR OR MOVING STAIRWAY AT SIXTH AVENUE AND THIRTY-THIRD 
STREET STATION OF ELEVATED RAILWAY, NEW YORK CITY 




IHHHi 



A DUPLEX ESCALATOR OF THE CLEAT TYPE IN A DEPARTMENT STORE 
This type of escalator makes use of hard wood cleats in place of steps. 



THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 239 



stepping on or off at the bottom or top, it being estimated that more than 10,000 
people an hour can be thus moved. 

The Cleat Escalator. 

In the original type of escalator the steps flatten out into a level platform at 




AN ESCALATOR OR MOVING STAIRWAY FOR THE USE OF 
EMPLOYEES IN A LARGE WORSTED MILL 



top and bottom, easy to step on and off, and divide 
into regular steps as they climb upward, passen- 
gers in a hurry being able to hasten their speed 
by walking at^the same time that they are carried. 
Another type is that known as the cleat escalator. 
In this there are no steps, it being composed of 
hardwood cleats moving in longitudinal ridges and 
grooves, there being a handrail on either side mov- 
ing at the same speed. The platform glides 
through the prongs of a comb at the lower level 
and journeys upward at a moderate speed. At 
the upper level it disappears through a similar 
comb and returns out of sight. The passengers 
slide off upon the prongs of the comb at the top 
and land without jar or shock. Both these types 
of escalators can be made to move UD or down by 
aid of a swinging switch, or two of them can be 
placed side by side, one moving upward and the 
other downward. 

The Moving Platform. 

A device acting on the same principle is the 
moving platform, with the difference that this 




A CLEAT TYPE ESCALATOR, 
SHOWING THE HARDWOOD CLEATS 
USED IN PLACE OF STEPS 



240 THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 




A GRAVITY CONVEYOR OP THE SINGLE SPIRAL OPEN TYPE 
For the quick and safe conveyance of heavy goods from upper to lower levels. 



THE STORY IN ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS 241 

may be of indefinite length and act as a sort of railway for carrying passengers 
from place to place. The passenger steps from a sideway at rest to one in mod- 
erate motion, and from this to a second one moving more rapidly, and in this 
way can be carried horizontally at a fair rate of speed. On reaching his station he 
has but to step back on the slower platform and from this to the moveless side- 
way. The pioneer example of this contrivance was installed on a long pier leading 
into Lake Michigan at the Chicago Exposition of 1893, and plans for putting it into 
practical use in various cities have been entertained. None of these, however, have 
yet been put into effect. Certain drawbacks, possibly that of cost of installation 
and operation, has served as a hindrance. 



What Happens when Animals Hibernate? 

We have all heard of certain animals sleeping through the long winter months 
and most of us have probably wondered what happens to them when they do this. 

This hiding away for a long sleep, or hibernation, as it is called, commences when 
the food of the animal begins to get scarce, and the length and depth of the sleep 
depends on the habit and constitution of the animal. 

Bats, bears, some animals of the rodent order, such as the porcupine, the 
dormouse, some squirrels, etc., all the animals belonging to the classes of Amphibia 
and Reptilia, such as tortoises, lizards, snakes, frogs, etc., and many species of mollusks 
and insects, hibernate more or less completely, retiring to suitable places of conceal- 
ment the bat to dark caves, the hedgehog to fern-brakes, snakes to holes in trees, etc. 

During hibernation there is a great decrease of heat in the bodies of the animals, 
the temperature sometimes sinking to 40 or even 20 F., or in general to a point a 
little above that of the surrounding atmosphere. The respiration as well as the 
pulsation of the heart is exceedingly slow, and the irritability of the animal often so 
low that in some cases it can be awakened only by strong electric shocks. 

With frogs and amphibious reptiles "the dormant state is very common, and if 
the temperature is kept low by artificial means they may remain dormant for years. 

The term "aestivation" has been used to describe a similar condition into which 
certain animals, such as serpents and crocodiles, in tropical countries pass during the 
hottest months of the year. 

How do Peanuts Get in the Ground? 

Peanuts are really the seeds or pods of a plant belonging to the family called 
the earthnut in Great Britain, the nuts there being used chiefly to fatten swine. 
The peanut-stand so commonly seen on street corners here is kept well supplied by 
the extensive cultivation of peanuts in the United States, mainly in the South, and 
in several tropical countries. 

As most people have discovered, the nuts have a much more agreeable taste 
after being roasted. They also yield an oil which is often used for olive oil, and 
very good "peanut butter" is now made by grinding them up and mixing them 
with oil. 

The peanut plant, or groundnut as it is also called, has a hairy stem and the 
leaves usually grow in sets of two pairs each, on the extreme ead of each little branch- 
stem. The pod or nut is situated at the end of a separate stalk, which is longer 
than the leaf-stems, this stalk having the peculiarity, after flowering, of bending 
down and pushing the fruit into the earth. After the peanuts have reached their 
full growth, they are dug up very much in the same way as potatoes, a machine 
potato digger now being extensively used for this purpose. 
i* 



242 HOW DO PEANUTS GET IN THE GROUND 




MACHINE POTATO DIGGER DIGGING PEANUTS 




PICKING PEANUTS BY HAND 



HOW DID YOUR STATE GET ITS NAME 243 

How did Your State Get Its Name? 

Alabama is named after the Indian word which means "Here we rest;" Alaska 
comes from the Eskimo word "Alakshak" or "Alayeska" and means "The main 
land;" Arizona is the result of the Indian word "Arizonac," meaning "small springs" 
or "few springs;" and Arkansas is sort of a mixture of the Indian "Kansas," which 
means "smoky water," and the French prefix "arc," meaning "bow" or "bend." 

California comes from the Spanish words "Caliente Fornalla," or "hot furnace;" 
Colorado, also from the Spanish "colored," from the red color of the Colorado River; 
and Connecticut, in Indian, means "long river." 

Delaware was named after Lord De la Warr; Florida originated from the 
Spanish "Pascua de Flores," which means "Feast of Flowers," because it was dis- 
covered on Easter Day; Georgia was called after King George II of England; and 
Hawaii is a native name peculiar to the natives there, although Captain Cook called 
it part of the "Sandwich Islands" after Lord Sandwich. 

Idaho is Indian, meaning "Gem of the Mountains;" Illinois is another mixture 
of Indian and French, the Indian word "illini" and the French suffix "ois" meaning 
"tribe of men:" and Indiana and Iowa are both plain Indian, the former standing 
for "Indians' land," and the latter, "beautiful land." 

Kansas and Kentucky are Indian, too, Kansas meaning "smoky water" and 
Kentucky "at the head of the river," or "the dark and bloody ground;" and 
Louisiana is named after Louis XIV of France. 

Maine and Maryland each come from abroad, Maine being called after the 
Province of the same name in France, and Maryland after Queen Henrietta Maria 
of England, consort of Charles I; while Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri are all from the native Indian language, meaning, in the order 
in which they are given, "place of great hills," "fish weir," "sky-tinted water," 
"great father of waters" and "muddy;" and Montana traces back to the Latin 
word "montanus," meaning "mountainous." 

Nebraska is another Indian name, and means "water valley;" while Nevada 
is Spanish, meaning "snow covered;" New Hampshire and New Jersey are both 
from across the water, the former after Hampshire County in England, and New 
Jersey after the Island of Jersey at the time when Sir George Carteret was its Governor; 
New York and both North and South Carolina were also named after monarchs 
abroad, New York after the Duke of York in England, and the Carolinas after 
Charles IX of France; while North and South Dakota bring us back to the Indian 
language again, meaning "allies." 

Ohio and Oklahoma are both Indian, too, Ohio meaning "beautiful river," 
and the latter, "Home of the red men;" while Oregon is from the Spanish word 
"oregano," which stands for the wild marjoram, a plant abundant on the coast; 
Pennsylvania traces back to the Latin, meaning "Perm's woody land;" the Philippine 
Islands come from the Spanish words "Islas Filipinas," after King Philip; and 
Porto Rico is also Spanish, from "Puerto Rico," meaning "rich port." 

Rhode Island is called after the Island of Rhodes; Tennessee, Texas and Utah 
are all Indian, Tennessee meaning "river with the great bend," Texas coming from 
several different forms of very old Indian language, meaning "friends," and Utah 
after the tribe by that name, also called the "Utes;" Vermont is from the French, 
meaning "green mountains," and Virginia is called after Elizabeth, the "Virgin 
Queen" of England. 

Washington gets its name from a good, straight American source George 
Washington; West Virginia is so called because it was formerly the western part 
of Virginia; and Wisconsin and Wyoming are both Indian, the former meaning 
"gathering of the waters," and the latter, "great plains." 



The Story of Coal Mining 

An interesting story is told in an English book by Edward Cressy, of the great 
coal strike in 1912. Many factories and workshops had to close for want of fuel. A 
workman from one of these, on reaching home, purchased a sack of coal and set it up 
against the back door. Then he sat in the kitchen, in which there was no fire. From 
time to time, when he felt chilly he got up, flung the sack of coal across his shoulders 
and ran around the yard until he became warm. That was his way of saving fuel. 
He was only doing in his own fashion what all engineers and manufacturers are trying 
to do in other ways all the year round. 

The extent to which all manufacture and transport, all industry there, was para- 
lyzed during the strike, shows the complete dependence of modern life upon fuel. In 
spite of the fact that in Great Britain nearly 240.000,000 tons of coal are raised annu- 
ally, a temporary stoppage of supply threw all the ordinary machinery of existence out 
of action and revealed the magnitude of the debt that the world owes to those who 
win precious stores of fuel from the depths of the earth. 

Probably no industrial operation excites more widespread interest, when accorded 
publicity, than the mining of coal, and that because of the dangers which attend it. 
The annual list of victims buried beneath a falling roof, or mangled by runaway cars, 
causes little comment, but every now and then the world is startled by an appalling 
catastrophe in which hundreds of men lose their lives. From the early days when 
growing industry demanded more coal, inventors have been busy devising all sorts of 
safety appliances for the miner. 

The original safety-lamp, with which practically everyone is familiar, is the 
parent of scores of others, each claiming to offer some special advantage. All sorts of 
mechanical devices to prevent overwinding an accident which would fling the cage 
with its coal or human freight out of the pit mouth have been invented, and every 
section of the work has been made as safe as human ingenuity and human skill have 
been able to make it. But the number of disastrous explosions has not been materially 
reduced. 

Many varieties of coal give off a gas known as marsh-gas or fire-damp. This is 
inflammable and, when mixed with air, violently explosive. It is the presence of this 
gas that necessitates the safety-lamp. There are a few kinds of mines which evolve 
no gas, and in these naked lights are used. But all mines must be ventilated by 
forcing air through them with a fan, and this air must be in sufficient quantity to keep 
the percentage of gas below a dangerous standard. Most mines are examined at 
regular intervals by a " fireman" who can estimate approximately the percentage of 
gas present by the size of the faintly luminous "cap" which hovers above the flame 
of his lamp. 

Explosions have occurred, however, in cases where it is extremely doubtful 
whether gas has been present in dangerous quantity, and attention has been drawn to 
the possible causes. Many varieties of coal produce a quantity of fine dust which 
settles in the roadways, on roof, and sides, and floor. For many years there has been 
a controversy as to the relative importance of gas and dust in producing explosions, 
and the question is still one which gives rise to a lively difference of opinion. But 
there is no doubt that a mixture of coal-dust and air is explosive, and that even if an 
explosion is started by gas the disturbance creates clouds of dust which gives rise to 
secondary explosions and spread the disaster over a wider field than was originally 
affected. 

(244) 



THE STORY OF COAL MINING 



245 




246 



THE STORY OF COAL MINING 




00 






,S.a 



3 S'i 

o a 

o r 



III 

"I i 
si 






O 73 



THE STORY OF COAL MINING 



247 



Consequently a plan has been evolved for the ventilating current to be reversed 
periodically, in order to remove dust which has settled on the side of timbering and 
crevices, and the roadways to be watered in order to allay the dust. A plan has also 
been tried of spreading fine stone-dust in the roadways. This mixes with the coal- 
dust and renders it less inflammable. 

Unfortunately the disastrous effects of an explosion do not end with the explosion 
itself. The main products of combustion, whether of fire-damp or coal-dust, are 
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The latter causes suffocation and the former 
is a dangerous poison. It is the dreaded " after-damp" of 
the miner. Those who survive an explosion are therefore in 
danger of suffocation or poisoning, and it becomes imperative 
to restore the circulation of the air with the least possible de- 
lay. For even if the fan has escaped injury, fallen portions of 
the roof may have choked up some of the roadways, or the 
explosion may have torn down doorways and provided a short 
cut for the air. But if the atmosphere is dangerous for men 
in the pit at the time, it is equally dangerous for others to go 
down and effect repairs or render first aid. 

The work of the rescue party is therefore a labor of des- 
perate heroism and often attended by additional loss of life. 
It has recently been found possible to reduce the dangers of 
after-damp by providing rescue parties with respirators fitting 
over the mouth and nose, and supplied with oxygen from two 
steel bottles of the compressed gas strapped across the back. 
An effective apparatus of this kind, such as has been adopted 
by the United States Government for the use of the Bureau of 
Mines Rescue Crew, is shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion. The bag in front is known as a "breathing bag" and 
has separate compartments for the inhaling and exhaling, the 
tube at the right leading to the former and that at the left to 
the exhaling compartment, which usually contains sticks of 
caustic soda to absorb the carbon dioxide exhaled by the 
wearer. 

Coal is largely formed from vast masses of vegetable 
matter deposited through the luxuriant growth of plants in 
former epochs of the earth's history. In the varieties of coal 
in common use the combined effects of pressure, heat and 
chemical action upon the substance have left few traces of its 
vegetable origin; but in the sandstones, clays and shales 
accompanying the coal the plants to which it principally 
owes its origin are presented in a fossil state in great pro- 
fusion and frequently with their structure so distinctly 
retained, although replaced by mineral substances, as to ena- 
ble the microscopist to determine their botanical affinities 
with existing species. Trees of considerable magnitude have also been brought to 
light. 

The animal remains found in the coal-measures indicate that some of the rocks 
have been deposited in fresh water, probably in lakes, while others are obviously of 
estuarine origin, or have been deposited at the mouths of rivers alternately occupied by 
fresh and salt water. The great system of strata in which coal is chiefly found is 
known as the carboniferous. 

There are many varieties of coal, varying considerably in their composition, as 
anthracite, nearly pure carbon, and burning with little flame, much used for furnaces 




SECTION OF PART OF A 
COAL-FIELD, SHOWING 

A SUCCESSION OF 

BURIED TREES AND 

LAND SURFACE 

a, sandstones. 
6, shales. 

c, coal-seams. 

d, under-clays or soils. 



248 



THE STORY OF COAL MINING 




MINE RESCUE WORK 

Upper view, Bureau of Mines Rescue Crew in safety helmets, ready to enter 
a gas-filled mine. Lower view, resuscitating a victim overcome by gas by means of 
the oxygen reviving apparatus. 



THE "STORY OF * COAL MINING 



249 




250 



THE STORY OF COAL MINING 




THE STORY OF COAL MINING 251 

and malt kilns; bituminous, a softer and more free-burning variety; and cannel or 
"gas-coal," which burns readily like a candle, and is much used in gasmaking. The 
terms semi-anthracite, semi-bituminous, coking coal, splint coal, etc., are also applied 
according to peculiarities. 

All varieties agree in containing from 60 to over 90 per cent of carbon, the other 
elements being chiefly oxygen and hydrogen, and frequently a small portion of nitro- 
gen! Lignite or brown coal may contain only 50 per cent of carbon. For manu- 
facturing purposes coals are generally considered to consist of two parts, the volatile 
or bituminous portion, which yields the gas used for lighting, and the substance, 
comparatively fixed, usually known as coke, which is obtained by heating the coals in 
ovens or other close arrangements. 

About 260,000,000 tons of coal are annually mined in Britain, the value being over 
$300,000,000. Large quantities are exported. The British coal-fields, though com- 
paratively, extensive (covering about 9, 000 square miles), are far surpassed by those of 
several other countries, as the United States and China, the former having coal-fields 
estimated to cover about 451,000 square miles; the latter over 200,000 square miles. 
Britain no longer mines the largest quantity, having been far surpassed by the United 
States. Other countries in which coal is worked are Belgium, France, Germany, 
Russia, India, New South Wales and Canada. China has hitherto mined only on a 
small scale. 

The annual production of anthracite coal in Pennsylvania is more than 86,000,000 
tons of 2,240 pounds ; valued at the mines at $198,000,000. In 1910 there were pro- 
duced of bituminous' coal 388,222,868 tons, valued at $463,654,776; amount of coke 
manufactured, 37,000,000 tons. This was distributed widely over the country, the 
greatest producers, after Pennsylvania, being Illinois, West Virginia, Ohio, Alabama 
and Colorado. 

Recently a very large output of coal has been discovered in Alaska, the value of 
which is as yet undetermined, though it is believed to hold a vast quantity of coal. 
The value of the western coal-fields also is far from known, and since 1906 very exten- 
sive tracts of coal-bearing lands have been withdrawn from settlement, principally in 
Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, Utah and New Mexico, their beds being largely of 
lignite. These cover about 50,000,000 acres, and, with those of Alaska, are held by 
the government as national assets. The mines of Alaska are claimed to be exceed- 
ingly rich, both in bituminous and anthracite coal, the beds examined being estimated 
to contain 15,000,000,000 tons, while there are large districts unexamined. They have 
not yet been worked, the government keeping them back for public ownership. 



How can We Hear through the Walls of a Room? 

We are able to hear easily through the walls of many rooms because the material 
used in those walls are good conductors of sound. We know that some things are 
better conductors of heat than others, and just in that same way, some things conduct 
sound better than others. Wood has been shown to be an even better conductor 
of sound than air. Most of us have stood at the foot of an overhead trolley pole to 
see if we could hear a car coming, and we know that the reason we did this was 
because we could hear the wire humming, when we put our ears against the pole, 
even though we could not hear any sound in the air. 

When we are in a room that has wooden walls we can hear sounds in the next 
room very plainly, not because the wall is thin, but because the wood in the wall is 
a good conductor of sound. Other walls made of different kinds of material, are not 
as good conductors of sound. While you may hear through them, you cannot hear 
as plainly as you can through a wooden wall. 



252 



WHAT IS A DIESEL ENGINE LIKE 



What is a Diesel Engine Like? 

The Diesel engine has caused a great deal of comment of late years because of 
the spectacular uses to which it has been successfully applied. A specially con- 
structed Diesel engine was probably the chief aid in the accomplishment of the 
nrst submarine trans-Atlantic voyage by the German submarine " Deutschland " 
It is an oil engine which was invented by Rudolph Diesel in 1893 
I he engine operates at compression pressures very much higher than those used 




THE DIESEL ENGINE 

in any other internal combustion engines, and it dispenses with the usual igniting 
devices by rendering the air charge incandescent by compression. 
A i. x? e ?. cle ? cv of the Diesel engine is high, and it can use low grades of fuel, but 
it has the disadvantage of greater weight per horse-power than other engines. 

It has found increasing favor for use in marine propulsion, and in 1913 was 
adapted to high-speed railway service, and put into use in Germany. 

What does the Sheep-Grower Get for the Wool in a Suit of Clothes? 

A man's ordinary three-piece fall suit has about nine pounds of wool in it. Such 
a suit might cost somewhere between twenty and forty dollars, depending on 
whether it was bought ready made or whether it was made to order. If the price 
was questioned, the retailer would probably explain that it was aft wool and that 
the wool cost was the reason it was expensive, and still the sheep-man who raised 
the wool only received an average of about eighteen cents a pound, or $1.62, for all 
the wool used on the suit. 

, Of course, the largest part of the cost of a suit of clothes is really accounted for 
by the cost of transportation, weaving, tailoring and selling, but we must all agree 
that the sheep-man who tends the flock all winter and cuts the wool in the spring is 
not to blame for high prices. 



The Story in a Silver Teaspoon* 

The spoon is older than history. There is, perhaps, no article or utensil of com- 
mon use today that can trace an earlier origin. The evolution and development of 
the spoon into the graceful and beautiful forms in use on our tables is facinating and 
instructive. 

Primitive men of the Stone Age used an implement that might by courtesy be 
called a spoon. From then on down through the Egyptian, Greek and Roman civili- 
zations it can be clearly traced in varying forms and substances wood, shell, flint, 
bone, ivory, bronze and the precious metals, gold and silver. 

A witty Frenchman has said that spoons, if not as old as the world, are certainly 
as old as soup. 

In the Bible is the first recorded mention of the use of epoons made of precious 
metal. This reference is the twenty-fifth chapter of the Book of Exodus, wherein the 
Lord commanded Moses to make golden spoons for the Tabernacle. 

Excavations in Egypt have brought to light early examples of spoons of various 
materials, and it is certain that the early Greeks and Romans used gold and silver 
spoons, both at the table and in the Temple. Early specimens of spoons made of 
wood, ivory, bronze, silver and gold are preserved in the museums of Europe and 
Egypt. 

During the early Christian and medieval eras spoons were in common use. 
Saxon and Early English examples are to be seen in the English museums today. 

The medieval spoon was of silver, horn or wood, etc. On the Continent, silver 
spoons were made much earlier than in England. In Italy they were in use probably 
long before 1000 A. D. 

During the Tudor and Stuart reigns a fashionable ^ift at christenings was the 
apostle, so called because at the end of the handle was the figure of an apostle. Some- 
times a thirteenth spoon was added, called the "Master" spoon, because it bore the 
figure of Christ. A complete set was a very valuable gift, and could only be afforded 
by the rich. 

Folks of limited means used copper, pewter, latten or alchemy spoons; the latter 
two materials being somewhat like brass, examples of which are sometimes found in 
this country in the graves of Indians of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
showing their intercourse with early English traders. 

At this period the stems were hexagonal, ending in an acorn, a bird or a ball, 
while the bowls were fig shape. Later the stems were baluster shape with a seal top, 
and at the time of the Commonwealth the stem became flat and perfectly plain. These 
latter are called " Puritan" spoons. 

Naturally, the early New England colonists brought with them the spoons they 
had used at home, and the early Colonial silversmiths followed closely the designs 
which they found at hand or which were later imported from England. In fact, 
within a few years after a certain type had become popular in the mother country, it 
was adopted in this country as- the fashionable style. It is, therefore, easy to date, 
approximately, an American-made spoon, because it follows so closely in style the 
dated or hall-marked English spoon. 

During the last quarter of the seventeenth century, both in England and America* 
spoons were generally of a style now known as rat-tail. From the end of the handle, 
down the back of the bowl to about the middle, ran a ridge shaped like a rat-tail. 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the International Silver Co. 

(253) 



254 



THE STORY IN A SILVER TEASPOON 



This is sometimes thought to have been an attempt to strengthen the spoon, but its 
use must have been purely ornamental, for it adds little strength to these strongly 
made spoons. Sometimes the rat-tail was shaped like a long V and grooved, while on 
each side were elaborate scrolls. The bowl was perfectly oval in shape, while the end 
of the handle was notched or trifid. 

This style of spoon was continued, with modifications, through the first third of 

the eighteenth century. Then 
the bowl became ovoid, or egg- 
shaped, and the end of the handle 
was rounded, without the notch. 
The rat-tail was gradually 
replaced by what is known as 
the drop, or double drop, fre- 
quently terminating in a conven- 
tionalized flower or shell, or 
anthemion, while down the front 
of the handle ran a rib. 

Later, the bowl became more 
pointed, the drop was replaced 
by a tongue, and the handle, after 
1760, instead of slightly curving 
to the front at the end, reversed 
the position. Somewhat later, 
the handle became pointed, and 
was engraved with bright, cut 
ornaments and a cartouch at the 
end in which were engraved the 
initials of the owner. 

During the first ten years of 
the nineteenth century a popular 
style was the so-called coffin- 
shaped handle, succeeded, pro- 
bably about 1810, by a handle 
with a shoulder just above the 
junction with the bowl, while the 
end became fiddle-shaped or of a 
style now known as tipped, shapes 
produced to this day. 

Until about 1770, spoons 
were of three sizes : the teaspoon, 
as small as an after-dinner coffee 
spoon; the porringer spoon, a 
little smaller than our present 
dessert size; and the tablespoon, with a handle somewhat shorter than that of today. 
So few silver forks have been found in collections of old silver that it forces the 
belief that they were generally made of steel, with bone handles. There seems nc 
reason why, if in general use, silver forks should not now be as common as spoons. 

In the great silver exhibition recently held in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
of more than one thousand pieces, there were only two forks to be found. 

Great skill was developed by the early silversmiths of England and America. 
The purity and gracefulness of design in many cases remain as standards for our best 
craftsmen today. It is, however, erroneous to suppose that all of the ornamentation 
was done by hand 




LATTEN SPOONS 

One found in an Indian grave at Deerfield, Mass., and 
the other in an Indian grave at Hadley, Mass. Period of 
about 1660. Actual size, 6 inches and 6M inches. 



THE STORY IN A SILVER TEASPOON 



255 



Ornaments on the back of spoon bowls and handles were impressed by dies 
forced together by drop presses or under screw pressure. This is absolutely proven 
by the exact duplication of the pattern on sets of spoons. Accurate measurements 
show that these ornaments were not handwork, for there is not the slightest deviation 
in dimensions. 

But, however beautiful the silver of our forbears and however valuable now, 




Back 



Front 



FRONTS AND BACKS OF Two EARLY AMERICAN SPOONS OF THE 
RAT-TAIL TYPE 

The spoon in the center is the earliest of that type, made 
about 1690. The other dates about 1695. 

from a historic standpoint, there are few of us who, if given the choice, would not 
decide in favor of the product of the twentieth century silversmith, who brings to his 
creations all of the good of the old masters, and who has the facilities for turning out 
work more perfect in line and detail and uniformity than was ever dreamed of by the 
silver worker of old. 

We admire the beautiful silverware that we see in the shop windows, we derive 
satisfaction and pleasure from the daily use of silver on our tables, but few people 



256 



THE STORY IN A SILVER TEASPOON 



have any understanding how silver plate is made; and there is, perhaps, still less 
knowledge of its interesting history. 

The combining of two separate metals that is, the plating of a base metal with 
a finer one was, until the eighteenth century, a lost art of the ancients. 

The application of one metal upon another was practiced by the Assyrians, 
who overlapped iron with bronze; copper implements and ornaments coated with 
silver have been found at Herculaneum, while many ancient Roman speci- 
mens of harness and armor are 
found to be ornamented with 
silver on copper. The Aztecs of 
Mexico and the Incas of Peru 
used the process of fixing two 
metals together by the action of 
heat, before making up. The 
method was also known to the 
old Celts, as shown by specimens 
found in Iceland. It seems, how- 
ever, to have been a lost art in 
Europe, probably because up to 
the thirteenth century the Church 
had control of the arts and crafts 
in England, and the finer metal 
work was used only for church 
vessels, the household implements 
being very simple and mostly of 
wood and cheap metal. 

Horace Walpole, writing in 
1760, states: "I passed through 
Sheffield, a business town in a 
charming situation, with 22,000 
inhabitants, and they remit 
11,000 a week to London. One 
man there has discovered the art 
of plating copper with silver." 

The inventor to whom the 
quotation refers was Thomas 
Bolsover, a skilled silversmith, 
who, in the year 1742, it is tradi- 
tionally reported, while repairing 
a thin layer of silver on the 
copper handle of a knife, evolved 
the idea of combining copper with 
silver in layers ready for manu- 
facture into any desired form. 

Bolsover himself apparently 

did not appreciate the importance of this invention, and it remained for Joseph 
Hancock, one of his apprentices, to develop the idea to a commercial success. He 
vigorously encouraged the trade in Sheffield, Birmingham and other manufacturing 
centers, and finally constructed a rolling-mill and made his fortune by supplying 
the plat;e to the silversmiths. 

The earlier specimens of this Sheffield plate, as it came to be known, had the 
silver on one side of the copper only, but later attempts were made to improve the 
appearance of finer pieces by covering the underside of the copper with tin. 




Front 



Back 



TABLE AND TEASPOON WITH THE SO-CALLED COFFIN- 
SHAPED HANDLE 

A shape peculiar to America. This type common 
from 1800 to 1815. Reductions about one-half. 



THE STORY Of A SILVER TEASPOON 



257 



Crude as this idea and the old methods of manufacture may seem, compared 
with modern processes, this old plate found a ready sale. It replaced in many house- 
holds pewter ware which, until the introduction of Sheffield plate, was the best sub- 
stitute for sterling silver. It became fashionable for everyday use by the nobility and 
wealthier families, who put aside their solid silverware to be used on state occasions 
only. The name " plate, "which is from the Spanish word platte, came to be used 
generally to designate the imitation of solid silver. 

This plate, being suoh a close imitation of solid silver, was not permitted by the 
laws of England to bear any 
stamp whatever prior to 1773, 
when the town of Sheffield was 
specially privileged to put upon 
its product the marks of the 
makers. These marks, however, 
were not to bear any resemblance 
of the lion or leopard's head, 
these being the hall-marks of 
England. 

It was not until 1785 that 
this privilege was extended to the 
town of Birmingham and other 
manufacturing centers. 

It is curious to note that 
this law against the imitation 
of silver, which really dated from 
the fifteenth century, made a 
special exception to articles made 
for the Church. 

Sometimes this old Sheffield 
plate, in addition to bearing the 
maker's name, bore the name of 
the lord or earl for whom it was 
made, and today these old pieces 
are more highly valued by then- 
owners than silver which is intrin- 
sically more valuable. 

Much of the charm of old 
plate was in its beauty of form 
and design, for the work attracted 
the best of English artisans. It 
would appear, too, that they were 
fairly well paid for their labor, as 
Pepys, in his " Diary," refers to 
a present made him of a pair of flagons which cost 100. "They are said to be worth 
five shillings, some say ten shillings, an ounce for the fashion." 

The first notable improvement over the Sheffield work came toward the middle 
of the nineteenth century, when electro-silver plating was first practiced and, in 
1847, commercially perfected, by Rogers Brothers of Hartford, Conn. 

The marvelous force of electricity was brought to bear on the making of silver- 
plated knives, forks, spoons, etc., as well as hollow-ware articles, such as coffee and 
tea pots, water pitchers, sugar bowls and platters. Instead of these articles being 
made of sheets of rolled copper and silver, a silver plate of any desired thickness is 
applied to the base metal by electricity. 




Westminster 



Fronteoac 

MODERN DESIGNS 



Brandon 



258 THE STORY IN A SILVER TEASPOON 

This quick and less expensive method of manufacture rendered silver plate 
available to all classes, and the Sheffield plate was quickly superseded, the old 
method of manufacture becoming obsolete. 

While the process of manufacture was cheapened, the newer craftsmen wisely 
held to the art standards of the old masters. With the new process came the per- 
fection of modern construction, and the cost is so much less than in the old days that 
a perfect table service of authentic design, of quality beyond question and guaranteed 
in every respect, is within the reach of any well-to-do family. Many of che old 
family pieces of Sheffield have found their way into the melting pot in exchange for 
the modern electro-plated silverware. 

The making of silver-plated flatware is an interesting process and one that 
requires a great amount of skill and care. The finished teaspoon, as it lies in the 
show-case or chest, is the result of over thirty distinct operations, while a plain silver- 
plated steel knife has passed through thirty-six stages in its evolution from the bit 
of steel rod, in which shape it begins its journey. Some of tht more important steps 
in the making of a spoon are briefly described below: 

The Blank. 

The metal underlying the silver plate of the best plated teaspoons is of nickel 
silver, a trade name for a metal composed of nickel, copper and zinc. This metal 
is procured in sheet form of varying lengths. From this sheet is cut a blank, which 
bears little resemblance to a spoon, being about half the length of the finished article 
and very much wider. 

Squeezed. 

The blank is then "squeezed," which gives to the part that is to become the 
handle a little more of the appearance that it will have later. 

Rolling. 

This "squeezed" blank is then passed through a series of steel rolls, giving 
length to the handle and width to the bowl, and distributing the metal according to 
the correct thickness that is, the bowl will be thin and the shank thick. 

Clipping. 

The next process is termed "clipping," the spoon being cut out from the blank 
in the correct outline of the pattern. 

Annealing. 

The process of rolling the metal has so compressed the latter that it cannot be 
readily worked. It is necessary, therefore, that the spoon be annealed that is, the 
shaped blanks are placed in an oven and brought to a red heat, which rsnders them 
malleable. 

The Evolution of a Spoon. 

From the crude blank of nickel silver to the finished spoon, there are over thirty 
distinct operations necessary, a few of the more important stages being illustrated. 
When the spoon emerges from the plating solution (see No. 8), it is perfectly white 
and looks as if it had been treated with a heavy coat of enamel. It is then scratch- 
brushed, burnished and, in some patterns, the handle is greyed. After this, the spoon 
is buffed and finished. 

Every operation is performed with the utmost care, and not until the piece is 
actually finished can this vigilance be relaxed, as it is the final processes that make 
the plating of pure silver an actual part of the spoon and insure its wearing qualities. 



THE STORY IN A SILVER TEASPOON 259 

Striking and Bowling. The pattern is then stamped on the handle and the bowl 
is shaped. 

Trimming, etc. After the pattern and the bowl have been struck, there is 
usually a small burr left where the metal has oozed out between the dies. This is 
removed by trimming. The trademark is then stamped on the back of the handle. 

Polishing. The goods are put through various operations of polishing until they 
are brought to a high finish. 

Plating. The articles to be plated are suspended in a frame in the silver 
solution. This frame is connected with the negative pole of a magneto-electro 
machine, while the silver is suspended in the solution from bars and connected 




1. The blank. 2. Squeezed. 3. Blank rolled. 4. Spoon cut from blank. 5. Design 
struck. 6. Bowl raised. 7. Trade-mark stamped. 8. After plating. 9. The finished spoon. 

with the positive or opposite pole of the machine, thereby forming a circuit for 
the electricity through the solution. 

A patent automatic scale, designed to weigh the silver while depositing, is 
balanced to the exact weight of silver to. be deposited on the article. The circuit is 
completed by turning a switch and the plating begins. 

As soon as the articles receive the proper weight of silver, the scale beam rises, 
thus making a separate connection with the electro- magnet, which springs the switch, 
breaking the electric current and stopping the plating at the same instant, also ringing 
an alarm bell to notify the workman that the articles have received the proper weight 
of silver. 

Quality. Standard silver-plated spoons are made in two grades of plate 
triple and quintuple. The former, however, is the one generally used and answers 
all ordinary requirements. The quintuple grade is designed more particularly for 
hotels, restaurants, clubs and other institutions where the wear is especially severe. 

The Evolution of a Knife. 

There are thirty-six stages in the evolution of a plain steel knife. At one end of 
the journey we see the cylindrical bar of steel, black and unlovely; at the other, the 
silver-plated knife, light, well-balanced and heavily plated with pure silver. In the 
case of other than plain knives, the work involves also the stamping of the pattern. 



260 



THE STORY IN A SILVER TEASPOON 



Double Burnishing. The thickness of the silver deposited, however, is not the 
only requisite to insure quality. The plating must be hard as well as thick. This is 
accomplished by means of a double-burnishing process after the article is plated and 
before it receives its final buffed finish. 

The first burnishing is on machines and this is followed by hand burnishing. 
This process produces a hard plate. 

No matter how heavy the plate, if it is not properly burnished or hardened 
after plating, the article will not give satisfaction in long wear. When manufacturers 
treat their wares to as little burnishing as possible, practically relying upon the buff 
alone for their finish after plating, the result is most unsatisfactory. The buff finish 



1. Steel cut to length. 2. Handle formed by 1,000-pound blow. 3. Handle margin, 
or flash, removed. 4. Blade drawn out through a pair of rolls. 5. Blade cut out to shape. 
6. Knife roughed with coarse emery. 7. Trade-mark etched. 8. After plating. 9. The 
finished knife. 



looks all right, 
latter does not 
deposited is in 
high spots but 
the silver hard 
The silver 
sterling silver. 
for plating can 



but it does not harden the silver sufficiently and in consequence the 
wear well. When the article comes out of the plating bath the silver 
a comparatively porous and "fluffy" state. The buffing will hit the 
the proper process turns the minute edges, closes the pores and makes 
and compact, vastly increasing the wearing quality, 
thus deposited, is absolutely pure finer, in fact, than any articles of 
Sterling is but .925 fine, requiring an alloy to stiffen it, whereas silver 
be used .999 fine. 



How do Chimes Strike the Hour? 

Chimes are ordinarily produced mechanically by the strokes of hammers against 
a series of bells, tuned agreeably to a given musical scale. 

The hammers are lifted by levers acted upon by metallic pins or wooden pegs 
stuck in a large barrel, which is made to revolve by clockwork, and is so connected 
with the striking part of the clock mechanism that it is set in motion by it at certain 
intervals of time, usually every hour or every quarter of an hour. 

The chime mechanism is sometimes so constructed that it may be played like a 
piano, but with the fist instead of the fingers. 



ELECTRICITY BROUGHT INTO THE HOUSE 261 






Courtesy of the Niagara Falls Power Co. 

NIAGARA ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION LINE 

Tower supporting high tension transmission cables of long span crossing of Niagara 
River between Buffalo and Fort Erie, Canada. 



262 ELECTRICITY BROUGHT INTO THE HOUSE 

How is Electricity Brought into a House? 

The electric transmission of power is effected by employing the source of power 
to drive a machine called a dynamo, which^generates an electric current. 

This current is conveyed by a copper' conductor, insulated from the earth, to 
the distant station, where it passes through a machine called an "electromotor," 
one part of which is thereby made to revolve, and imparts its motion to the machinery 
which is to be driven. 

This is the simplest arrangement, and is that which is commonly employed 
when the original currents are not of such high tension as to be dangerous to life 
in the case of accidental shocks. There is, however, a great waste of power in 
employing low-tension currents when the distance is great; hence it is becoming a 
common practice to employ high-tension currents for transmission through the long 
conductor which connects the two stations, and to convert these into low-tension 
currents before they reach the houses or workshops where they are to be used. This 
is done sometimes by employing the high-tension currents to drive a local dynamo 
which generates low-tension currents. 

The discovery that a Gramme machine is reversible that is to say, when two 
Gramme machines are coupled together and one is operated as a generator, the other 
will act as a motor was an important step taken in the transmission of power. 
Numerous efforts, since then, have been made to utilize electricity for the transmission 
of power over a long range. For this purpose the alternating current seems eminently 
adapted, as transformers only are needed to raise the line to high transmission voltage 
and to lower it again for use. 

The possibilities offered by electrical transmission of water power for sections of 
country favored with waterfalls are numerous and have been extensively developed, 
which should result in making them great industrial centers. In this direction much 
has been done in utilizing the immense power of the Niagara Falls by electrical trans- 
mission, works having been built for this purpose both in New York and Canada, 
and several hundred thousand horse-power developed. The application of the 
power of waterfalls to the generation of electricity is rapidly extending, and promises 
to become a great source of mechanical power in the future. 

What was the Origin of Masonic Signs? 

Fable and imagination have traced back the origin of freemasonary to the 
Roman Empire, to the Pharaohs, the Temple of Solomon, the Tower of Babel, and 
even to the building of Noah's ark. In reality, it took its rise in the middle ages 
along with other incorporated crafts. 

Skilled masons moved from place to place to assist in building the magnificent 
sacred structures cathedrals, abbeys, etc. which had their origin in these times, 
and it was essential for them to have some signs by which, on coming to a strange 
place, they could be recpgnized as real craftsmen and not impostors. 

What is a Dictograph? 

The dictograph, to which much publicity is now given, by reason of its use in 
detective work, is an instrument for magnifying sound. It was invented by K. M. 
Turner of New York, in 1907. 

It consists of a master station in the form of a box less than a foot long and six 
inches deep, and any number of sub-stations that may be required. Any voice within 
fifteen feet is taken by the receiving instrument and carried over the wires to any 
distance within about a thousand miles. 

It has now been adopted by a great many business organizations as a convenient 
means of inter-communication. 



The Story of the Wireless Telegraph 

Though one or more means of transmitting messages by electricity have been 
known now for a great many years, the mechanisms by which they are accomplished 
are understood only by those who take a general interest in physical science, and the 
few to whom electrical communication is a profession. So far as theory and details 
of working are concerned, there are a good many people still in the same shadowy 
frame of mind as the old Aberdeen postmaster, of whom the story is told. When 
asked to explain the working of a telegraph instrument he said, "Look at that sheep- 
dog. Suppose we hold his hind-quarters here and stretch him put until his head 
reaches Glasgow. Then if we tread on his tail here he will bark in Glasgow. As it 
is not convenient to stretch a dog, we stretch a wire, and that serves the purpose." 

As the name implies, ''stretching a wire" is unnecessary in wireless telegraphy, 
though in order to understand the finer points of theory one needs to stretch the 
imagination a little. That, however, is not so much, because there is any inherent 
obscurity or difficulty in the underlying principles, as because the mechanism of all 
electrical effects is more or less intangible. Electricity and magnetism operate across 
apparently empty space, and the links which connect cause and effect have to be 
guessed at. 

Three different methods have been made use of in wireless telegraphy, which may 
be classed as conduction, induction and wave methods. In the first method currents 
are sent through the earth from an electrode to another at the sending station. In 
induction, use is made of the property which alternating currents possess of exciting 
similar currents in neighboring conductors, the aim being to get as intense a current 
as possible in the secondary circuit. Mr. W. H. Preece, of England, by combining 
the two, signaled in this way as far as forty miles. The third and the only method 
which has proved practically available is by the use of electro-magnetic waves. 

Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian, after long experiment, patented in 1897 a method 
entirely independent of wires, the electric waves being sent, presumably, through 
the ether, by the aid of a transmitting apparatus, and being detected by a coherer, 
a glass tube filled with metallic filings, into the end of which the terminals of a relay 
circuit enter. The wave falls on conducting material and, the spark gap being 
replaced by a coherer, the metallic filings magnetically cling together, closing the 
relay circuit, so that a signal is made. On breaking the current, a slight tap on the 
coherer or other means breaks the cohesion of the filings and the relay circuit is 
broken. In this way a rapid succession of signals can be sent. 

In 1899 Marconi conducted in England an exhaustive series of successful experi- 
ments, sending messages across the English Channel from the South Foreland to the 
French coast near Boulogne, and extending his results until much longer distances 
were covered. The process of development was continued until, to the world's 
astonishment, signals were sent across the Atlantic and, finally, commercial messages 
were transmitted over this distance. 

Marconi's system is based on the property supposed to be exerted by the vibra- 
tions or waves of electric currents passing through a wire of setting up similar vibra- 
tions in the ether of space. These waves extend in every direction from the point 
of departure, and by ingenious and very delicate receiving instruments their presence 
in space is indicated and they are taken up in sufficient strength to repeat their pulsa- 
tions and in this way reproduce the signals sent from the transmitter. One difficulty 
hitherto has been that a message may be received by hundreds of receiving instru- 

(363) 



264 THE STORY OF THE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH 

ments in all directions, thus preventing secrecy. Many efforts have been made to 
overcome this defect, but as yet with only partial success. 

The distance to which messages can be sent has so far depended largely on the 
height to which the wires extend above the earth's surface, lofty poles being erected 
at the stations. The height of these has been gradually increased until the Eiffel 
Tower at Paris has been utilized as a sending station. The strength of the electric 
waves has been similarly increased to add to their space-penetrating capacity. The 
record of wireless telegraphy has been in this way improved until now it has come into 




MARCONI WIRELESS STATION 

daily competition with other means of news sending. Methods of tuning the instru- 
ments have been adopted which limit the influence of the currents to properly tuned 
receivers and in this way some degree of secrecy is attained. 

Though the honor of inventing the art of wireless telegraphy is generally ascribed 
to Marconi, this is to give him more credit than he deserves. The principles involved 
were discovered by others and the utmost done by him was to invent a practical 
method of applying them. There are other systems of wireless telegraphy of later 
invention than that of Marconi, through a different application cf the same principles. 

Messages have been sent to enormous distances, far surpassing the width of the 
Atlantic, as from Nova Scotia and Ireland to Argentina, a distance of 5,600 miles. 
Under exceptional conditions a distance of 6,500 miles has been attained, but the daily 
effective range of the best equipped stations is little over 3,000 miles. For overland 
messages the limit of distance is about 1,000 miles. 

There are a number of kinds of interference which arise from electrical disturb- 
ances in the earth's atmosphere. A flash of lightning is liable to give rise to a wave 
of enormous power which will set half the aerials on the earth vibrating in spite of 
the differences of pitch to which they are tuned. Thunderstorms are at their worst 






THE STORY OF THE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH 265 

in the summer in temperate latitudes, but they occur to some extent all the year 
round, and those in the tropics are of extreme violence. As a consequence it is fre- 
quently almost impossible to decipher earthly messages owing to the imperious signals 
from the clouds. Of the various methods adopted for choking off the " atmospherics," 
as the disturbances are called, one is to use receiving circuits which respond only to a 
narrow range of oscillations very different from those produced by a lightning flash. 
The employment of a high-pitched musical note in the telephone is also an advantage 
because its extreme regularity distinguishes if from the marked irregularity of the 
stray waves. 

On the palatial passenger steamers that plow the Atlantic the Marconi apparatus 
enables the travelers to keep in touch with their friends, to transact important 




WIRELESS STATION ON A STEAMSHIP 

business on either side of the water, and to secure a continuity of life which was 
formerly divided by a sea voyage. All the larger vessels now publish a daily paper 
on board, the news in which has been supplied by the same agencies who feed 
the newspaper on land. Information is flashed to meet or overtake the vessel and 
caught up by her aerial, as she pursues her way at twenty-five or thirty miles 
an hour. 

In the case of cargo vessels, the owners are able to get into touch with them at 
any point of their voyage. They can advise the captain where to call for coal or 
cargo, while he on his part can get into communication with the authorities or his 
firm's agents at the port of call, and have every necessary or desirable preparation 
made for his arrival. Should an accident happen, he can call assistance, inform the 
owners or relieve anxiety and suspense. At no time is he isolated from the world. 
The fortitude, courage and daring of those "who go down to the sea in ships" has 
never been called into question, but it has if anything been emphasized by the receipt 
of messages from an operator at his post, to whom the bonds of duty were as bonds 



266 



THE STORY OF THE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH 




THE STORY OF THE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH 267 

of steel, and who calmly operated the key until the waves entered his cabin and 
brought him honorable release. 

Relief has been brought in this way to vessels in distress and many lives saved. 
An important example is that of the sinking of the Titanic in 1912. By means of 
wireless messages from ship to ship the width of the Pacific has been practically 
covered, as ships en route from America to Australia or Asia can be kept in touch 
with Honolulu through almost the entire journey. A law in the United States now 
requires that all ocean passage-steamers carrying fifty or more passengers on routes 
of 200 miles or over must be equipped with efficient wireless apparatus and operators. 
The distance reached must be at least 100 miles. The Canadian law provides that 
every sea-going and coasting passenger ship of over 400 tons gross, registered in 
Canada, and every sea-going and coasting freight ship of over 1,200 tons gross, shall 
be equipped with a wireless apparatus. Wireless messages have been successfully 
sent from aeroplanes, balloons and submarine vessels, and the naval vessels of all 
nations are kept in easy communication by this method. Wireless press messages 
between America and Europe are also matters of daily performances. 



What is Forestry Work? 

A Division of Forestry was organized in the Department of Agriculture, some 
years ago, and the most earnest efforts are being made to prevent any needless waste 
of our timber lands. 

The usefulness of forests to man lies: (1) In furnishing him with timber for 
building, manufacturing, fuel, etc., and with various other useful products of trees. 
(2) In their influence on climate. (3) In their influence on water-flow, by keeping 
the ground more moist, making the outflow more regular, checking the rapid melting 
of snow, and keeping the hillsides from being denuded of their soil, thus setting up 
streams and covering cultivated valley lands. The necessity of a proper preserva- 
tion of the forests seems highly evident, but the nations have been slow in waking 
up to this fact. Several of the countries of Europe have been largely stripped of 
their woodlands by indiscreet cutting in the poorest countries, and only recently 
have the nations been roused to the necessity of their conservation. This is now 
being carefully attended to in several countries, especially Germany. In China 
broad mountain regions have been stripped of their trees, with the result that this 
soil has been swept away by the rains, leaving the rocks bare, while broad reaches of 
formerly fertile lowlands have been made sterile by the material spread over them 
by the rains that swept the mountain slopes. 

In the United States the broad original forests have been very largely cut away, 
and those remaining have of late years been so largely reduced by indiscriminate 
cutting and the ravages of carelessly kindled fires that great alarm is felt as to the 
future of the lumber supply. Within recent years vigorous efforts have been made 
to overcome this growing evil. The American Forestry Association, founded in 
1882, its purpose being the conservative use of our forest resources, has now over 
5,000 members, residents of every state, and of Canada and foreign countries. The 
first State Forest Commission was organized by New York in 1885 and has now a 
very large forest reserve set aside in the Adirondacks. Pennsylvania has also large 
forest reserves in its mountain districts, and many other states have taken similar 
action. The art of forestry is also being taught in the schools, and a large body of 
skilled foresters are now in the service of the states and the general government. In 
the new and active movement for the conservation of national resources the preserva- 
tion of the public forests ranks high, and to aid in this purpose the government has 
withdrawn as national forest areas a vast amount of the public lands, amounting 



268 



WHAT IS FORESTRY WORK 




WHAT IS FORESTRY WORK 



269 




270 WHAT IS FORESTRY WORK 

at the present time to 192,931,197 acres, an area about equal to that of Texas and 
Ohio combined. These woodlands are under the charge of the National Forest 
Service and cared for by about 3,000 men, of whom 250 are professional foresters. 
The trees in these forests are cut with careful discrimination, and new trees are 
planted to take their place, there being forest nurseries containing about 20,000,000 
plants and capable of supplying 18,000,000 a year. New York has 1,600,000 acres 
in its forest reserve, Pennsylvania over 920,000, and the reserves of the other states 
amount to a very considerable area. 

How did the Fashion of Wearing Cravats Commence? 

Cravats get their name from the French "cravate," meaning a croat, because 
this piece of dress was adopted in the eleventh century from the Croats who entered 
the French service. Towards the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the 
nineteenth century the cravat attained an incredible degree of extravagance, but 
common sense at last brought in the simpler style of neckties that has since prevailed. 

How does the Gas Meter Measure Your Gas? 

The quantity of gas used by each consumer is measured by an instrument called 
a meter, of which there are two classes the wet and the dry. 

The wet meter is composed of an outer box about three-fifths filled with water. 
Within this is a revolving four-chambered drum, each chamber being capable of 
containing a definite quantity of gas, which is admitted through a pipe in the center 
of the meter, and, owing to the arrangement of the partitions of the chambers, causes 
the drum to maintain a constant revolution. This sets in motion a train of wheels 
carrying the hands over the dials which mark the quantity of gas consumed. 

The dry meter consists of two or three chambers, each divided by a flexible 
partition or diaphragm, by the motion of which the capacity on one side is dimin- 
ished while that on the other is increased. By means of slide valves, like those of a 
steam engine, worked by the movement of the diaphragms, the gas to be measured 
passes alternately in and out of each space. The contractions and expansions set 
in motion the clockwork which marks the rate of consumption. The diaphragms 
in all the chambers are so connected that they move in concert. 

What is a Game Preserve? 

Game preserves have only been introduced comparatively recently in the United 
States, for the hunting grounds have been freely open to the hunter, but they have 
been common in Britain and other countries of Europe for centuries. 

Their purpose here is the preservation and increase of wild animals instead of 
their destruction. 

t Deer parks have long been kept in this country, but the first systematic 
attempt to foster wild game was made about 1860 by Judge J. D. Caton in a park of 
Ottawa, 111. 

Chief among those that followed on a large scale is the great game park of Austin 
Corbin, near Newport, N. H., an enclosure of 36,000 acres, in which a wire fence 
eight feet high encloses an oblong tract twelve by five miles, through which passes a 
mountain range 3,000 feet high. American game of all kinds are kept here, from 
buffalo, elk, and moose to the smaller and more timid varieties, and there has been a 
rapid increase. 

Dr. J. Seward Webb has a 9,000-acre preserve in the Adirondacks, and various 
other large parks have been established elsewhere, in which our fast-disappearing 
game animals are augmenting in numbers and game birds of foreign origin have 
been introduced. 



The Story of the Building of a Silo* 

What is a Silo? 

A silo is a place or receptacle for storing green feed to preserve it for future 
feeding on the farm. In this way green fodder, such as corn and similar crops, are 
preserved in a green state to be fed in the winter or next summer during an extremely 
dry season. The silo has the same relation to cattle feed as the glass fruit jar that 
mother uses has to the food she preserves in it. 

The First Silo. 

Silos have been used since very early times in one form or the other, and probably 
the first we have ever heard of are traceable back in ancient history to the Syrians, 
who had pits in the ground for the storage of animal feed. These pits have been 
used in various parts of the Old World ever since and have also been used in the 
United States. The pit does not give the best results. 

In order to overcome these defects we soon began to see silos erected above ground. 
Cement, brick, tile and wood were used as building material, with various results. 
The industry developed rapidly and soon demonstrated what was necessary to keep 
the silage pure, sweet, clean and succulent. Science and research have helped, until 
now we can produce silos that will keep this green fodder in a sweet and succulent 
state until the owner is ready to use it. 

What is Put in the Silo? 

The principal silage crop is corn, but in different parts of the country there are 
other crops which can be used to great advantage as substitutes for corn. Among 
these are kaffir corn, sorghum, alfalfa, clover, millet, cowpeas, soy-beans, sugar 
beets, oats and even weeds and thistles. All of these make good silage when properly 
harvested and stored. Any green fodder can be mixed with the above to make 
quantity and secure good results. The main point to be remembered is that the 
crops to be put away in the silo must contain a certain percentage of sugar and 
starch in every combination. 

Elements of Success or Failure. 

There are several things to be remembered by farmers when putting fodder 
into the silo, if they want to have perfect silage to take out. One of the main things 
is to see that the silage is cut to proper lengths, which would be about half-inch or 
one-inch pieces. It should also be well packed, especially next to the wall of the 
silo. It should have a certain amount of moisture, which it naturally would have 
if put in at maturity. Good silage is a result of proper cutting, proper packing and 
a correct amount of moisture, because when the silage is stored it begins to ferment. 
Heat is generated in the process of fermentation. If the heat is lost through the 
silo wall, the fermentation is not correct. If the silage is not packed properly and 
tightly, especially next to the wall, it does not settle in a compact mass and air is 
admitted that spoils the silage; or if the silo wall is porous this is apt to occur. 
All these things must be guarded against or a great loss to the owner is probable. 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the McClure Co. 

(271) 



272 THE STORY OF THE BUILDING OF A SILO 




A MODERN REDWOOD SILO WITH STEEL DOME ROOF 



The Story of the Advance of Electricity* 

It is often remarked that the history of electrical development is the history 
of modern industrial development. This is true, except that the terms should be 
reversed. Electric lighting was not invented to equip skyscrapers and the huge 
apartment buildings of today. In point of fact, the invention of these structures 
was possible only because electric light already existed. Electric motive power 
was not devised to supply the great manufacturing establishments of the present. 
On the contrary, such institutions were erected precisely because such a thing as 
the electric motor was available. The history of modern industry is thus seen 
emphatically to be the history of electricity. 

The First Commercial Central Station. 

The first central station for the commercial distribution of electricity was set 
going on the 4th of September, 1882, by Thomas Edison himself, at 257 Pearl Street, 
New York City. Newspapers of the following day had much to say. Wonder was 
expressed over the " blazing horseshoe that glowed within a pear-shaped globe." 
Another told of "the dim flicker of gas supplanted by a steady glare, bright and 
mellow." A third observed, "As soon as it is dark enough to need artificial light, 
you turn the thumb-screw and the light is there; no nauseous smell, no flicker, no 
glare." 

Among the five or six buildings supplied with the new lighting were the Herald 
offices and the Drexel Building, at the time one of New York City's show places. 
The illumination of the latter was held to be a truly momentous achievement owing 
to its great size. The equipment, in other words, reached the grand total of 106 
lamps. In comparison, it is interesting to mention the lighting equipment of the 
new Municipal Building, in New York City, numbering something over 15,000 lamps. 

The Old Pearl Street Plant. 

This primitive central station in Pearl Street was a converted warehouse of 
brick construction, four stories high, and it was separated in two parts by a fire wall. 
One of these parts was used for the storing of underground supplies, while the other 
was occupied by the generating machinery, for the support of which a special founda- 
tion of steel and concrete was provided. The necessary steam boilers were accom- 
modated in the basement, while the second floor was occupied by six generators 
of 125 horse-power each, nicknamed "Jumbos." 

Simple as sounds this original Edison equipment, it nevertheless represented 
years of research and experimenting on the part of Edison and those associated 
with him. 

Edison and the Electric Light. 

In 1878 Thomas"A. Edison, at his experimental laboratory at Menlo Park, New 
Jersey, where he had already invented the carbon telephone transmitter and many 
other things, undertook the task of devising a general system for the generation, 
distribution and utilization of electricity for lighting and power purposes. 

The first marked accomplishment in operative detail was a lamp with a platinum 
wire burner of high resistance, protected by a high vacuum in an all-glass globe, 

* Illustrations by courtesy of New York Edison Co., unless otherwise indicated. 

M (273) 



274 STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 




Photo by Brown Bros. "THE GREAT WHITE WAY" 

Times Square, New York, at night, with Broadway on the left, a curving 
ribbon of white light. Here every night in winter thousands upon thousands of 
people throng to theaters and cafe's. 



STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 



275 



and with the leading-in wires sealed into the glass by fusion. Such a lamp neces- 
sarily had a small illuminating power compared with that of the arc light, which 
was the only electric light then in commercial use. 

The next step in the development of Mr. Edison's electric-lighting system was 
taken on October 21, 1879, when he discovered that if a carbonized cotton thread 
were substituted as a burner for the platinum wire of his earlier lamp, the slender 
and apparently frail carbon was mechanically strong, and also durable under the 
action of the electric current. The announcement of the invention of the carbon 
filament lamp was first made to the public in December, 1879. 

With the experience gained by an experimental system at Menlo Park, Mr. 
Edison began, in the spring of 1881, at the Edison Machine Works, Goerck Street, 




STEAM DYNAMO IN EDISON'S OLD STATION 

New York City, the construction of the first successful direct-connected steam 
dynamo. The development of an adequate underground conduit proved also most 
serious. The district selected for lighting was the area nearly a square mile in 
extent included between Wall, Nassau, Spruce, and Ferry Streets, Peck Slip and 
the East River in New York City. In those days such electrical transmission as 
existed this of course related largely to telegraphy was accomplished by means 
of a veritable forest of poles and wires augmented by the distribution equipments 
of fire alarm, telephone, burglar alarm and stock ticker companies. So used had 
people become to this sort of thing that even the most competent electrical authorities 
of the time doubted extremely whether Edison's scheme of an underground system 
could be made either a scientific or a commercial success, owing to the danger of 
great loss through leakage. However, the Edison conduits once in use, both the 
public and even the telephone, telegraph and ticker companies acknowledged their 
feasibility. Such, in fact, was the success of the new method that the city compelled 
at length the removal of all telegraph poles. 

In the Trenches. 

The systematic laying out of street mains in the first company district was 
begun in the summer of 1881. It must not be thought, of course, that these old- 



276 STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 

time conduits resembled strikingly those of the present day. The method then used 
was to dig a trench in which were laid the pipes measuring twenty feet in length. 
Through these the conductors were drawn, two half-round copper wires kept in 
place first by heavy cardboard and afterward by rope. The conductors having 
been drawn in, a preparation of asphaltum and linseed oil was forced into the piping 
to serve as insulation. The spending of three and four arduous nights a week in 
these trenches by Mr. Edison and his associates suggests the rigor of the later 
European warfare. This work, together with that incident to the operation of the 
new station, often proved too much even for Edison's phenomenal endurance. At 
such times he slept on a cot close beside the running engines, while the rest of the 
crew crawled in on the lower row of field-magnet coils of the dynamos, a place warm 




THE DYNAMO ROOM OP THE FIRST EDISON ELECTRIC LIGHTING STATION IN NEW YORK 

enough, though a trifle bumpy. One of the inventor's early assistants tells of going 
to sleep standing up, leaning against a door frame this, after forty-eight hours 
of uninterrupted work. 

September 4th saw a full 400 lamps turned on from the Pearl Street station. 
From that day on the station supplied current continuously until 1895, with but 
two brief interruptions. One of these happened in 1883 and lasted three hours. 
The other resulted from the serious fire of January 2, 1890, and lasted less than half 
a day. The record in the second case would appear astounding, as no less a handicap 
occurred than the burning down of the station itself. The situation was saved, 
however, by the presence of an auxiliary plant that had already been opened on 
Liberty Street. 

Edison as a Central Station Pioneer. 

The layman, while appreciating the tremendous advance in generating machinery 
since the early eighties, is surprised to learn that the great Edison system of today 
is conducted upon principles that Edison developed and put into practice at that 



STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 



277 




"Sb 

i 

1 

w 



% 



-& 



s a 

&&1 
; 



5 M 

11 



278 STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 



time. Edison's, in truth, was the master mind, the forming spirit of all the advances 
made in the seventies and eighties. Exceedingly much, on the other hand, is due 
the energy of his fellow workers, many of whom figure conspicuously in the country's 
electrical affairs at present. 

In this manner Edison and his assistants became established in New York City. 
Current at first was supplied free to customers for approximately five months, which 
speaks quite as much for Edison's Scotch "canniness" as for his inventive genius. 
Well before the period was over the new illuminant had justified itself, until today 
it shows itself an element indispensable in every phase of the country's activity. 

Early Growth. 

Within two years from the opening of the station the demand for service had 
so increased that over one hundred applications were filed in excess of what could 




ELECTRIC DELIVERY WAGONS LOADING EDISON LAMPS 

be accepted, because the plant was taxed already to its utmost capacity. Allusion 
has already been made to the auxiliary plant at Liberty Street, a station of 2,000 
lights' capacity which was instituted in 1886. By 1887, not only a second but a third 
district had been mapped out, the whole extending from Eighteenth to Forty-fifth 
Street. All the underground system in the two new districts was laid according 
to Edison's new three-wire patent; and it was presently announced that customers 
would be supplied with power as well as with light. 

Six months after the disastrous fire of 1890, in which the Pearl Street station 
was burned, the site was chosen for the Edison Duane Street building on which 
operations were so hastened that machines were installed and current turned on the 
first of May the following year. 

The Waterside Stations. 

For some time the need of a central generating plant had been apparent to all 
familiar with the company's facilities and prospects. ^ Already during the summer 
of 1898 an engineering commission had visited all the chief electrical stations of Europe 
and consulted the best-known experts of the industry, and in 1902 the first water- 
side station in New York was opened upon a site bordering the East River between 



STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 279 

Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth Streets. The new operating room contained sixteen 
vertical engines with a capacity each of over 5,000 horse-power. From these current 
was generated by 3,500 kilowatt generators and sent out to the various distributing 
centers. 

As a very natural consequence of su*ch development, the company by 1902 
had 420 miles of underground system supplying installation amounting to 1,928,090 
fifty-watt equivalents. 

Electricity a Living Factor. 

To talk about electrical development in terms of power consumed tells but 
one side of the story. More impressive even than figures are the immense number 




ELECTRIC SEWING MACHINES IN THE MANHATTAN TRADE SCHOOL 

of uses to which electricity is put. Electric lighting, introduced in 1882, has become 
practically the standard for illumination, not only here, but for the entire civilized 
world. 

In the Printing Trade. 

Electric power was introduced, timidly, by way of a few fans in 1884 and fol- 
lowing this, in 1888, motor drive for printing presses was undertaken. At the present 
moment in New York City there is hardly a printing establishment worthy the name 
that is not electrically operated throughout. Among the largest customers of the 
central station in New York City are the great daily newspapers, among them the 
Times, the World, the Sun, the Evening Post, and the American. 

Construction. 

Not only are passengers conveyed up and down by electric elevators in sky- 
scrapers, but the buildings themselves are erected by means of electricity. Recent 
examples of such construction are the Woolworth and Equitable buildings in New 



280 STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 







.s 

9 

l 



e a 



PQ 

I 
8 

I 



STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 281 

York City; in this last instance a thousand horse-power was used in digging the 
foundations alone. 

Not only are New York City's subways operated by electricity; they were also 
built by electricity, a statement which applies to the new subways as well as the 
parts of the first system. In digging for the new Broadway subway, an electric 
company supplied 25,000 horse-power. The mammoth new aqueduct system by 
which water is carried from the Catskills to the Battery is another example of elec- 
tricity as a source of power for large construction work. Still more picturesque 
is the use of electricity in building the under-river tubes. Indeed, it is doubtful 
whether this particular form of operation could have been carried on without the 
aid of electricity. 

Loft Manufacturing. 

Aside from these special instances of electricity in construction, one must think 
of electricity as responsible for nearly all the manufacturing, large and small, that 
goes on in the ever-increasing number of loft-buildings throughout all large cities. 
For example, New York City serves as the center of the garment-making industry 
for the entire country, there being fully a quarter of a million garment-trade workers 
in the Greater City. Along Fifth and Fourth Avenues are found the large estab- 
lishments, electrically equipped throughout for cutting, stitching and pressing, while 
even in the smallest shops on the East Side foot-power machines have become almost- 
a thing of the past. 

Electric Heating. 

The commercial use of electric heating is one of the more recent electrical develop-^ 
oients. For the most part, this also applies to the garment trade and its closely allied 
clothing industries. In the modernly equipped factories one finds electric flat irons, 
velvet steamers and coffee urns. In the printing trade, electrically heated linotype 
melting pots are being introduced successfully, while glue-pots and sealing-wax 
melters can be seen in binderies and banking institutions. Absence of fire risk 
accounts for the introduction of electric heating units of different kinds into the 
motion-picture film manufacturing industry, a rapidly growing province. The 
same element of safety where inflammable substances are employed has produced 
the electric japan oven and similar apparatus. 

Electricity and Safety. 

The importance of electricity in factory work cannot be over-estimated. A 
shop fully equipped with electric machinery is the best possible kind of shop for 
employee as well as for the owner. Motor-driven machines are the safest possible 
kind, while absence of overhead shafting and dangerous belts mean health as well 
as security. In the electric shop, motor-driven blowers carry fumes and dust away 
from the worker and bring fresh air in. Electrically driven machinery is now regarded 
as the standard machinery. In the various vocational schools in New York City 
at present both boys and girls are taught to operate electrically driven machines, 
it being assumed that those will be what the pupils will be called upon to operate 
when they leave the school for the shop. 

Electricity in Medicine. 

Another domain of electric enterprise of the greatest value for the country at 
large is the increasing use of electricity in medicine. The most conspicuous element 
in this is the wide-spread acceptance of the X-ray as a necessary tool of the medical 
profession. Newspapers and magazines were full of the remarkable X-ray achieve- 



282 STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 

ments of surgeons in charge of the various European war hospitals. Those of 
course, were spectacular instances, but it should not be forgotten that every day 
in our great hospitals, the X-ray is proving itself almost indispensable in the exami- 
nation of the sick and injured. Besides utilizing X-ray in the diagnosis of disease 
the rays themselves are employed in treatment of cancer and skin diseases. The 
oculist, the dentist, indeed medical specialists of all kinds, are coming to recognize 
the immense aid that electricity can give in its various forms and applications. 

Electric Vehicles. 

The electric truck has already demonstrated itself as a safer and less expensive 
rival of the gasoline delivery truck in many kinds of service. In the boroughs of 




THE GREAT PRESS ROOM OF "THE NEW YORK TIMES" is ALL ELECTRICALLY OPERATED 



Manhattan and the Bronx alone, in New York City, there were more than 2,000 
such trucks in operation in 1916. Counting both pleasure and business vehicles, 
the borough of Manhattan boasted about 2,500 storage-battery driven wagons in 
active use. It is rather interesting to note that Chicago operates many more electric 
pleasure cars than New York, while New York does far more of its business by means 
of the electric vehicle. ^Recently, there was established in New York an electric 
co-operative garage, the joint enterprise of the electric passenger car manufacturers 
and an electric company. It was believed that by providing proper and adequate 
facilities for garaging electric pleasure vehicles the use of passenger-electrics in 
New York City would be greatly increased. 

Electricity and the Home. 

In emphasizing the important part which electricity plays in the business of a 
great metropolis, the home should not be forgotten. It is now possible, by means 



STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 283 




ELECTRIC TRAIN CHART AND SWITCH CONTROL 




SUBWAY CONSTRUCTION 

In the upper view the electric chart on the wall facing the switch operator indicates 
the location of every train in the New York subway system at all times. The lower 
view shows typical subway construction for third rail train and surface cars. The 
material used is reinforced concrete. 



284 STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 




'1 



03 . t-, 

O 73TT 
< li 93 fl 






I'lll 

O 

s 

H 

h 

O 



e* tZ MI 
f Sip 






g a 






O s.^^- 

3 ^,75 



r /- ^ 

al 



STORY OF THE ADVANCE OF ELECTRICITY 285 

of electric appliances, practically to eliminate all drudgery from housework. The 
use of many of these domestic machines is familiar to all: vacuum cleaners, washing 
machines, fans, and the more usual electric cooking devices. Within the next decade, 
one looks to see a remarkable advance in this direction. One anticipates the more 
extensive use of electric refrigeration and other electric labor-saving devices, to the 
great improvement of city homes, making them pleasanter and more healthy as 
toilsome operations are done away with. And it must not be forgotten that the 
city home, like the country home, is the backbone of the well-being of the community. 
Electricity can have no greater mission than improving, strengthening and upbuilding 
good homes. 

Decreased Cost of Electricity. 

Closely akin to this is another electrical development most pleasing to consider. 
Years ago, electricity was considered the luxury of the rich. Now electric light is 
coming to be shed on rich and poor alike. Little by little the shops, factories and 
dwellings of more humble inhabitants are provided with electricity, so that cleanliness, 
safety and comfort are by no means confined even to the well-to-do or the more 
comfortable homes. 

One great factor in this change has been the decreasing cost of electricity. 
Within the last decade, the cost of almost all necessities of life has ascended with 
leaps and bounds, so that a dollar now, expended in ordinary household goods, will 
purchase hardly more than what thirty cents would in 1890. But all this while, 
the cost of electricity has steadily decreased. With centralized generating plants, 
improved machinery and better lamps, one dollar today will buy eighteen times as 
much electric light as it would in 1884. With such facts before us, it is fairly easy 
to predict the still further electrical development- of all important centers. There 
will be more and better light in homes; there will be more and better light in offices 
and factories, thus greatly lessening the chances for injury or eye-strain. In all 
industry, great and small, laborious hand processes will be replaced by safely operated 
electric machinery, while wider use of electric labor-saving appliances will extend 
into the home. 

Hospitals, by aid of electricity, will be able to increase still more their splendid 
work for the relief of suffering, while cleaner and safer ways of living will serve as a 
preventive of disease. One can easily say that with increasing electrical develop- 
ment the country will come to be still greater, a country where electricity shall provide 
for the safety and well-being of all its people, 



How is Die-Sinking Done? 

Die-sinking is the art of preparing dies for stamping coins, buttons, medallions, 
jewelry, fittings, etc. The steel for the manufacture of dies is carefully selected, 
forged at a high heat into the rough die, softened by careful annealing, and then 
handed over to the engraver. After the engraver has worked out the design in intaglio 
the die is put through the operation of hardening, after which, being cleaned and 
polished, it is called a "matrix." This is not, however, generally employed in multi- 
plying impressions, but is used for making a "punch" or steel impression for relief. 
For this purpose another block of steel of the same quality is selected, and, being 
carefully annealed or softened, is compressed by proper machinery upon the matrix 
until it receives the impression. When this process is complete the impression is 
retouched by the engraver, and hardened and collared like the matrix. Any number 
of dies may now be made from this punch by impressing upon it plugs of soft steel. 



The Story in the Making of a Magazine* 

The printing of a few thousand copies of one of the great American magazines 
would not be a difficult feat for any large first-class printing plant. The putting of 
the pages into type and running them through the modern job presses could easily 
be accomplished. But when, instead of a few thousand copies, millions of copies of 
the magazine are printed, and these millions are produced unfailingly, week after 




ONE OP THE SCORES OF PRESSES ON WHICH THE INSIDE PAGES OP "THE SATURDAY EVENING 

POST" ARE PRINTED 

week, month after month, in a quality of printing rivaling the production of but a few 
thousand copies, then, indeed, is it marvelous how results are attained. 

Obviously, one of the first necessities toward? such quantity production is extra 
speed. This is secured to a certain degree by feeding the paper into the presses from 
rolls instead of sheet by sheet. But as the quality of the print must be retained, 
there is a limit in this speeding beyond which it is not safe to go. Some other method 
of increasing the production without lowering the quality of the printed sheet must 
be resorted to-^-and this is duplication. By the process of electrotyping, plates of 
metal duplicating exactly the printing surface of the type and engravings in the 
original page, can be made. By providing as many presses as may be needed, and by 
supplying each press with duplicates, or electrotype plates as they are called, the 

* Illustrations by courtesy of The Curtis Publishing Co. 

(286) 



STORY IN THE MAKING OF A MAGAZINE 



287 



problem of vast quantity requirements has been solved, so far as the actual printing 
is concerned. 

But there are other factors to be considered. For example, the printed sheets, 
as they come from the press, must be folded to the size of the magazine. This is done 
in two ways. Machines which take the sheets, one by one, from the completed pile, 
and fold them to the required size, are used on some publications, while on others a 
folding machine and a binding attachment are included as integral parts of the press 
itself. The paper, as it comes from the printing section of the press, is mechanically 
folded, cut apart, the previously-printed cover sheet wrapped around it, and the 
whole stapled together with wire stitches. Thus the white paper, which enters the 
press from the roll in one long ribbon, is delivered at the other end of the press 




ONE OF THE SEVERAL BATTERIES OF PRESSES NECESSARY TO PRINT "THE LADIES' HOME JOURNAL" 

printed, folded and bound up into complete magazines at the rate of sixty each 
minute. Issues of a magazine of thirty-two, forty-eight, or even more pages, are 
produced in this manner. 

Many magazines, however, have more pages than this. Then it is necessary 
.to print on separate presses the various sections, or signatures as they are called, 
which, when combined, will make up a complete magazine. If only a few thousand 
were printed, these signatures could be collected together by hand, and then fed 
into^ the wire-stitching machine, also by hand. This method of collecting the 
sections and binding them together was the one used until editions became so large 
that mechanical methods became necessary. 

Now, however, the various sections which go to make up the magazine are piled 
in certain troughs of a binding machine, which, with seeming human intelligence, 
clasps one copy of each section in turn, and combining them with a copy of the cover 



288 STOR\ IN THE MAKING OF A MAGAZINE 




STORY IN THE MAKING OF A MAGAZINE 289 

sheet, conducts them all, properly collated, into the wire-stitching device, from which 
they are ejected into orderly piles. Some magazines are bound together in a different 
manner, however, and are not stitched with wire, but have the inside pages and the 
cover glued together, and an ingenious binding machine has been perfected which 
does this automatically. 

Another marvel of the periodical of our day is the printing of some of the pages 
in the full colors of the original paintings. To get this result, it is necessary to print 
the sheet in four colors and to have each printing in exactly the correct spot on the 
sheet (a variation of only a hundredth of an inch being detrimental). The process 
would normally be quite slow too slow, in fact, for the tremendous quantities nec- 
essary for the large editions of the modern magazine. Both of these objections have 
been overcome, however, by arranging four small cylinders, each printing its designated 
color yellow, red, blue or black so that as the sheet of paper travels around a larger 
cylinder it is brought into contact with the four printing cylinders in rapid succession. 

Many magazines print two colors for covers and inside pages, instead of full 
four-color printings. Presses of a nature somewhat similar to those explained above 
are used. 

So much for the principal mechanical problems and their solutions, in producing 
millions of magazines of a high quality each week. But there must be some force that 
keeps this maze of machinery constantly at work, so that all the parts properly 
co-ordinate. A slip-up at one spot might cause such a delay as would result if, for 
instance, hundreds of thousands of the inside pages were printed and raady for bind- 
ing, but lacked the printed covers. To prevent any such calamity in the work rooms, 
there is usually prepared a daily schedule which plots out what operation, on each 
issue of the magazine, is to be completed that day; and if by chance any operation 
is not up to the schedule, immediate steps are taken to speed up the work until the 
production has been brought back to where it should be. 

And this schedule reaches out into the shipping and mailing departments, so 
arranging it that the first copies off the press are speeded to the far sections of the 
country. In this way all the copies as they come from the presses are dispatched, 
so that the man in San Francisco and the man in Philadelphia find the magazine on 
the news-stand on the same day, 



How did the Ringing of the Curfew Originate? 

The word " curfew" is derived from the French "couvre-feu," meaning 
"cover fire." 

The ringing of the curfew originated in England by William the Conqueror, 
who directed that at the ringing of the bell at eight o'clock all fires and lights should 
be extinguished. The law was repealed by Henry I in 1100, but the bell continued to 
be rung in many districts to modern times and probably may still be heard. 

The name was also given formerly to a domestic utensil for covering up a fire. 

In the United States an ordinance establishing a curfew, with the purpose of 
keeping young people off the streets, has existed in Salem, Mass., since Puritan days. 

Similar ordinances have of late been adopted in other cities, in general providing 
that children under fifteen shall not frequent the streets after nine o'clock in summer 
and eight in winter. 



The Story of America's First Horseless 

Carriage 

Mr. Elwood Haynes tells an interesting story of his first "horseless carriage:" 

In 1890 I became interested in the natural gas field at Greentown, Ind. My 
work took me through the country a great deal, and I drove a horse, of course. The 
great trouble with the horse was his lack of endurance, and this became more apparent 
day after day. 

One afternoon, or night, rather, while driving home after a hard day's work, 
I thought to myself that it would be a fine thing if I didn't have to depend on the 
horse for locomotion. From then on my mind dwelt a great deal upon the subject 
of a self-propelled vehicle that could be used on any country road or city street. 

I planned to use the gasoline engine. Even the lightest engines made at that 
time were very heavy per unit of power, and rather crude in construction. 

My work was confined to Greentown, Ind., in 1890 and 1891. In the fall of 
1892 I moved to Kokomo, and the following summer I had my plans sufficiently 
matured to begin the actual construction of a machine. I ordered a one-horse-power 
marine upright, two-cycle gasoline engine from the Sintz Gas Engine Company of 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 

This motor barely gave one brake horse-power and weighed 180 pounds. (It 
is interesting to note in this connection, that an aeroplane motor of the same weight 
readily gives forty horse-power.) Upon its arrival from Grand Rapids, in the fall of 

1893, lacking a more suitable place, the motor was brought direct to my home and 
set up in the kitchen. 

When the gasoline and battery connection were installed, the motor, after con- 
siderable cranking, was started and ran with such speed and vibration that it pulled 
itself from its attachments to the floor. Luckily, however, one of the battery wires 
was wound about the motor shaft and thus disconnected the current. In order to 

Erovide against vibration I was obliged to make the frame of the machine much 
eavier than I first intended. 

The machine was built up in the form of a small truck. The framework in 
which the motor was placed consisted of a double "hollow square" of steel tubing, 
joined at the rear corners by steel castings and by malleable castings in front. The 
hind axle constituted the rear member of the frame and the front axle was swiveled 
at its center to the front end of the "hollow square," in which the motor and counter- 
shaft were placed. 

The total weight of the machine when completed was about 820 pounds. July 4, 

1894, when ready for test, it was hauled into the country about three miles, behind 
a horse carriage, and started on a nearly level turnpike. 

It moved off at once at a speed of about seven miles per hour, and was driven 
about one and one-h& if miles farther into the country. It was then turned about, 
and ran all the way into the city without making a single stop. 

I was convinced upon this return trip that there was a future for the "horseless 
carriage," although I did not at that time expect it to be so brilliant and imposing. 



(200) 



AMERICA'S FIRST HORSELESS CARRIAGE 



291 







The Story in a Sausage* 

Away back in the dark ages, even before the Christian era, a Chinese husband- 
man, so we are told, made a wonderful discovery that pork was good to eat. No one 
had ever considered the possibility of eating pork, for in those days pigs were pets, 
and just as every family today has its dog " Rover," so then, every family had its 
pig "Scraps." 

One day the house of Char-Lee was burned to the ground. The cause of the fire 
is unknown. Char-Lee was filled with remorse and, as he walked about among the 
ruins of his home, he felt that the gods of Good Luck had indeed turned their backs 
on him. As he was thus bewailing his misfortunes, he stumbled over a charred 
timber and fell flat on the ground. In lifting himself to his feet, he burned the 
fingers of his right hand, and, as does a child, he immediately proceeded to suck those 
fingers. 

Imagine his amazement to find clinging to his fingers a substance most luscious 
to the taste, and most gratifying to the palate! He looked to see what it could be, 
and behold, he saw that it was the remains of " Scraps," who had been lost in the 
burning house and roasted as perhaps never has a pig been roasted since. 

Eager to further enjoy this new delicacy, Char-Lee proceeded to feast himself, 
and it was then he found that pork not only pleases and gratifies but satisfies. 
Desiring to share his new delights with his friends and neighbors, he called them 
together and they had a wonderful feast. From that day to this we have eaten 
roasted pork. 

It was many, many years later that a Roman farmer, living on a beautiful little 
farm at the mouth of the Tiber, formed the habit of putting fresk pork in a covered 
pan and burying the whole deep in the cool sands by the water's edge. But one day 
he put the pan too near the edge and at high tide the salt water from the ocean came 
up, filled the pan, and so smoothed the surface of the sands that he was unable to 
find the place where he had buried the container. 

After several fortnights he accidentally found his meat again. He examined 
it carefully and was surprised to find that it had seemingly kept in perfect condition, 
the only trouble being that the water had gotten into his pan and his meat was all wet. 
So he carried it to his house, and, putting a long skewer through the piece, he hung 
it high above the fire in his open hearth, to dry it off before he should wish to roast it. 

Later in the day he set out with two companions for a two-days' hunting expedi- 
tion in the woods. As the party returned, laden with the spoils of the hunt, his cook 
was preparing a meal for them. As he walked into the house, he thought of his piece 
of pork. You can readily imagine his astonishment when he found that the smoke 
from the smouldering embers, while he was away, had turned the meat a deep cherry 
hue, and that the fire, built up to prepare the home-coming feast, had broiled the 
piece to a nicety. It savored of an aroma so rare that it was given preference over 
even the choice pheasants which had been prepared. 

This was the first time a cured and smoked piece of pork had ever been eaten, 
but could you have seen how delighted these men were with the result of this acci- 
dental preparation, you would have known from their enthusiasm that cured, smoked 
pork would one day have a very great popularity. 

Later, a .farmer and his family decided that they would like to eat meat even 
during the summer months when the activity of haying season made it impossible to 
prepare it in the usual way, and so, in March, or during some other convenient cool 

* Courtesy of George A. Honnel & Co. 

(292) 



THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 



293 



period, he would kill the pig which had been fattening all winter, and dissect the 
carcass into hams, shoulders, bacon sides and mess pork. 

These parts were cured by different methods; one very popular way was to put 
the hams and shoulders on about an inch of salt in the bottom of a barrel, keeping 
these parts around the edge so as to leave room for the mess pork and bacon sides in 
the center. Each part would be carefully rubbed with salt before it was packed away, 
and slits were cut from the surface of the hams to the bone, so that one might force 
salt in them, thus keeping the meat from turning sour. The top of the meat was 
sprinkled with sugar and saltpetre. A small barrel head was laid on the top of the 




CHESTER WHITE Sows* 
Lard Type Hogs 

meat and a heavy stone placed on the head so as to hold the meat firmly in place. 
At the end of a week just enough water was added to cover the barrel head. 

Another way was to make a very strong salt brine. To this brine would be 
added a little sugar and saltpetre, and, after packing the meat the same as in the 
other case, enough of this brine would be added to entirely cover the meat. By not 
letting the brine get old, or by keeping plenty of salt on it, the meat could be kept 
in this way for several months, but would be available for use at any time. 

Hams and shoulders were always smoked at the end of about two months. When 
getting ready to smoke some pieces, the farmer would first soak them twenty-four 
hours in clear, cold water. By tying a string through the shank of a ham and running 
this string up through a hole in the bottom of an inverted barrel, he could secure it 
by tying to a small stick on the outside of the hole. Under the barrel he would build 
a small fire, sometimes of corncobs, sometimes of hardwood and sawdust. It was 
the task of the small boy of the family to start this fire in the morning and maintain 

* Courtesy of The Field, New York City. 



294 



THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 




I 



I 
I 




THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 295 

it all day, the idea being to keep a fire which was not too hot but which would give 
off plenty of smoke. 

At the end of three days the meat was considered thoroughly smoked, although 
some men liked it smoked much longer. After it had cooled off from the smoking it 
was hung in a cool, dry place or packed in a barrel of oats, so as to keep it from getting 
a damp mold and spoiling. 

When a farmer had killed a hog, he would render out certain of the fats in an 
iron caldron. He would take certain parts of the meat and make his home-made 
sausages, but further than that, by-products were practically unknown. 

The foregoing might be considered a short synopsis of the pork-packing industry 
up to the point which we will call the Modern Era. 

This period had a small start back in the early days when a small dealer would 
kill a few hogs, sell the sausage and lard and cure and smoke the parts, carrying them 
as far into the summer months as he could, selling them out to his trade. Various 
methods were resorted to in order to keep mold and insects from spoiling the pro- 
duct. Perhaps the most generally used of these methods was to sew the piece of meat 
in a canvas sack and paint it with barytes. This gave them an airtight container for 
the meat and enabled them to keep smoked meats all during the summer months. 

The advent of refrigeration, however, really marked the beginning of the modern 
packing era. When men learned the control of temperature it became possible for 
slaughter houses to assume such proportions as to warrant scientific research for the 
best possible methods of carrying on the business. 

The story of the development of these methods would be almost endless, but a 
trip through an up-to-date packing plant of the present day will show what time has 
brought about. 

As the hogs come in from the farmers and shippers they are received by the 
live stock department, where they are carefully sorted and graded, and then run 
into holding pens, to carry over until they shall be driven to slaughter. These pens 
must hold thousands of hogs, for although the stock is held two or three days at the 
most before it is slaughtered, we must remember that the more important of the 
packing houses kill thousands of hogs each day, so these pens must be more or less 
gigantic affairs. The more modern of them are constructed of concrete and brick, 
and are a picture of cleanliness and sanitation. They are well protected by sub- 
stantially built roofs and side walls so that the animals are not exposed to the 
weather at any time of the year. 

Veterinarians in the employ of the government examine all the hogs that come 
into these pens, and any that seem to be at all sickly, or for any reason unfit for food, 
are held out. 

On the killing floor a small army of men is engaged in the business of cleaning 
and dressing the carcass of the hog. Each man has his particular part of the work 
to do, and to this end the hogs are conveyed around the room past the various work- 
men by means of an endless chain and trolley, so that each butcher's work is put right 
before him and he does not have to make any unnecessary moves. The whole 
department works like one vast machine, and each man is a very definite and nec- 
essary cog in the whole scheme of procedure. 

Perhaps the most wonderful thing about this department is the perfection that 
they are able to reach in cleaning the carcasses. The hogs are first run through a 
great machine which takes all but a few stray hairs from them. This machine con- 
tains a number of rotating beaters and high-pressure streams of water. 

As soon as they come out of the machine, the men on the rail finish the job of 
cleaning the carcass and each animal is then run through a high-pressure washing 
machine so that it is absolutely clean before a single incision is made in it. 

The workmen all stand on high benches, up from the floor, and under the hogs 



296 



THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 




O 

1 

'5 t 
s e 
1 % 

02 
o >> 






. i 

o "a 



I g 
8 V 

03 e 



a) "o 

(B S 

I I 



THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 



297 




THE HALF-WAY HOUSE 

Cattle from the Western plains gathered in the Union Stockyards awaiting 
slaughter and subsequent shipment. The great Union Stockyards in Chicago are 
the largest live-stock market in the world. Beef is slaughtered and cleansed very 
much in the same manner as the pork described in "The Story in a Sausage," 

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood ~N. Y. 



298 THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 

we find troughs to keep any scraps from getting under the workmen's feet. The 
floors at all times are kept as clean as can be, and the meat is taken away quickly so 
that there is no chance of contamination of the finished product with the hogs which 
are just coming from the slaughter house. 

Trained men, some of them veterinarians, in the employ of the government, make 
a thorough inspection of the glands and other organs of the hog. They are so par- 
ticular that even bruises must be trimmed out before the animals are allowed to pass 
and go on with the bulk which are fit for food. It is surprising to learn how many 
carcasses, or parts, are condemned because of one thing or another, for the least sign 
of sickness or unfitness of any kind calls forth a government "Condemned Tag" and 
holds the animal out to one side to be used for fertilizer or some other inedible purpose. 

Passing through the hog chill rooms, on the way from the killing floor, one is 
impressed with the great number of hogs hanging there in a temperature near the 
freezing point. This temperature is maintained both winter and summer, so that 
the hogs may be thoroughly chilled and the animal heat entirely eliminated as 
quickly as possible after the killing, so that there will be no chance of the meat souring 
or any unwholesome condition arising. 

After about forty-eight hours in these chill rooms, the hogs are run onto the 
cutting floor, where they are made into the various commercial cuts which are seen 
in the meat markets at home. They start out with the whole side of a hog and work 
it through, until they have what the packers call the " Commercial Cuts" that is 
to say, the hams, loins, spare ribs, the bacon sides, and so on. 

The cutting room is a light, airy room with a high ceiling, and everything in it 
seems a perfect example of cleanliness, and men all work with white aprons, jackets 
and caps. 

The next stop is in the by-products building. As the writer entered, his guide 
told him the old bromide about " everything about a packing house being saved except 
the squeal, and even that having been known to appear on a phonographic record." 
He thought to have some fun by asking the guide about the smell, but the laugh was 
on him, for the guide showed him how the air containing any odor was simply run 
through a condenser into a great volume of water, which absorbed it. The gases 
which had made the odor in the first place were then taken out in the form of solids, 
simply by evaporating the water away. The big evaporators which take care of this 
work are extremely interesting pieces of machinery to see. 

There is a surprisingly large amount of expensive machinery in the hair plant. 
Hog hair would probably not appeal to the average person as being a thing of par- 
ticular value, but it is processed so as to make the finished product worth as much 
as the meat itself. 

Certain parts of the hog carcasses which would not be palatable enough to go 
into human consumption are made up into stock foods. These are sold under a 
guaranteed analysis. Highly-paid chemists are busy all the time checking up the 
analysis of these foods, for they must contain certain amounts of protein and crude 
fiber, which is said to be very beneficial to stock in general. 

Another department manufactures what is called a balanced ration, consisting 
of a certain amount of grain and a certain amount of this stock food, or " digester 
tankage," as it is called. This balanced ration is said to be the most nutritious food 
and the quickest fattener which can be given to animals. It is made up as a result of 
protracted experiments and much scientific research, both by state institutions and 
by private individuals. 

There is always a certain amount of grease which is not edible, but which is 
suitable for soap stocks, and the tank products which are not fit for food are made 
into commercial fertilizers, which are gotten up under chemical formulas, and are 
made up part\cularlv for different kinds of grains, grasses, flowers and the like. 



THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 



299 




.a 
Bl 



H 

2 3 

i-S 



a 

II 
s J 1 

fc, "S 



300 



THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 




THE STORY IN A SAUSAGE 301 

The next place is the lard department. Here great closed tanks cook the fats, 
under high steam pressure, and make them into snow-white lard. There are great 
open caldrons, steam jacketed, where an even and uniform temperature is maintained. 
Only the pure leaf lard, which is supposed to be the choicest fat of the hog, is cooked 
in these kettles. In the lard packing room there is much automatic machinery, with 
which the various sized packages of lard are weighed out. Machines hermetically 
seal the tins, and men pack them in crates and carefully weigh them over two scales. 

The average person does not have even an idea of what the modern curing cellar 
is like. The brines and curing mixtures are prepared by trained men who do no 
other work but this. Everything goes exactly according to formula, and the different 
ingredients are weighed out to the ounce. The guide insisted that a bare ten per 
cent of all the hams or bacon sides produced in the plant are finally allowed to bear 
the company's trade-mark. The men who finally select these goods are the oldest 
and most trusted employees of the firm. They weigh out a certain amount of this 
meat for each tierce, or vat, to be packed, and then an exact number of gallons of 
pickle is put in with the meat so that each pound of meat will have just a certain 
amount of pickle to cure it. This is said to insure a uniform product so that one 
trade-marked ham is exactly like another. 

Even the length of time which these are left in cure must not vary a day. In 
the great curing room thousands of vats and tierces are piled, and the usual tierces 
hold about three hundred pounds of meat, while the vats hold nearly fifteen hundred 
pounds. 

In the dry-salt curing cellars are kept enormous stocks of the cheaper kinds of 
meat. These, instead of being cured in brine, are rubbed in salt and piled away. 
These piles are perhaps three or four feet high, and are so neat and true that they 
appear to have been the work of a master mason. A single one of these dry-salt curing 
rooms holds over three million pounds. 

Sliced bacon, fancy sausage and other specialties are usually packed in a separate 
room, into attractive cartons for the retail trade. 

The standard of cleanliness in the sausage kitchen has to be unusually high. 
Wherever white tile is not possible, white paint is used in profusion. The shining 
metal tables and trucks, on which the product is handled, give a new confidence in 
sausage. The girls and men employed all wear clean white aprons, jackets and caps, 
and no effort is spared in keeping everything and everybody in the place in an ideal 
condition. 

The meat is run through enormous automatic grinders and choppers, and through 
mixers that approach a dairy churn in size. After it has been properly mixed and 
thoroughly taken care of, it is put into automatic machinery, run by air pressure, 
which stuffs it into the ham sacks and casings, in which we see the sausage in the 
markets. The cooking is done in great vats and in enormous electric ovens. 

When we stop to think of the proportion of our food which is a packing-house 
product, we can be glad indeed that conditions such as those described above are 
becoming available more and more every day. 



Why do We Call them " Dog-Days "? 

When we talk about " dog-days" now, we mean the period of the year between 
July 3d and August llth, twenty days before and after the rising of the " dog-star." 

The name was applied by the ancients to a period of about forty days, the hottest 
season of the year, at the time of the rising of Sirius, the dog-star. 

The time of the rising is now, owing to the precession of the equinoxes, different 
from what it was then (July 1st). It is now about July 23d. 



302 HOW IS A FIVE DOLLAR GOLD PIECE MADE 




ELECTRIC COINING PRESS, U. S. MINT, PHILADELPHIA 

Woman feeding planchets to brass tubes, from the bottom of which they are carried to 
the steel dies which form the coins. 



HOW IS A FIVE DOLLAR GOLD PIECE MADE 303 

How is a Five Dollar Gold Piece Made? 

The process of converting the precious metals into coins is an interesting one. 

The rolling machines through which the ingots are passed are adjustable, the 
space between the rollers being governed by the operator. About two hundred ingots 
are run through per hour on each pair of rollers. 

When the rolling is completed the strip of metal is about six feet long. As it is 
impossible to roll perfectly true, it is necessary to "draw" these strips, after being 
softened by annealing. The drawing benches resemble long tables, with a bench on 
either side, at one end of which is an iron box secured to the table. In this are fast- 
ened two perpendicular steel cylinders. These are at the same distance apart that 
the thickness of the strip is required to be. It is drawn between the cylinders, which 
reduces the whole to an equal thickness. 

These strips are now taken to the cutting machines, each of which will cut 225 
planchets per minute. The press used consists of a vertical steel punch. From a 
strip worth $1,100 about $800 of planchets will be cut. These are then removed to 
the adjusting room, where they are adjusted. After inspection they are weighed on 
very accurate scales. If a planchet is too heavy, but near the weight, it is filed off at 
the edges; if too heavy for filing, it is thrown aside with the light ones to be remelted. 

The planchets, after being adjusted, are taken to the coining and milling rooms, 
and are passed through the milling machine. They are fed to this machine through 
an upright tube, and as they descend are caught upon the edge of a revolving wheel 
and carried about a quarter of a revolution, during which the edge is compressed 
and forced up. By this apparatus 560 nickels can be milled in a minute; for large 
pieces the average is 120. 

The massive but delicate coining presses coin from 80 to 100 pieces a minute. 
These presses dp their work in a perfect manner. After being stamped the coins are 
taken to the coiner's room. The light and heavy corns are kept separate in coining, 
and when delivered to the treasurer they are mixed in such proportions as to give 
him full weight in every delivery. By law, the deviation from the standard weight, 
in delivering to him, must not exceed three pennyweights in one thousand double 
eagles. 

The coinage of the United States mints since the organization of the government 
has amounted to nearly 6,000,000,000 pieces, valued at over $4,000,000,000. 

How does a Bird Fly? 

The wing of a bird is an elastic, flexible organ, with a thick anterior and a thin 
posterior margin; hence the wing does not act like a solid board, but is thrown into 
a succession of curves. When a ^M rises from the ground it leaps up with head 
stuck out and expanded tail, so that the body is in the position of a boy's kite when 
thrown up. The wings are strongly flapped, striking forward and downward, and the 
bird quickly ascends. It has been shown that the wing describes a figure 8 in its 
action, the margin being brought down so that the tip of the wing gives the last blow 
after the part next the trunk has ceased to strike; hence, standing in front of a bird, 
the wing would be divided into two, the upper surface of one-half and the lower 
surface of the other being visible at the same time. These portions are reversed when 
the wing is drawn back and towards the body, before beginning another stroke; but 
it will be observed that during retraction the wing is still sloped, so that the resem- 
blance to a kite is maintained. There are many varieties of flight among birds; of 
these the most remarkable is the sailing motion, in which the wings are but slightly 
moved. Probably the original impetus is maintained by the kite-like slope of the 
wing, and advantage may be taken of currents by a rotation of the wing at the 
shoulder, a movement invisible at any distance. 



The Story of the Big Redwood Trees* 

The "Big Trees" of California are the most magnificent specimens of tree growth 
that have ever been found. In addition, they are the oldest known living things; 
they connect the present with the past in a chain of living rings in the tree that 
betray their great age to the modern scientist. Estimates of the age of the "Big 
Trees" vary from the Christian Era through a period dating back beyond the coming 
of the Christian Saviour about 4,000 years. 

The "Big Trees" of Calif orriia are known as the "Sequoias," and they are 
divided into two different although closely related species. The few enormous trees 
of great age which are now preserved in groves are known as the Sequoia Gigantia. 
These big trees grow at an altitude between 4,000 and 7,000 feet, and, whether 
individual or in groves, they are found in protected valleys, canyons, etc. 

What is known as the Redwoods, or scientifically listed as Sequoia Sempervirens, 
grow in heavy stands and really are a younger growth of the "Big Trees." The 
redwoods grow in the fog belt in the counties bordering the coast from Monterey Bay 
north to the Oregon line. These trees range in age from 500 to 2,000 years, and are 
generally supposed by the scientists to be a reproduction growth that began their 
earthly existence shortly after the glacial period. The Sequoia Gigantia reproduce 
from cones, while the redwoods reproduce from suckers that grow from the stump. 
The redwoods bear non-fertile cones. Both species of the sequoias are evergreen. 

These trees, including both species, range in height from 100 to 400 feet and in 
circumference from 15 to 90 feet. When full grown the "Big Trees" are propor- 
tionate and symmetrical in girth and height and the beauty of the tree is enhanced 
by flutings that traverse the bark from the base to the apex. The root system is a 
remarkable feature of the "Big Trees," for they have a very poor footing for trees 
of their great size and weight. The roots radiate a short distance below the surface 
of the ground and there is no stabilizer in the shape of a tap root such as in other 
woods. The bark ranges in thickness from four to thirty inches, although in rare 
instances it has been found fifty inches thick. The bark is light, soft and of a bright 
Cinnamon color. The lumber from the redwood tree is light, and ranges in color from 
medium to light cherry, while the lumber from the "Big Trees," or Sequoia Gigantia, 
has a decided pink cast. 

John Muir, the eminent California naturalist, evolved the theory from the 
topographical position of the enormously big trees, which grow only in the vicinity 
of Yosemite Park, that they escaped the glacial action because they were located 
in protected places in the mountains. 

Commercial redwood and there are twenty-one mills cutting redwood is 
one of the most valuable woods on the Pacific coast. It carries with it into lumber 
two traits of the tree itself fire retardance and rot resistance. These two qualities 
are the real secrets of the "Big Trees." There is no fungus growth on the redwoods 
neither are the redwoods attacked by boring worms or other insects so common to 
other species of wood. 

Some of the giant redwood logs must be split in the woods with powder before 
they can be handled on the saw carriage, and the average yield per acre is in the 
neighborhood of 150,000 feet. At the present rate of cutting, about 400,000,000 
feet a year, there is more than one hundred years' supply of redwood still standing. 

The redwoods thrive in moisture it is taken into the roots, the foliage and the 
bark. This accounts for the remarkable rot-resisting quality. The railroads prefer 

* Courtesy of the California Redwood Association. 

(3<H) 



THE STORY OF THE BIG REDWOOD TREES 




A LORDLY PILLAR IN ONE OF "Goo's FIRST TEMPLES" 

"Grizzly Giant," a redwood in Mariposa Grove, California, one of the most won- 
derf ul of all wonderful sights in the West 

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. 



306 THE STORY OF THE BIG REDWOOD TREES 

redwood for ties because of its resistance to decay in contact with moist soil. The 
Southern Pacific Company today has in service in some of its sidings redwood ties 
that were put down under its rails fifty-five years ago. 

Fire retardance is a remarkable feature of redwood. In the early days of logging, 
when modern machinery was not available, the woodsmen were confronted with the 
problem of moving tremendously heavy trees. About sixty per cent of redwood is 
moisture, and what is known as the "butt cut" logs the first cut above the ground, 
which is usually sixteen feet in length, will weigh from thirty to fifty tons. In order 
to move these heavy logs, therefore, it was necessary for the woodsmen to get rid 
of the bark, the undergrowth and the branches, which, in logging parlance, is known 
as "slash." He soon learned that redwood so strongly resists fire that it was entirely 
safe to set fire to the logged-over field, burning out this slash without any damage 
whatever to the logs, although they were exposed to a fierce fire for a period of eight 
to twelve hours. Redwood does burn, but very slowly, and those who are familiar 
with California redwood know that it is the despair of the camper to endeavor to 
build a fire with it. Redwood does not contain pitch, the inflammable element in 
wood, and, in addition, it is extremely porous, quickly absorbing water. These two 
traits, in addition to the chemical composition of the wood itself, give it the fire 
retardance quality. 

Redwood lumber, being light in weight and singularly free from many of the 
defects so prevalent in other wood, is extremely easy to work. When properly dried 
it does not shrink, warp or swell. It is capable of producing magnificent tones for 
interior finish, and some of the most charming homes on the Pacific coast have been 
made so by reason of the wonderful possibilities of redwood in this respect. Remark- 
able color-tone finishes are done by acid stains. Redwood is also a specialty wood. 
It has been used for years by the organ manufacturers in the West for organ pipes, 
giving eminent satisfaction. For incubators it is particularly desirable, while for 
concrete form lumber, and particularly in hot sections where the fierce heat of the 
sun is liable to warp other woods, it gives wonderful service by "staying put." Red- 
wood is one of the few woods that can be used over again for concrete work. For 
siding, sheathing, sub-flooring, shingles, window casings and frames, redwood is 
much used, because of its resistance to decay, both from contact with moisture or 
dry rot. 

Redwood's hardihood, due to the natural acids in the wood, make it so weather- 
resisting that it will last just as long unpainted as it does painted. However, there 
is no wood that takes and holds paint better. This is due to the absence of pitch 
and the porosity of the wood. It also possesses a remarkable resistance to corrosive 
acids and for this reason is the preferred material for tanks and vats in wineries, 
breweries, chemical works, mines, tanneries, etc. 

The great bulk of redwood lumber has for years been consumed in the State of 
California, with about 50,000,000 feet annually going to Australia and the Orient 
and about 50,000,000 feet shipped by rail to the Middle West and East, the eastern 
shipments consisting practically of house materials and finishing stock. 



How did the Expression " Forlorn Hope " Originate? 

In the expression "forlorn hope" we have made the Dutch word "hoop" 
meaning a "company" into hope. 

The "forlorn hoop" was a body of men, usually volunteers, selected from 
different regiments, to lead an assault, enter a breach or perform some other service 
attended with uncommon peril. 



"WALL STREET" KNOWN AROUND THE WORLD 807 




Photo by Brown Bros. 



.WALL STREET, KNOWN ABOUND THE WORLD 



308 "WALL STREET ?> KNOWN AROUND THE WORLD 

Why is " Wall Street " Known Around the World? 

This narrow canyon street in the lower part of the Borough of Manhattan is 
the financial center of New York City. The various exchanges and the largest 
banking institutions are situated here, and stocks and bonds are dealt in to a vast 
extent. Its control over finance has spread until now it affects the whole country 
and is a rival of the great financial centers of Europe. 

In the picture, Trinity Church is shown, lying at the head of Wall Street, on 
Broadway, with its quaint old churchyard and its spire insignificant amid the giant 
skyscrapers that surround it. Trinity Church was founded in 1696 and rebuilt in 1839. 
It is probably the wealthiest and most influential of the churches in the United 
States, controlling many valuable real estate properties in New York City, and having 
some of the richest and most prominent people in the country among its members. 

Starting approximately a quarter of a mile south of Wall Street, Broadway, 
New York City's main business thoroughfare, extends for fifteen miles to the northern 
end of Manhattan Island. The activity and variety of its traffic, the elegance of its 
shops, and the massiveness and grandeur of many of its public and private buildings, 
makes it one of the most interesting streets in the world. 

What Makes a Stick Seem to Bend in Water? 

When we hold a stick partly in the water, it looks as though the stick bends 
just where it enters the water. That is due to the change of the direction of the light 
after it enters the water. This change in the direction of the light rays is called 
refraction. Glass, water and other solids and fluids each have different powers of 
refraction. 

The law of refraction comes into operation when a ray of light passes through a 
smooth surface bounding two media not homogeneous, such as air and water, or 
when rays traverse a medium the density of which is not uniform, such as the 
atmosphere. 

What Causes a Lump in a Person's Throat? 

When we eat anything, it passes into the throat after we have chewed it, and 
instead of just dropping down into our stomachs, there is a nine or ten inch series of 
rings in our throats, that takes the food, passing or squeezing it from one set of muscle 
rings to the other. These muscle rings are capable of working both up and down. 
If something is eaten which causes vomiting, the muscles work the other way and 
force the matter from the stomach. 

When one is frightened a sort of a hollow feeling comes into the stomach and the 
muscles of the throat work upward, pressing against the windpipe and causing one to 
feel as if there was a lump there. 

How are We Able to Hear Through Speaking-Tubes? 

We know that when we speak, the sound waves that we set in motion are carried 
in every direction. Now when we speak into a tube, the sound waves cannot travel 
in all directions, but must follow the tube, and so we can hear through a tube at a 
greater distance than we can when speaking in the usual way. 

The use of a megaphone or speaking trumpet for conveying the sound of the 
voice to a distance is based on the same principle. 

Why do We Always Shake Hands with Our Right Hand? 

The custom of shaking hands with the right hand has come down to us from 
the time when everyone carried a sword or knife. In those days when one met a 
stranger it was customary, as an indication of friendly intention, to hold out the right 
hand to show that it did not hold a sword or knife ready for attack. 



The Story in a Billiard Table* 

The origin of billiards is lost in antiquity. Who invented the game and the 
early processes of its evolution remain mysteries. 

The first known reference to the game with any traditional or historical accuracy 
occurs in Abbe McGeoghegan's " History of Ireland." Cathire More, a sub-king who 
ruled over Leinster, died A. D. 148. The Abbe, quoting from King Cathire's will, 
says, "To Drimoth I bequeath fifty billiard balls of brass with the cues of the same 
material." 

As early as the fifteenth century we have much evidence of the universality of 
the game all over southern Europe. It was certainly known in France in the time of 
Louis IX, who died nine years before Columbus discovered America. 

Shakespeare, in Anthony and Cleopatra (Act II, Scene 5), makes the latter say, 
"Let us to billiards." 

Cotton's "Compleat Gamster" published in 1674, refers to billiards as "This 
most gentle, cleanly and ingenious game." He states that it was first played in 
France, but later gives Spain as its birthplace. 

That the game was well known in England, and in fact in all Europe, is revealed 
when Cotton says, "For the excellency of the recreation, it is much approved of and 
played by most nations of Europe, especially England, there being few towns of note 
therein which hath not a public billiard table; neither are they wanting in many 
noble and private families in the country." 

Billiards was brought to America by the Spaniards who settled St. Augustine, 
Florida, in 1565. While we have no direct evidence, it is very safe to assume that 
the English gentlemen, so familiar with the game in the home land, who colonized 
Virginia in 1609, were not long in introducing it in Jamestown. 

There is also every reason to believe that the French colonists in Maryland and 
Canada let no great time elapse before importing tables and equipment into those 
colonies. 

In the days of Cromwell, billiards had been tabooed by the Puritan, not on 
moral grounds, but rather political. Billiards was the game of the aristocracy and 
the Puritan hated not only the aristocrat, but the style and color of his clothes, the 
cut of his hair, as well as the games he played. 

Doubtless this attitude was carried to America by the New England colonists, 
and only when those colonies had been diluted by the injection of other social groups 
did Puritan prejudice die and billiards enter into their recreational life. 

However, there is no doubt that by the latter part of the seventeenth century 
the game was universally played in the United States. 

From that time to the present the tide of popularity for billiards as the premier 
indoor game has been steadily rising. 

Unlike most things in the affairs of men, billiards has not developed at either 
end of society, thus working toward the opposite extreme; but it began at both ends 
and worked towards the middle. 

In the early days we witness the strange spectacle of the game being indulged in 
by the wealthy and leisurely class on the one hand, and the idle and vicious on the 
other. It is easy to understand why. The first group was the logical extension of 
the old-world aristocracy. The second group lived in an age when the great middle 
class was struggling for a foothold in a new country. Men had very little time and 

* Illustrations by courtesy of The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co, 

(309) 



310 THE STORY IN A BILLIARD TABLE 

disposition for play, and this, coupled with the remnants of Puritanic influence, left 
the game in the hands of those who lived by their wits rather than work. 

From these two extremes, therefore, the game began to work toward the great 
middle classes. In process of time recreation became a necessity, until today it is 
considered a duty. Men learned to play and, casting about for a game worthy of 
them, naturally laid hold of billiards. 

Toward this desired result the Y. M. C. A. and church clubs have contributed 
greatly. They have broken down much of the illogical prejudice against the games, 
and have shown the public-room keepers that billiards can flourish under good and 
healthful conditions. 

As the game became more universally played, a better class of billiard-room 
keepers entered the commercial field, thus helping to eliminate the incompetent and 
vicious. 

Today the game has practically thrown off the last vestige of disrepute. In those 
sporaclic instances where such is not the case, it is due to two causes. First, the 
majority of people in the community have low ideals. Second, excessive license 
taxes forces certain room keepers to resort to disreputable means for keeping alive 
their business. 

Nevertheless, billiards today throughout the land is ranked among the highest 
and cleanest forms of recreation. The exceptions mentioned prove the rule. 

Through a long, hard, vigorous opposition the virtues of billiards have asserted 
themselves. Today the game stands vindicated and triumphant. It is entering 
thousands of homes, church clubs, industrial welfare, charitable, educational and all 
other institutions. There are more billiard players in the United States than there 
are baseball players; not mere spectators, but actual players. 

One large company alone manufactures 500,000 cues every year, and we must 
remember that a billiard cue, unlike a baseball bat, can be repaired and lasts for 
many years. This fact is sufficient to convey an idea of the vast extent to which 
the game is played 

In the early part of the nineteenth century there were no manufacturers of 
billiard equipment in the United States. 

In 1840 J. M. Brunswick, who operated a small furniture repair shop in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, conceived the idea of making a pigeonhole table. Success in this 
line led him to experiment in the manufacture of billiard tables, practically all of 
which were then imported. The business flourished. At first only the 6 x 12 English 
pocket tables were made later the small French carom tables were built. 

The two main objects of billiard construction are to create an accurate medium 
for play and then to keep the table permanently accurate by making it impervious to 
atmospheric or climatic conditions. 

To accomplish this with wood has taken years of experience and experimentation. 

Accuracy is obtained by the employment of specially-trained and long-experi- 
enced workmen. One large company now has hundreds of men who have been in its 
employ for twenty years and many who have served from twenty-five to forty years. 
These men know their business. 

Permanent accuracy is obtained by close adherence to two principles. First, 
to give weight to the table. One model, 5 x 10 feet in size, weighs 2,000 pounds. 
Second, all wood parts are built up with veneer layers; never are they constructed of 
solid blocks of wood. A billiard table is the last word in the art of cabinet-making. 

There are six principal parts to all tables. 

The Legs. Massive as these are, they are built up, not turned from solid blocks. 
In all legs there are at least three veneers, two on the outside and one on the inside. 
On the highest-grade tables five veneers are used. Six legs are placed on the best 
and larger tables and four on the smaller. 



THE STORY IN A BILLIARD TABLE 311 

The Frame. Like the legs, the four parts of the frame, which in every case is a 
perfect parallelogram, are built up and veneered on both sides. When the frame 
has been bolted to the legs, stretchers or braces are placed within. Two to four, 
depending on the size of the table, run lengthwise through the center, and two or 
three running equidistant, crosswise. The top of the stretcher is flush with the top 
of the frame, making a perfect level upon which the slate bed is to rest. 

The Slate Bed. Only the highest-grade Vermont slate is used, and on the best 
tables of standard size, 4x8 feet, 4^ x 9 feet, and 5x10 feet, the slabs, of which 
there are three, are 1% inches thick. At the factory the slate is cut to size and 
smoothed top and bottom. The pocket holes are next sawed out. On the center 
slab two are cut, one in the exact middle of either end. On the two end slabs they are 
cut on the two outside corners. 

The slabs, where they join, are then bored along the edges and brass dowels are 




SUPPLY ROOM AT MUSKEGON 
The many triangles will convey an idea of the vastness of the billiard industry. 

inserted which engage sockets set in the opposite slab. This keeps all slabs level with 
each other. All around the outside edge they are bored for the insertion of the bolts 
to fasten the cushion rails to the slate. Screw holes, countersunk, are bored from 
the top down through the slabs, around the outer edges, through which the slate is 
screwed to the frame. 

When the slate bed is laid, the slabs, doweled as the leaves of an extension dining 
table, are fitted together and screwed to the frame. The table is then pushed under 
a huge grinding machine and the slate surface is made plane, as nearly perfect as 
human ingenuity can make it. 

The Bed Cloth. Only the finest grade of imported Belgium broadcloth is used 
on the best tables. It is colored green, which is restful for the eyes. 

The bed cloth is first tacked to the frame beneath the slate at one corner. It is 
then stretched to its utmost to the opposite diagonal corner. When this is fastened 
the cloth is tacked around the remainder of the bed; being stretched as tightly as 
possible in every direction. 

The table is now ready for the rails and cushions. Like all other wood parts, the 



312 THE STORY IN A BILLIARD TABLE 

rails are built up and veneered, rather than made of a single block of wood. When 
the rail has been formed, the ivory diamond-shaped squares and name plate are 
countersunk into the top. The squares are to enable the player to properly judge 
the angles of play. 

The cushions are fastened to the inside of the rail by means of a specially 
prepared glue. 

Only the best grade of rubber is used for good cushions. The rubber is molded 
in long strips in some form of isosceles triangle, depending on the style of the game 
to be played. A highly resilient structure is given the cushion for the pocket table, 
and one less so for the carom. The latter is preferred for more accurate angle pJay, 
position and nursing. Nursing, means to keep the three balls as close to one another 
as possible. 

The base of the triangle is grooved for the twofold purpose of making the rubber 
adhere better to the rail, and to increase resiliency. In fastening the rubber, utmost 
care must be exercised to have it attached to the rail, so that when the latter is 
fastened to the bed there shall be uniform height all around the table; otherwise 
the ball when it strikes the cushion will be deflected from the true course or rebound. 

On top of the rail next to the cushion edge a narrow l_ is cut the entire length. 
The cushion forms the other side, making a square groove, thus LJ. 

The cushion is now ready to be covered with the cloth. 

The latter, made of the same material as the bed cloth, is cut to fit. One edge is 
tucked into the groove just described, with the outside, or face, downward. A tight- 
fitting ferule is then forced into the groove, thus holding the cloth firmly between the 
cushion and the rail. The cloth is then drawn over the top of the ferule, hiding the 
latter from sight, and is drawn down over the rubber and fastened on the under side 
of the rail with steel tacks. Great care and much experience is necessary to success- 
fully conduct this apparenty simple operation; for it is quite easy to pull the cloth 
so tightly at different points as to bend out of shape the apex to the rubber triangle. 
On the other hand, not to pull it tight enough will leave the cloth loose, which is not 
only unsightly, but will impair the rubber and destroy the accuracy of the balls 
rebounding from it. 

The completed rail is then covered with a finishing strip, known as the blind 
rail, which covers the unsightly bolt heads and adds to the artistic effect of the table. 
On the cheap grades there are no blind rails, the bolts being decorated with brass caps. 

The final operation is the construction of pockets. 

The pocket irons are semi-circular pieces of metal with flat flanges extending 
at right angles at both ends of the arc. Stout black leather is stitched around the 
round part of the iron, thus hiding the latter, and affording a good hold to which the 
leather, or worsted knitted, baskets are attached, and protection for billiard balls 
when striking. 

The flanges are sunk flush into the top of the rail; thus the pocket iron spans the 
interstices between the rails. The half of the pocket net not attached to the irons is 
tacked to the edge of the frame, underneath the bed, and covered with red leather, 
to withstand wear and for decorative effect. 

Four hooks are then fastened to the frame, underneath the table, near the corner 
legs. These are termed bridge hooks and are for the purpose of having the cue- 
bridge ready of access for the players when necessary. 

The table is thus completed for playing use. There are ingenious devices, termed 
the "return gutters" and convertible rails, which are worthy of description. 

In tables thus equipped, the base of the pocket is opened a stiff leather, funnel- 
shaped contrivance being substituted for the woolen or open leather pocket. This 
funnel opening leads into a wooden canal or gutter, the main stem of which runs on 
an incline the length of the table underneath. From this center gutter debouches 



THE STORY IN A BILLIARD TABLE 313 

branch to each of the pockets. The gutters are lined with rubber, to render noiseless 
the balls as they roll from the pocket openings into and along the gutters, at the 
lowest point of which the head of the table they fall into the " receiver." The 
latter is a specially designed box, felt lined, with sufficient capacity to contain the 
fifteen balls used in the pocket game. 

The gutter return is a great convenience in collecting the balls to rack them for 
a new game. 

Carom tables have no pockets. 

Carom and pocket billiards are so different that either they must be played on 
separate tables, or else the rails are so constructed as to be interchangeable. The 
billiard expert is not satisfied unless the whole rail is changed. This is done by 
building the table without the regular rails, and by having a separate set of rails for 
each game, which are held in position by clamps and quickly interchanged. They 
conform to the general design and decoration of the table. 

Another method is merely to change the cushions. The back of the rubber is 
reinforced by a wood strip, into which are placed metal sockets. Bolts or ratchets 
are inserted through the rail, and damp the cushion to the wall of the rail. The 
convertible rails, however, be- 
cause of their rigidity, are more 
desirable than the convertible 
cushions. 

The cheapest and most un- 
satisfactory device is known as 
pocket plugs. On a permanently 
constructed pocket table, right- 
angled plugs of the rubber cushion 
are screwed to the corner pocket 
irons and straight sections are 
screwed to the side pocket irons. A MODERN HIGH-CLASS POCKET BILLIARD TABLE 
These, however, never perfectly 
fit at the cushion joints, consequently carom play at those points is put of the question. 

Cheap cues are made in one continuous piece; or a special piece for the "butt" 
and one for the shaft of the cue. The "butt" and body are dovetailed together. 

In making a high-grade cue, a choice piece of imported wood, such as ebony, 
mahogany, or rosewood, is cut into blocks about three inches square and twenty 
inches long. One of these is then roughly turned down on a lathe until it is round 
and slightly tapers all the way from one end to the other. At the narrow end it is 
then sawed four ways toward the thicker end, a distance of seven inches. This is the 
"butt." The next section of either domestic or imported hard wood is forty-four 
inches long. This, too, receives a rough rotundity and tapering on a lathe. At the 
thicker end, a sawing-out process creates an opening, so that the "butt" and shaft 
can dovetail to a depth of seven inches. 

The cue is then sawed across into halves. On the base of the upper half a hard 
wood screw is inserted and at the top of the butt a threaded hole is bored. To 
strengthen the 'joint, the hollow screw-hole end is capped with an ivory ferule sunk 
flush with the surface. This is the jointed cue a great convenience to the player 
who travels or carries his cue home when he plays at the club or public academy. 

At the narrow end of the cue, the tapering ceases about three-quarters of an 
inch from the end and flanges out according to the kind of "tip" the player prefers. 
This end is capped with an ivory ferule and upon the top of the latter, the leather tip 
is glued. 

Before this latter operation, the finished tapering, smoothing, varnishing and 
polishing is done by hand. 




314 THE STORY IN A BILLIARD TABLE 

Sometimes a flat surface a few inches long is planed on the circumference of the 
cue, extending up from the butt end and a mother-of-pearl name plate is sunk into 
the handle. 

Cues run in weight from fifteen to twenty-two ounces. This means the manu- 
facture of cues according to weight, as well as taper, material, finish and quality of 
the tip. Each of these embrace a mass of detail too voluminous for recital here. 

The Balls. In the past, as far as we can historically trace, billiard balls were 
made of ivory. Until recently no superior substitute had been invented, but it is 
the consensus of opinion among expert billiardists that the newly manufactured 




MAKING CUES 

synthetic ivory ball is equal, if not superior, in action and wearing quality, to 
real ivory. 

Elephant-tusk ivory, the only kind used in billiard ball manufacturing, is growing 
scarcer every year, with a consequent increase in price. 

In the ivory storage vaults of one large company, there is held from $150,000 
to $300,000 worth of ivory, ranging from the tusk up to the finished product. 

Ivory is of cellular, not fibrous, construction. Through the center of the tusk 
runs the great nerve of the tooth. The structural cells build up around the nerve. 
Surrounding the nerve, the cells are small and more compact. As the tusk grows 
in length on the living elephant it also expands; but the cells grow larger and less 
compact as the tusk expands in circumference. It is quite apparent, therefore, that 
the weight centers around the nerve. To have a perfectly balanced ball, one that 
will roll true in every direction, the ball must be so turned out of the tusk that the 
nerve center runs exactly through the middle of the ball. 

The process is as follows: The tusk is sawed into blocks about 2% inches in size. 
These are of irregular cylindrical form, depending on the form of the tusk's circum- 
ference. Only that portion of the tusk can be used, the diameter of which is greater 
than the intended diameter of the ball. The rest of the tusk is used for ornaments, 
piano keys, etc. At least six inches from the point of the tusk must be discarded 
because the circumference is too small. The hollow part at the base of the tusk 
must also be discarded. There are defects discovered only when the ball is being 
turned or the segments cut. For all of the discarded portions and the fragments and 



THE STORY IN A BILLIARD TABLE 315 

shavings from the segments when the ball is turned, the manufacturer receives less 
than one-fourth of the price per pound which he paid for the whole tusk. 

A segment is placed in a lathe with the nerve center resting on the lathe point. 
The ball is then either turned down from the outside or cut out with an ingeniously 
constructed curved cutter from the inside of the segment. In the latter operation 
the ball lies loose in the center of the segment, which must be sawed in half to release 
it. Ivory seasons only to a slight depth. The thin seasoning on the surface seems 
to act as a shell which keeps raw the substance underneath. For this reason, when 
a ball is turned out of the tusk and the raw ivory thus exposed, the ball is stored 
away in a room of even temperature for about a year, that it may properly season 
before being finished. The red ball is dyed after seasoning, and at the time of final 
turning called finishing. 

Another peculiarity about ivory is the fact that, owing to the cellular construc- 
tion, in seasoning the ball never contracts at the nerve ends, but always around the 
other circumference, termed the "belly." Therefore, when the balls are turned, the 
circumference around the '"belly" is made greater than around the nerve ends, to 
allow for the shrinkage in the former. Each manufacturer carefully guards the secret 
of his allowance, which is made according to his experience and knowledge of ivory 
seasoning variations. 

After seasoning, the balls are smoothed with shagreen and polished. 

Except for the cue ball, no ivory balls are used today on the pocket table. As a 
substitute, a great variety of composition balls are used. The composition is another 
trade secret. Having been carefully weighed in a perfectly dry state, the necessary 
amount of composition is placed in a telescoping steel cylinder, the two ends of which 
are perfect hemispheres and the diameter of which on the inside is the exact diameter 
of the proposed ball. The cylinder is then placed in a hydraulic press and under a 
pressure of 30,000 pounds to the square inch, the cylinder and its contents are 
telescoped until the mass inside is perfectly round. 

The molded ball is then taken from the press and smoothed. The holes for 
the number tablets are bored and the tablets forced into position. The tablets are 
made to conform to the rotundity of the ball and set flush with the surface. The ball 
is then smoothed and polished. 

The cue bridge handle is made in a manner similar to the cue, except that it is 
not jointed and the span is substituted for the tip. The span has four slots along the 
top, which maintains a contour to assist the player in striking the ball on either side, 
or top or bottom of the center facing the player, when the cue ball is too far away to 
make the bridge with his hand and fingers. The span is made of either hard wood 
or ivory. 

The temperate and torrid zones of the world are ransacked in order to secure the 
wood, the minerals and the animal substances, all of which are necessary to provide 
the means of play. Those of us who play the game (none of us, not even Willis Hoppe, 
know all its possibilities) may well paraphrase Thomas Carlyle's reference to books 
and say, " Blessings on Herodotus, or whoever it was who invented billiards." 



What is the Hottest Place in the United States? 

A narrow valley in California, called "Death Valley," between the Panamint 
and Funeral Mountains, is considered the dryest and hottest place in the United 
States. 

Its central part is three or four hundred feet below sea level and is covered with 
salt. Its temperature has reached the extreme of 122 F. 

It is called "Death Valley" because a party of emigrants perished there in 1849. 



316 



WHAT ARE WHITE BLACKBERRIES LIKE 




THE SPINELESS CACTUS IN FRUIT 



WHAT ARE WHITE BLACKBERRIES LIKE 317 

What are White Blackberries Like? 

The accompanying illustrations show some remarkable white blackberries which 
have been developed by the great horticulturist, Luther Burbank of California. 
They grow thickly, are large in size and the taste is similar to that of the ordinary 
variety. Some spineless cactus in fruit are also shown. They make an excellent 
cattle food. 

He has also originated a new fruit, the plumcot, by combining the plum and 
the apricot; developed very excellent varieties of potatoes and cherries; and pro- 
duced various new apples and stoneless prunes as well as new peaches, nuts, roses, 
callas, violet-odored lilies and many other new varieties. 

The son of a Massachusetts farmer, he became deeply interested in plant life 
and engaged in experiments on hybridization of plants. Removing to California, he 
established the Burbank Exposition Farms at Santa Rosa, where he undertook the 
work of cross-breeding on an extended scale. In 1905 the Carnegie Institute granted 
him $10,000 yearly for ten years to continue his work. He has very many extensive 
experiments under way and has nearly 3,000 distinct botanical specimens in his 
plantation. 

Why do They Have a Dog-Watch on Shipboard? 

The "dog-watch" is a nautical term distinguishing two watches of two hours 
each, from 4 to 6 P. M. and 6 to 8 P. M. 

All the other watches count four hours each, and without the introduction of 
the dog-watches, the same hours would always fall to be kept as watch by the same 
portion of the crew. 

How Much Gold has a 14-Carat Ring? 

One often speaks of a ring as being 14-carat gold, or of 22- or 18-carat watch 
cases or jewelry, but do all of us know just what we mean by 14, 18 or 22 carat? 

Gold is divided into twenty-four parts that is, pure gold is said to contain 
twenty-four carats the carat being just a measurement term. A ring or watch 
case marked 14K or 18K means that fourteen or eighteen parts of it are pure gold, 
the balance of the twenty-four carats being some sort of alloy, copper being generally 
used. If articles of jewelry were made of pure gold they would not wear well, as 
gold is a very soft metal, and it is, therefore, necessary to mix the gold with some 
harder substance. 

What is an Electro-Magnet? 

An electro-magnet is a piece of iron temporarily converted into a magnet by 
means of a current of electricity sent through a wire which is coiled around it. The 
wire is usually covered with silk, cotton, gutta percha or some other insulator, to 
prevent the current from leaping across, and compel it to travel through the whole 
length of the wire. 

The more pure and soft the iron is, the stronger will its magnetism be while it 
lasts, and the more completely will it disappear when the current stops. Steel is less 
affected than soft iron for the time, but remains permanently magnetized after the 
current ceases. Electro-magnets are usually much more powerful than other magnets 
of the same size. 

The iron which is magnetized by the current passing around it is called the 
core. It is frequently straight, the wire being wound upon it like thread upon a 
reel; but very frequently it has the shape of a U or horseshoe, the wire being coiled 
round the two ends and the bend of the U left uncovered. 



The Story in a Pin* 

A pin, so common and so cheap today, was once so expensive that only the 
wealthy could afford even a few. The term pin-money dates from that time and 
originally came from the allowance a husband gave his wife to purchase pins. 

From an historical point of view, it appears that the need of something with 
which to fasten together pieces of cloth and like material has been met from ancient 
times by various devices. Among the remains of the bronze age are found pins and 

brooches of bronze. In Egyptian tombs have been 

s ~^\ found elaborate and costly pins, which range in sizes 

/ j from two inches to seven or eight inches long, and 

I have large gold heads or bands of gold around the 

^"^ ^""""""~ upper end. Designs were often worked on these 

heads and bands. The largest of these pins were 
probably used for fastening the haii . Till the middle 
of the sixteenth century the poorer class in England 
used rude skewers of wood, while the more fortunate 
had pins made of gold, silver and brass. The Indians, 
in the ancient cities of Mexico, satisfied their need 
for pins by using the thorn of the agave. 

As early as 1483, pins were important enough in 
England to warrant the passing of a law by Parlia- 
ment prohibiting their importation. By 1540, 
however, they were being imported in large quan- 
tities from France. Parliament again passed a law 
regarding pins in 1543. This act provided that "no 
person shall put to sale any pins, but only such as 
shall be double-headed, and have the heads soldered 
fast to the shank of the pin, well smoothed, and 
shanks well shapen, the points well round filed, 
canted, and sharpened." Some pins of good quality 
were made at this time, but a large portion of those 
against which the legislative enactment was directed 
were made of iron wire, blanched and passed for 
brass pins. Only three years after this prohibitory 
law was passed it became obsolete because of the 
improvements which had been made in the pro- 
duction of these articles. England continued to 
receive its supply from France until John Tilsby 
began their manufacture in Gloucestershire. His 

business increased to such an extent that in a few years he had 1,500 people in 
his employ. In 1636 the pinmakers of London formed a corporation and established 
the industry of Bristol and Birmingham. This latter city is still the center of the 
industry in England. 

During this period the pins were made with two coils of wire fastened at one 
end of a length of wire, the other end of which was sharpened. First a wire, some- 
what finer than that which was to be used for the pin, was coiled around a spit on a 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the American Pin Company. 

(318) 



THE FIRST PIN is A FLAT- 
HEADED COPPER PIN PROBABLY 
USED FOR FASTENING HAIR. THE 
SECOND is A STAR-HEADED BRONZE 
PIN. BOTH ARE OF THE TYPES 
WHICH HAVE BEEN FOUND AMONG 
THE REMAINS OF THE BRONZE 
AGE. THE THIRD PIN is A HAND- 
MADE PIN OF THE SEVENTEENTH 
CENTURY 



THE STORY IN A PIN 



319 



lathe. This was cut up into sections, each consisting of two turns. These coils were 
then annealed or softened and placed in a heap. Boys stuck the ends of the pins, 
which had been cut to the proper length, into this pile until a coil stuck. A work- 
man pressed this coil in a die to make it hold to the pin. The head was then soldered 
and the other end of the pin filed and sharpened. Finally the pin was straightened 
and blanched or whitened. 

In the United States the colonists early felt the need of local production. The 
colonial legislature of Carolina offered prizes in 1775 for the first native-made pins 
and needles. The first American pins were made in Rhode Island, during the Revolu- 




A VIEW OF THE PIN MACHINE ROOM IN A MODERN PINMAKING PLANT 

There are many types of pin machines which make anywhere from ninety to three hundred 
pins a minute, depending on the quality of the pin made. 

tion, by Jeremiah Wilkinson. About the same time, Samuel Slocum made pins in 
Providence. These were handmade with twisted wire heads. 

Pinmaking machines were first invented in the United States. During the 
War of 1812, the industry was started because of the difficulty of getting pins from 
England, where most of them were made. The industry was not successful, however, 
till 1836, when the Howe Manufacturing Company was formed at Birmingham, 
Conn. It is a curious coincident that the first successful American pin manufacturing 
company, making the new machine-made pins, should be established in the Con- 
necticut town of the same name as the English city which had been the center of 
pinmaking for nearly two hundred years. 

In 1817 a paper was filed at the patent office by Seth Hunt, describing a machine 



320 



THE STORY IN A PIN 



for making pins with "head, shaft, and point in one entire piece." This machine, 
however, did not come into use. Lemuel W. Wright, of New Hampshire, secured, 
in 1824, an English patent for a machine for making solid-headed pins. This was 
the beginning of the present industry. A factory equipped with Wright's machines 
was established in London, but was not successful. Daniel Foot-Taylen, of Birming- 
ham, purchased this equipment and secured an extension of Wright's patents for 
five years from 1838. He carried the production of machine-made pins to a com- 
mercial basis. Wright's machines, however, did not complete all operations. Dr. 
John Neland Howe, a physician of Bellevue Hospital, New York City, formed a 
company hi 1832 for the manufacture of pins. This concern was not successful, 




THE WHITENING ROOM, WHERE THE PINS ARE CLEANED AND PLATED 

In the tumbling barrels the pins are cleaned and dried by tumbling in sawdust which has 
been heated in the ovens in the center background. 

but in 1835 a second company was formed by Dr. Howe, who had great faith in the 
future of the industry. Nine years later, Samuel Slocum, of Connecticut, invented 
a new machine for sticking the pins on papers. 

Since that time there have been many pin machines developed, each accom- 
plishing the same result in slightly different ways. In each case a special stiff phi 
wire is drawn into the machine from a large hank, which is placed on a drum on the 
machine. The wire is first passed through a series of rapidly revolving, straightening 
rolls which take out all twists and kinks. The proper length of wire is fed into the 
machine automatically, and the end is gripped by a set of jaws. A small part of 
the end of the wire extends beyond the jaws. This is struck several rapid blows 
by a die called the header. After the head is thus formed, the wire is cut off to the 
proper length and is then ready to be pointed. It is now carried along by a shaft 



THE STORY IN A PIN 



321 



SlZE^ 



having .a screw thread, and is made to revolve rapidly by a belt which passes over 
it. The end to be pointed passes over a series of coarse, medium and fine revolving 
files or cutters. The pin now drops into a pan, ready to be finished after being 
inspected. 

In the finishing room, the pins are put into a revolving or tumbling barrel and 
are rolled in sawdust, which absorbs all the oil, leaving them clean and bright. 
They are now dropped through a blower, where the sawdust is separated from the 
pins. The whitening is done by boiling the pins in a large copper kettle, which also 
contains layers of grained tin and a solution of argol or bitartrate of potash. After 
boiling for five or six hours, they have a thin coating of tin, which gives them their 
silvery appearance. Again they are cleaned, this time being washed in clean water, 
then tumbled in strong soap water, and finally tumbled in hot sawdust to dry them. 
The pins are separated from the sawdust as before. From there the pins go to the 
sticking department, where they are stuck on papers as you buy them. The sticking 
machine is of a simple construction, but is wonderful in operation, and requires no 
attention by the operator, except to keep 
it supplied with pins and papers. 

The pins are put into a vibrating 
hopper, which slopes slightly towards the 
sticking machine. The conductor from 
the hopper to the machine is made of two 
strips of steel, down which the pins, held 
by their heads, slide. They are taken from 
the conductor by a screw thread and fed 
to the carrier, which takes thirty pins at a 

time and places them in front of a set of DC (VIC SC 

thirty punches. They are then forced along 
thirty grooves in the steel clamps, which crimp the paper, and on through the crimp. 
Thus a whole row of pins is stuck at once. The paper is now advanced the proper 
distance, and another row is stuck. When the center of the paper is reached, after 
six rows have been stuck, the machine automatically spaces the paper so as to skip 
the space used for the brand name. Then six more rows are stuck, and the operator 
removes the completed paper and inserts another without stopping the machine. 
These papers are inspected to make certain that no poorly made pins have gotten 
by the former inspection, are rolled and packed, usually in boxes of twelve papers each. 

Pins today are made in many sizes from the 3j^>-inch stout blanket pins down 
to the fine, slender, bronze pins used by entomologists, 4,500 of which pins make 
an ounce. Toilet phis are usually made in six sizes as shown in the illustrations. 
Besides the common or toilet pins, there are today numerous special bank and desk 
pins which are made to meet special requirements. 

Pin production in the United States has reached a high stage of development. 
The number of pins made in 1914 reached the tremendous total of 25,000,000,000. 
These figures are almost too great for comprehension. If all the pin wire used for 
these 25,000,000,000 pins were in one piece it would go around the earth fifteen times. 

Safety pins, hooks and eyes, and hairpins, are generally made by pin concerns. 
Each of these different articles require very ingenious machines. Many of them 
are almost human in their operation. 



BB SW 



The popular name of the prominence seen in the front of the throat in a man 
is called the "Adam's apple" because of the story in the Old Testament, telling of 
the eating of the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge by Adam, a piece being 
supposed to have lodged in his throat where the bulge appears. 



322 



HOW ARE GLACIERS FORMED 




AN ALPINE GLACIER 




THE MER DE GLACE 

The upper view shows the method of crossing a glacier, ^ach of the climbers is 
carrying an alpenstock, or staff with ice ax at one end and spike at the other. The 
lower view is the famous sea of ice in Switzerland. 



HOW ARE GLACIERS FORMED 



323 







324 HOW ARE GLACIERS FORMED 

How are Glaciers Formed? 

Away up in the high valleys lormed among the peaks of the tallest mountain 
ranges of both the Rocky Mountains and the mountains of Alaska, as well as those 
in Switzerland and European countries, the snow freezes into great solid masses 
because of the intense cold, and is forced by its own pressure into vast fields and 
mountains of ice. This ice is not like that produced by the freezing of water, but 
resembles more a very hard, solid form of snow, being composed of thin layers filled 
with air bubbles and more brittle and less transparent than the ice we are accustomed 
to see. Glaciers exist in all zones in which mountains rise above the snow-line, that 
is, the height where it is so cold that there is always snow. 

We all know that if we press two pieces of ordinary ice together each piece will 
melt at the place where it touches the other and just in that same way the pressure 
of the ice above them causes glaciers to be continually moving downward, frequently 
reaching the borders of cultivation even. As they descend they also experience 
a gradual diminution from the action of the sun and rain, and from the heat of the 
earth. Investigation has shown that they move very much like a river, the middle 
and upper parts faster than the sides and bottom, similar to the way in which a 
mass of thick mortar or a quantity of pitch flows down an inclined trough. The 
rate at which a glacier moves generally varies from eighteen to twenty-four inches 
in a day. 

The Glacier National Park is the latest addition to the series of great natural 
attractions which the United States Government has been acquiring for years. It 
lies in Northern Montana, between the Canadian border and the line of the Great 
Northern Railroad, and contains about a million acres of natural wonders, ranging 
from verdant valleys and wooded heights to glacial peaks. There are numerous 
glaciers and mountain lakes and the locality presents many examples of sublime 
scenery. The City of Tacoma, Washington, is situated in the valley below Mt. 
Rainier and commands a wonderful view of that mountain, on which there is situated 
one of the largest glacial systems in the world radiating from any single peak. 

One of the most famous glaciers of the Alps is the Mer de Glace, belonging to 
Mont Blanc, in the valley of Chamouni, about fifty-seven hundred feet above the 
level of the sea. Those of the Andes and the Southern Alps of New Zealand are 
conspicuous, and they abound in Norway, Iceland and Spitzbergen, but it is more 
especially in the chain of Monte Rosa that the phenomena of glaciers are exhibited 
in their greatest wonder, as also in their most interesting phases from a scientific 
point of view. 

How Large are Molecules? 

When a great scientist named Sir William Thomson was asked about the size 
of a molecule, he replied: "If a drop of water were magnified to the size of the earth, 
the molecules would each occupy spaces greater than those filled by small shot and 
smaller than those occupied by cricket balls." That gives us about as clear an idea 
as it is possible to get of the size of molecules. And yet molecules are made up of 
even smaller particles, called atoms. An atom is the smallest division of anything 
that we know about now. 

A molecule of water is made up of three atoms. Evaporation of water con- 
sists of the movement of these atoms in such a way as to make the liquid water 
change into a gas. Freezing water into ice is caused by making the molecules, and, 
in turn, the atoms, stick to each other. It takes a great deal of power to separate 
the molecules in water, and for this reason water was long regarded as something 
which could not be divided up, or, in other words, a basic element, such as the 
oxygen in the air 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY 325 








326 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY 




PICTORIAL STORY OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY 327 




328 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY 







PICTORIAL STORY OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY 329 




330 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY 




The Story in a Box of California 

Oranges 

For several hundred years oranges have grown in this country. For about 
tne last forty years men have made a business of growing them. 

Oranges and lemons are called citrus fruits on account of their content of citric 
acid. 

The two predominating varieties in California are the Washington Navel and 
the Valencia orange. 

The California Navel orange is in the markets of the country from December 1st 
until about June 1st, when the California Valencia type takes its place and remains 
until the latter part of November. 

It is a fact, therefore, that oranges are now picked fresh every day the year 
round in this country, and that the California oranges you buy in the summer are 
not fruit that has been held in storage, but are as fresh as any fresh fruit that the 
retailers offer. 

Most California oranges and lemons are picked from the trees by gloved hands, 
so that the finger nails of the pickers will not injure the skin, for even a tiny scratch 
on the skin of an orange or lemon is sufficient to open the way for germs of decay. 

Mr. G. Harold Powell, formerly connected with the United States government, 
was the discoverer of this source of great loss to the citrus industry. The use of 
gloves in the picking is thought to save the growers approximately $1,000,000 yearly. 

When the oranges have been picked they are sent in boxes to a packing house 
where they are put through an automatic washing machine which thoroughly scrubs 
all dust and dirt from th3 skin; they then pass through a dryer and thence along a 
belt to men and women who roll the oranges over for examination and distribute 
them to other belts according to their color and the condition of the skin with regard 
to blemishes of all kinds. The oranges then pass over automatic sizers that is, 
V-shaped rollers revolving horizontally. The oranges continue along these rollers 
until the space between the rollers has widened to the point where each particular 
size drops into a labeled bin. The sizes are designated by numbers, such as 150, 
176, 250, etc., these figures signifying the number of oranges that may be packed 
in a regulation size box in which the jobbers and retailers buy the fruit. In other 
words, size 150 is a larger orange than 250. 

The quality of an orange is judged in the packing house merely by the color 
and the condition of the skin. Size has something to do with it, but this is only one 
consideration. Many of the smaller oranges are just as good to eat and sometimes 
very much better than the larger sizes, and the condition of the skin, unless it happens 
to be broken in any way so that germs of decay can enter, ordinarily has no depreciable 
effect upon the flavor. The public, of course, finally judges an orange by its sweet- 
ness and tenderness, and a large, well-colored, smooth fruit is likely to reach the 
market in better condition than the rougher fruit which has a marred skin. 

Oranges are usually divided in grades into four classes called, in the order of 
their quality, Extra Choice, Choice, Standards and Culls. 

Lemons are handled throughout the processes in practically the same manner 
as oranges. 

After the fruit has passed the graders and the several sizes are separated, it 

(331) 



332 STORY IN A BOX OF CALIFORNIA ORANGES 




STORY IN A BOX OF CALIFORNIA ORANGES 333 

goes to the packers, who pick up each orange or lemon and place a tissue wrapper 
around it, and press it firmly into the shipping box until the fruit " stands up high" 
above the top of the box. The cover is then nailed on and the box is placed in the 
freight car which is waiting at a convenient door. The average car carries 400 boxes 
of oranges or lemons. 

The fruit is shipped in refrigerator cars, and is usually about eight days in making 
the trip from Southern California to the Eastern markets. 

The California Fruit Growers' Exchange ships on an average of sixty-five per 
cent of the California production of citrus fruits. This is a strictly non-profit, co-opera- 
tive organization of 8,000 growers, the largest body of agriculturists operating on 
the non-profit co-operative plan in the world, and probably the most successful. 
At least, the cost to market the citrus crop under this system is lower than the 
marketing cost of any other agricultural crop in the world, which accounts in part 
for the fact that oranges and lemons are sold throughout the United States at retail 
prices which place this fruit within the reach of all. 



What Kind of Steel Knives do not Stain nor Rust? 

Shortly after the first of the year, in 1916, the U. S. Consul at Sheffield, England, 
reported that a new steel had been introduced there for use in making table cutlery. 
It was said to be untarnishable and unstainable even when used with the strongest 
acid foods, as well as non-rusting. The new product, which is called "Tirth's Stain- 
less" steel, can be thoroughly cleansed by ordinary washing with soap and water, 
and cutlery made from it will retain its original polish after use. The properties 
claimed for it are of the steel itself and not the result of any treatment; consequently 
knives made from the new product can easily be sharpened in the regular way without 
fear of resulting damage. 

While the initial cost of cutlery made from "Tirth's Steel" will probably be 
about double the usual cost, for not only is the price of the steel considerably more 
than that of other steels used for the same purpose, but it also costs more to work 
up, it is nevertheless expected to prove a welcome discovery to restaurant and hotel 
keepers as well as other large users of table cutlery because of the immense saving 
in labor occasioned by its use. 

Why is it Necessary to Keep Unusually Quiet when Fishing? 

The experienced fisherman who smiles at the amateur's restless fidgeting and 
complaining has discovered by careful observation that the fish who swims around 
in such an exasperating manner just a foot or so away from the temptingly baited 
hook has had an advance tip that something out of the ordinary is going on up above 
him. For sound, whether it be the noise of an oarlock or a companion's casual 
remark, can be heard more than four times as easily by the fish in the water beneath 
than it can up above in the air. Sound travels very quickly through the air, traversing 
ten hundred and ninety feet in a second, but it reaches forty-seven hundred feet 
away under water in the same time. 

When the crowd on the other side of the baseball grounds yells across the field 
it seems as though we have heard their cheers as soon as they have been given, and 
so we have for all practical purposes, although in reality half a second has elapsed 
while the sound has been coming across the field. The time taken by sound in 
traveling is more apparent when the volume is sufficient to carry it a long distance. 
The sound of an explosion of a large quantity of dynamite and ammunition in 
Jersey City was not heard in Philadelphia, ninety miles away, for over seven minutes 
alter it occurred. 



334 



THE FIRST APARTMENT HOUSES 




THE FIRST APARTMENT HOUSES 



335 




336 THE FIRST APARTMENT HOUSES 

What were the First Apartment Houses in this Country? 

A great many years ago, long before the white men came to America, there 
was a race of Indians called "cliff-dwellers," because they built their dwelling places 
far up on the sides of steep cliffs. They probably made their homes so hard to 
reach in order that they might be safe from visits of their enemies. While many 
of their homes were small single-family houses, there were also a number of large 
two and three-story dwellings with many rooms in which different families lived. 

Some of these cliff dwellings may still be seen in the valleys of the Rio Grande 
and the Rio Colorado and its tributaries. Close examination shows that many of 
them were very skilfully built, every advantage being taken of the natural rock 
formations, and the stones being dressed and laid in clay mortar, very much as the 
bricklayer does his work on an up-to-date apartment house today. The outsides 
of the buildings somewhat resembled the cement houses which have been put up 
in later days, a coat of clay being spread on the outside walls and carefully smoothed 
off. Oftentimes the inner walls were plastered too. 

Many relics of the inhabitants have been found in these cliff dwellings, although 
we cannot tell how they lived, for the region is now rainless and therefore destitute 
of food plants. Conditions must have been different then and the ground less barren. 

Why do We Call 32 Above Zero "Freezing"? 

We know that freezing is the transformation of a liquid into solid under the 
influence of cold. Each liquid always solidifies at some fixed temperature, which 
is called its freezing point, and the solid melts again at the same temperature. Thus 
the freezing point and the melting point, or point of fusion, are the same, and the 
point is always the same for the same substance. 

Consequently the freezing point of water, or the melting point of ice (32 F.), 
is taken for one of the fixed points in thermometry. The freezing point of mercury 
is 39 below zero, of sulphuric ether 46 below zero, of alcohol 203 below zero F. 

How is Fresco Painting Done? 

In producing fresco paintings, a finished drawing on paper, called a cartoon, 
exactly the size of the intended picture, is first made, to serve as a model. 

The artist then has a limited portion of the wall covered over with a fine sort 
of plaster, and upon this he traces from his cartoon the part of the design suited for 
the space. As it is necessary to the success and permanency of his work that the 
colors should be applied while the plaster is yet damp, no more of the surface is 
plastered at one time than what the artist can finish in one day. A portion of the 
picture once commenced, needs to be completely finished before leaving it, as fresco 
does not admit of retouching after the plaster has become dry. On completing a 
day's work, any unpainted part of the plaster is removed, cutting it neatly along 
the outline of a figure or other definite form, so that the joining of the plaster for 
the next day's work may be concealed. 

The art is very ancient, remains of it being found in India, Egypt, Mexico, etc. 
Examples of Roman frescoes are found in Pompeii and other places. After the 
beginning of the fifteenth century fresco painting became the favorite process of the 
greatest Italian masters, and many of then- noblest pictorial efforts are frescoes on 
the walls of palaces and churches. 

Some ancient wall paintings are executed in what is called "Fresco Secco," 
which is distinguished from true fresco by being executed on dry plaster, which is 
moistened with lime water before the colors are applied. 

Fresco painting has in recent years again been revived, and works of this Jdnd 
have been executed in the British Houses of Parliament and other public and private 
buildings, more especially in Germany. 



The Story of a Piece of Chewing Gum* 

The original "chewing gum" was spruce gum, the exudation of the cut branches 
of the spruce or fir tree. Later, pure white paraffin wax, variously flavored, took its 
place, but only in its turn to give way to the " chicle " now almost exclusively employed. 

Though its employment in the manufacture of chewing gum is of comparatively 
recent date, chicle was used by the Indian/3 prior to the days of Columbus as a means 
of quenching their thirst. It was first commercially imported as a substitute for 
rubber, but its peculiar suitability for chewing gum has resulted in the entire product 
being consumed by that industry. In 1885 the United States imported 929,959 
pounds of chicle. The growth of the chewing gum industry is shown by the impor- 
tation of nearly 5,500,000 pounds for the year ending with June 30, 1910. 

The trees are "tapped" during the rainy season. The sap, or juice, as it exudes 
has the appearance of milk, but gradually changes to a yellow color and is about 
the thickness of treacle. The tree drains rapidly, the full supply of "milk" being 
generally obtained within a few hours, but an interval of several years usually elapses 
before it will yield a fresh supply. The milk differs from the juice obtained fron? 
the sugar maple, for example, in that it is not the life sap of the tree, and the flow 
varies greatly, some trees which show full life yielding much less than apparently 
poorer specimens. "Crude chicle" is obtained by simple boiling and evaporation 
of the milk, accompanied by frequent kneading. The product, as pressed in rough 
molds, is of a light gray color. 

The bulk of the crude chicle manufactured is shipped in blocks to Canada, where 
it is further evaporated and carefully refined prior to importation into the United 
States. When the chicle arrives at one of the chewing-gum factories it is immediately 
turned over to the grinding department. It comes from Mexico in cakes, varying 
in size from twelve- to eighteen-inch cubes; these are a putty color, but in compo- 
sition chicle is porous and brittle, particularly after it is thoroughly dried. In the 
cubical form it is said to contain from twenty-five to thirty per cent moisture. After 
it is ground and dried it is practically free of moisture, but one of the most difficult 
problems which the manufacturer faces is to thoroughly dry chicle before he pro- 
ceeds to treat it for its introduction as the base of chewing gum. 

The cubes are broken by a large steam hammer into irregular-shaped pieces 
weighing from a few ounces to a pound. These chunks are then run through grinding 
machines, which reduce the chicle to a coarse meal. Sometimes this breaking and 
grinding is done in Mexico, but the duty on ground dried chicle is five cents per 
pound more than'upon cube chicle. 

Chicle meal is dried upon frames in a special drying room, which is kept at a 
temperature of 80 F. An electric blower exhausts all of the moisture from the air. 
The pure meal is then transformed into a thick syrup under intense heat and passed 
through a filtering machine, one of the latest and most expensive pieces of machinery 
employed in the entire manufacture of chewing gum. This machine has practically 
solved the perplexing problem of separating impurities and foreign substances from 
chicle. Before the filterer was invented it was almost impossible for the manufacturer 
of chewing gum to produce gum entirely free from particles of grit. 

During the process of filtration the chicle is also sterilized, and comes from the 
machine as pure as distilled water. 

It is next passed to the cooking department and placed in huge steam-jacketed 
kettles, which revolve continually and thus keep the chicle from scorching. While 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the Common Sense Gum Co. Story by courtesy of the American Chicle Co. and the 
Common Sense Gum Co. 

22 (337) 



338 THE STORY OP A PIECE OF CHEWING GUM 




THE STORY OF A PIECE OF CHEWING GUM 339 




340 THE STORY OF A PIECE OF CHEWING GUM 




THE STORY OF A PIECE OF CHEWING GUM 341 




S42 THE STORY OF A PIECE OF CHEWING GUM 

it is being cooked in these large kettles sugar is added, and as soon as the gum is done 
it is placed in a kneading machine. It is now about the consistency of bread or 
cake dough, and after being kneaded and cooled, flavor is added. 

Peppermint, spearmint and other oils 'used are triply distilled and absolutely 
free of all impurities. The orange oil comes from Messina and is always the product 
of the very latest orange crop. 

From the kneading machine it reaches a sizing table, to which are attached 
heavy rollers for reducing the mass of gum to a strip about a quarter of an inch in 
thickness and twelve inches wide. 

At this stage it will be seen the gum begins to take on a ribbon shape. As it 
comes from the first series of rollers, it is cut into short lengths sprinkled with powdered 
sugar, and these short lengths are passed in sticks about two feet high on to a second 
series of rollers. Under the second rollers each short length of gum is once more 
reduced in thickness and extended in length. 

The surfaces of the second rollers contain knives running lengthwise and around. 
These knives partially cut the gum to its final size. The thin sheets are then sent 
to another drying room. They remain in this room from twelve to forty-eight hours, 
according to the season of the year, and are then ready for the wrapping machines. 

Machines have also been invented which stamp out little nuggets of gum. To 
be finished these pieces are sent to a long room containing a line of twelve large white 
kettles, each on a separate base. It is these machines which coat the nuggets with snowy 
sugar. The kettles revolve until a sufficient coating of the liquid sugar has adhered. 

The chewing gum wrapping machine is considered by machinery builders to 
be one of the most ingenious automatic manufacturing machines in use. It is about 
the size of an ordinary typewriter desk and is operated by one girl. She receives 
the thin sheet of partially cut gum from the last drying room. The machine operator 
drops the slabs of gum into a feeding chute. Each slab is here automatically wrapped 
in wax and silver-foil papers. These papers are fed from rolls, as printing paper is 
fed to a newspaper press. 

As the slabs are wrapped they slide into a pocket. When five of them are finished, 
two steel fingers remove them and put on the final outside wrapper. The complete, 
wrapped packages of five slabs slide along a little runway into boxes. 

The same girl who feeds the gum into the wrapping machine closes the lids of 
the boxes and places them on a packing table by her side. When the packing table 
is filled with boxes a boy removes it to the shipping room, where it is crated and 
forwarded to the wholesale dealers. 



Where did the Ferris Wheel get Its Name? 

The Ferris wheel was named after its builder, George W. Ferris, an able engineer, 
now dead. 

The original Ferris wheel was exhibited at the Chicago World's Fair. It was a 
remarkable engineering feature. 

Its diameter was 270 feet and its circumference 825 feet. Its highest point was 
280 feet. The axle was a steel bar, 45 feet long and 32 inches thick. Fastened to 
each of the twin wheels was a steel hub 16 feet in diameter. The two towers at the 
axis supporting the wheel were 140 feet high, and the motive power was secured 
from a 1,000 horse-power steam engine under the wheel. 

The thirty-six cars on the wheel each comfortably seated forty persons. The 
wheel and passengers weighed 12,000 tons. 

By the Ferris wheel the almost indefinite application of the tension spoke to 
wheels of large dimensions has been vindicated, the expense being far smaller than 
that of the stiff 1 spoke. 



KEEPING RAILROAD RAILS FROM BREAKING 343 




I 

fcJD 






344 KEEPING RAILROAD RAILS FROM BREAKING 

What is Done to Keep Railroad Rails from Breaking? 

The breaking of rails has been the cause of much attention on the part of rail- 
road and steel engineering experts ever since the tendency toward the construction 
of heavy locomotives and greater train loads became evident. 

The report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for 1915 gave broken rails 
as the cause of 3,345 accidents, in which 205 people were killed and 7,341 were 
injured, with a property loss of $3,967,188. A steel man is authority for the state- 
ment that one cold winter day in 1913, a single locomotive, making excessive speed, 
broke about a hundred rails in the distance of a mile on one of the leading railroad 
systems. 

Both steel and railroad men were, therefore, much interested in the announce- 
ment made by the New York Central Railroad, in August, 1916, to the effect that 
the road's staff of specialists had discovered the cause and remedy for the hidden 
flaws in steel rails. It was said that no rails produced under the specifications 
provided by them had yet developed any fissures. 

The process by which those rails were prevented from developing fissures con- 
sisted mainly of rolling them from reheated blooms, and although that method is 
said to have been used in a number of rail mills for many years, no mention had 
previously been recorded of the prevention of breakage in that way. The experi- 
ments are, therefore, sure to be watched with a great deal of interest, and it is 
probable that fewer accidents will occur from broken rails in the near future. 

The technical man will be interested in an outline printed in the Iron Age, which 
said: "Induced interior transverse fissures in basic open-hearth rails are due in part 
to an occasional hot rail being cooled so rapidly by the rolls or so chilled by the gusts 
of air before recalescence on the hot beds as to cause a log of some of the transforma- 
tions of the metal in the interior of the rail head. Induced interior transverse 
fissures can only develop in the track from the effects of preceding causes, either of 
which is no longer a mystery." 

The report of the railroad experts also laid stress on the theory that "gagging" 
rails subjecting them to blows for the purpose of straightening them was also 
likely to cause faults by injuring the metal. 

How does a " Master Clock " Control Others by Electricity? 

With the aid of electric currents, one clock can be made to control other clocks, 
so as to make them keep accurate time. 

By means of this method one high-class clock, usually in an astronomical 
observatory, compels a number of other clocks at considerable distances to keep 
time with it. 

The clocks thus controlled ought to be so regulated that if left to themselves 
they would always gain a little, but not more than a few minutes per day. 

The pendulum of the controlling clock, in swinging to either side, makes a brief 
contact, which completes the circuit of a galvanic battery, and thus sends a current 
to the controlled clock. The currents pass through a coil in the bob of the pendulum 
of the controlled clock, and the action between these currents and a pair of fixed 
magnets urges the pendulum to one side and to the other alternately. The effect 
is that, though the controlled clock may permanently continue to be a fraction of 
a second in advance of the controlling clock, it can never be so much as half a second 
in advance. 

An electrically controlled clock usually contains a small magnetic needle, which 
shows from which direction the currents are coming. The arrangements are usually 
such that at every sixtieth second no current is sent, and the needle stands still. 
Any small error is thus at once detected. 



The Story of the Calculating Machine 

How did Men Learn to Count? 

Historians tell us that man was able to count long before he was able to write. 
Of course, he could not count very far, but it was enough for his needs at that time. 
He had no money and very few possessions of any kind, so that he did not have much 
occasion to use arithmetic. 

It was fairly simple for prehistoric men to distinguish one from two, and to 
distinguish a few from a great number, but it was more difficult for him to learn to 
think of a definite number of objects between these extremes. Those who have 
studied the evolution of figures say that man found it hard to think of a number of 
objects without using a mark or a finger or something to stand for each object. That 
is how the first method of counting came into use. 

Because man had ten fingers and thumbs, he learned to count in tens. When he 
had counted ten, he could make a mark to remind him of the fact, and then count 
them over again. Some of the early races learned to designate units from tens and 
tens from hundreds by working their fingers in various ways. Other peoples also 
made use of their toes in counting, so that they could count up to twenty without 
getting bothered. 

Cantor, the historian, tells of a South African tribe which employed an unusual 
system of finger counting. Three men sat together facing a fourth who did the 
counting. Each of the three held up his fingers for the fourth man to count. The 
first man's ten fingers and thumbs represented units; the second man represented 
tens, and the third hundreds. By this means, it was possible to count up to 999. 

Who Invented the First Adding Machine? 

Early cuneiform inscriptions, made about 2200 B. C., show that the Babylonians 
had developed a fairly extensive system of figuring. This was in the days of the 
patriarch Abraham. When men's minds were overtaxed with the strain of counting 
into the hundreds and thousands, the Babylonians invented the first adding machine, 
a "pebble board," a ruled surface on which pebbles were shifted about to represent 
different values. 

The next adding and calculating machine was an evolution from the digits of the 
human hand and is known as the abacus in China, and the soroban in Japan. 

The abacus may be defined as an arrangement of movable beads which slip 
along fixed rods, indicating by their arrangement some definite numerical quantity. 
Its most familiar form is in a boxlike arrangement, divided longitudinally by a narrow 
ridge of two compartments, one of which is roughly some three times larger than 
the other. Cylindrical rods placed at equal intervals apart pass through the frame- 
work and are fixed firmly into the sides. On these rods the counters are beaded. 
Each counter slides along the rod easily and on each rod there are six tamas or beads. 
Five of these slide on the longest segment of the rod and the remaining one on the 
shorter. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and even square and 
cube root can be performed on the abacus, and in the hands of a skilled operator 
considerable speed can be obtained. 

The Oriental tradesman does not deign to perplex himself by & process of mental 
arithmetic; he seizes his abacus, prepares it by a tilt, makes a few rapid, clicking 
movements and his calculations are completed. We always look with some slight 

(345) 



346 THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 




FINGER COUNTING WAS COMMON AMONG EARLIER PEOPLES, AND WAS BROUGHT TO A 
FAIR DEGREE OF EFFICIENCY BY SOUTH AFRICANS 

Courtesy of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. 



THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 347 




THE "ABACUS" WAS ONE OF THE EARLIEST AIDS TO CALCULATION 

It is still used extensively in China, and occasionally will be found in Chinese 
laundries in the United States. 

Courtesy of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. 



348 THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 



contempt upon this method of calculation, but a little experience and investigation 
would tend to transform this contempt into admiration, for it may be safely asserted 
that even the simplest of all arithmetical operations, the abacus, possesses distinctive 
advantages over the mental or figuring process. In competition in simple addition 
between a " lightning calculator" and an ordinary Japanese small tradesman, the 
Japanese would easily win the contest. 

Blaise Pascal, the wonderful Frenchman, who discovered the theorem in conic 
sections, or Pascal's hexogram, was not only one of the foremost mathematicians of 
his day but also excelled in mechanics; when he was nineteen years old he produced 
the first machine for the carrying of tens and the first arithmetical machine, as we 
know it, was invented by him about 1641. This was the first calculating machine 
made with dials. The same principle, that of using discs with figures on their 

peripheries, is employed in present- 
day calculating machines. Among 
these are numbering machines of 
all kinds, speedometers, cyclometers 
and counters used on printing 
presses. 




A MODERN BOOKKEEPING MACHINE, USED FOR 
LEDGER POSTING AND STATEMENT MAKING 

It has seventeen "banks" or rows of keys, is 
electrically operated, and automatically adds, 
subtracts, and computes balances. 

Courtesy of the Bui roughs Adding Machine Company. 



Who Discovered the Slide Rule 
Principle? 

It was early in the seventeenth 
century that Napier, a native of 
Naples, invented the first actual 
mechanical means of calculating. He 
arranged strips of bone, on which 
were figures, so that they could be 
brought into various fixed combina- 
tions. The instrument was called 
" Napier's rod" or Napier's bones." 
It was the beginning of the slide rule, 
which has been found of invaluable 
aid to accountants and engineers. 

One trouble with all these con- 
trivances was that, although they 
aided man to figure, they offered 
no means of making a record of 
the work. The man who used these machines had no way of checking his work to 
know if it was right unless he did it all over again. 

The first machine to perform multiplication by means of successive additions was 
invented by Leibnitz in the year 1671 and completed in 1694. It employed the 
principle of the ''stepped reckoner.''' This model was kept first at Gottingen and 
afterward at Hanover, but it did not act efficiently, as the gears were not cut with 
sufficient accuracy. This was long before the days of accurate machine tools. 

The first satisfactory calculating machine of this nature was that of C. X. 
Thomas, which was brought out about 1820. It is usually called the Thomas 
de Colmar Arithmometer. This Thomas type of machine, which is commonly known 
as the beveled gear type, is still in use today in modern business. 

The " Difference Engine." 

In the year 1822 a very ambitious project was conceived by Charles Babbage. 
He commenced to construct an automatic calculating machine, which he called a 



THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 349 



"difference engine." The work was continued during the following twenty years, 
the English government contributing about $85,000 to defray its cost. Babbage 
himself spent a further sum of about $30,000. At the end of that time the construc- 
tion of the engine, though nearly finished, was unfortunately abandoned, owing to 
some misunderstanding with the government. A portion of this engine is exhibited 
in South Kensington Museum, London, along with other examples of Babbage's 
work. If the engine had been finished it would have contained seven columns of 
wheels, twenty wheels in each col- 
umn, and also a contrivance for ster- 
eotyping the tables calculated by it. 
It was intended to perform the most 
extended calculations required in 
astronomy and navigation, and to 
stamp a record of its work into 
plates of copper or other material. 

Babbage began to design his 
"analytical engine" in 1833 and he 
put together a small portion of it 
shortly before his death in 1871. 
This engine was to be capable of 
evaluating any algebraic formula. 
The formula it is desired to evaluate 
would be communicated to the 
engine by two sets of perforated 
cards similar to those used in the 
Jacquard loom. These cards would 
cause the engine automatically to 
operate on the numerical data placed 
in it, in such a way as to produce 
the correct result. Notwithstanding 
its simple action, its structure is com- 
plicated by a large amount of adding 
mechanism. A complete set of add- 
ing wheels with carrying gear being 
required for the tabular number, and 
every order of difference except the 
highest order. 

After Babbage, there was much 
experimenting done by inventors to 
produce a real adding and listing 




CHARLES BABBAGE'S "ENGINE OF DIF- 
FERENCES" WAS THE FIRST ADDING MACHINE 
INVENTED WHICH WAS DESIGNED TO PRINT 
A RECORD OF ITS WORK, BUT IT WAS NOT A 
SUCCESS 

Courtesy of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. 



machine. Also inspired by Bab- 
bage's work Scheutz of Stockholm 
made a "difference engine," which 
was exhibited in England in 1864, 
and subsequently acquired for Dudley Observatory, Albany, N. Y. Scheutz's engine 
had mechanism for calculating with four orders of differences of sixteen figures each. 
As far as we know the first patent in this country issued by the patent office for 
a calculating machine was to 0. L. Castle of Alton, Illinois, in 1850. It was for a 
ten-key adding machine which did not print and only added in one column. 

Work on Some of the Present-Day Models. 

Frank S. Baldwin, a construction engineer, living in the United States, began 
to work on calculating machines in 1870. In 1874 he received a patent for a small 



350 THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 




THE MODERN ADDING MACHINE 

Courtesy of the Monroe Calculating Machine Company. 



hand adding machine. In 1875 a patent was granted him on a calculating machine. 
This machine was along entirely original lines. Mr. Baldwin did not even know of the 
existence of the Thomas machine at that time. The machine had a number of impor- 
tant advantages over the Thomas system. Scientists were very much interested in 
the invention at the time, and the John Scott medal for meritorious inventions was 

conferred upon Mr. Baldwin by 
the Franklin Institute. The only 
other invention being honored 
in that year (1875) was the 
George Westinghouse air brake. 

This calculating machine, 
however, seemed to be too much 
in advance of the times, and Mr. 
Baldwin was unable to interest 
capital in it. He was very success- 
ful in his business as construction 
engineer and continued to spend 
all his spare time and money in 
experimental work. He brought 
out a number of models at later 
dates with important improve- 
ments. 

In the early eighties one of Mr. Baldwin's 1875 models found its way to Europe 
into the hands of one Ohdner, a Swede. He took out patents in all European coun- 
tries on a machine that did not vary in any important particular from Mr. Baldwin's 
machine, and several large manufacturing companies in Europe took it up. It is now 
appearing under ten to fifteen different names in Europe, the most important being 
"Brunsviga" and Triumphator in 
Germany. There is no essential dif- 
ference between the machines they 
are turning out today and Mr. Bald- 
win's original machine. More than 
50,000 machines of this type have 
been sold throughout the world. 

In 1883 a young man who 
started to work in a bank in Auburn, 
N. Y., discovered that nine-tenths 
of his work was mechanical addition. 
He also found that the human brain 
is but an imperfect tool, incapable 
of sustained effort without accident. 
His health gave way under the strain, 
and he quit the bank to begin work 
in a machine shop in St. Louis. 

This was William S. Burroughs. 
He was of mechanical turn of mind, 
with an intense hobby for painful 
accuracy. By lamplight at home he worked out pencil outlines of a machine which 




ONE OF THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL ADDING 
AND LISTING MACHINES 

Courtesy of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. 



would write figures and at the same time add them. It required the most painstak- 
ing work for him to make a machine to do what he had in mind. His early associates 
say of Burroughs that no ordinary materials were good enough for his creation. His 
drawings were on metal plates that would not stretch nor shrink by the fraction of a 
hair. He worked with hardened tools ground to a point, and when he struck a center 
or drew a line, he did it under a microscope. 



THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 351 



In 1884 Burroughs took his plans to a St. Louis dry goods merchant, who thought 
so well of the idea that he raised $700 toward forming a company. The young man 
took up his work in the machine shop conducted by Joseph Boyer. 

It was in January, 1885, that he applied for his patent, which was not issued 
until 1887. 

His mechanism throughout operated on the pivotal principle. This means a 
minimum of friction, therefore the least wear on the machine and the least exertion 
on the part of the operator. The principle elements in the machine remain prac- 
tically unchanged today, a fact which testifies to the excellence of the inventor's work. 

Experimenting on the machine swallowed a great deal of capital, and the stock- 
holders of the company he had formed became impatient, Burroughs objected 




THE BOYER MACHINE SHOP, ST. Louis, WHERE ONE OP THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL 
ADDING AND LISTING MACHINES WAS BORN 

Courtesy of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. 



strenuously, for he did not wish to market the machine until he was convinced that 
it was perfect, but he finally agreed to manufacture fifty machines. 

In his public demonstrations, he could do wonders with the machine. The 
public was skeptical, however, and some averred that he was a " lightning calcu- 
lator" who did sums in his head and printed them on the machine. The first 
machines worked all right for the inventor, but inexperienced operators obtained 
surprising results through punching the keys and jerking the crank. 

To meet this trouble and make the machines ''fool proof," he invented the 
"automatic control" in 1890. This was a governor, called the "dash pot" a small 
cylinder partially filled with oil, and in which was. a plunger. This, in connection 
with an ingenious management of springs, absorbed the shocks and governed the 



352 THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 

machine so that no matter what was done to it, it would operate only at a certain 
speed. It is this same shock-absorbing device which is used to catch the recoil on the 
immense siege guns used in modern warfare. 

Other improvements were made, and in 1891 the first hundred machines that 
were really marketable were manufactured. While still flushed with his success, 
Burroughs thought of the first fifty machines which had proved such a disappoint- 




"THERE'S AN END TO MY TROUBLES," SAID WILLIAM SEWARD BURROUGHS AS HE 
THREW INTO THE STREET THE FIRST FIFTY ADDING MACHINES HE HAD MADE 

He wished nothing to remain to remind him of this early failure. 
Courtesy of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. 

ment. These machines still remained in a dusty storeroom to mock him. Deter- 
mined to get them out of his sight and memory, he seized them and threw them 
one by one from a window to the pavement below. 

When he had disposed of the last one, he called Mr. Boyer to see the ruin. 
"There," he exclaimed, "I have ended the last of my troubles." 

The first machines were called "Registering Accountants," and "Arithmom- 
eters." Burroughs lived to see the fulfilment of his dreams and the machine a 



THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 353 

commercial success. He died September 14, 1898, at his country home in Citronelle, 
Alabama, a victim of tuberculosis. 

There were at that time 8,000 banks in the country, and it was Burroughs' idea 
that as soon as these were supplied the market for adding machines would be 
exnausied. Today, there are more than 200,000 adding machines of that one 
make in use. 

The need for an all-around office assistant that could multiply, divide, subtract 
as easily as it could add, was an idea nourished in the mind and thought of a young 
student of the University of Michigan. 

After graduation, Jay R. Monroe turned his attention to clerical and commercial 




THE LATEST MODEL CALCULATING MACHINE 

Courtesy of the Monroe Calculating Machine Company. 



lines. He became acquainted with all the different types of adding and so-called 
calculating machines. He saw their limitations and restrictions. He saw the need 
for versatility for more simplicity in operation for getting away from arbitrary 
rules for release from the sapping mental tax. 

So in 1911 Monroe met Mr. Baldwin. Mr. Monroe realized the possibilities of 
Mr. Baldwin's idea. Together they set about designing the machine to make it as 
nearly perfect as possible in adaptation to the needs of modern business. 

They produced a machine in which the best of the European features are said 
to be combined with the operating ease and simplicity of American-made machines, 



354 THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 



Provision is made for the correction of errors, and operation is in two directions, for- 
ward for addition and multiplication, and backward for subtraction and division. 
The latest model is a desk machine, occupying less than one square foot of space and 
weighing about twenty-six pounds. 

One of the latest developments cf the adding machine is a type that will post 




THE "DUODECILLION" THE LARGEST CAPACITY ADDING MACHINE IN THE WORLD HAS 
FORTY Rows OP KEYS AND WILL ADD TO WITHIN A UNIT OF TEN DUODECILLIONS 

To appreciate this prodigious figure, imagine that a marvelous high-speed flying machine 
were invented that would go to the sun and back in a day. If you made this 186,000,000-mile 
trip every day, it would take you just 14,729,700,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years to travel 
a duodecillion miles. 
Courisey of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company, 



ledgers and statements, 
keeping of its drudgery. 



This machine is said to be the final step in relieving book- 



How Big is the Largest Adding Machine in the World? 

The largest adding machine ever made was produced in 1915 and has a capacity 
of forty columns, or within one unit of ten duodecillions. This is a number too pro- 
digious for the mind of man to grasp. This machine was exhibited at the Panama 
Expositions in 1915. 

To get an idea of the capacity of this machine, suppose that your income is 
$1,000,000 a second. At this rate for twenty-four hours a day, with no stops for 
eating or sleeping, it would take you 352,331,022,041,828,731,333,333,333, years to 



THE STORY OF THE CALCULATING MACHINE 355 



accumulate a duodecillion dollars. All the hairs on the heads of all human beings, 
which are supposed to be numberless, are only a small fraction of a duodecillion. 

This machine has a practical use in adding several sums simultaneously, and 
takes the place of from ten to a dozen smaller machines. 

Adding machines are made that figure in English pence, shillings and pounds; 
in Japanese yen, and in the monetary system of most civilized countries. They will 
change inches into feet, pounds into bushels, and do other "stunts" that would make 
the average schoolboy envious when it comes to arithmetic. 

The most complicated problems of multiplication, division and fractions may 
be handled with ease on these machines. They have taken a great part in the day's 
work of modern business, and it would be hard to imagine how the world's finance 
and industry could be handled without them. Adding and calculating machines 
have become almost as necessary in 
modern business as the telephone and 
the typewriter. 

How are Adding Machines Used? 

Adding machines may be found 
at work in all kinds of business places 
from corner groceries to department 
stores and manufacturing plants. In 
the various offices and plants of the 
Western Electric Company, which are 
scattered through the country, more 
than 1,600 machines are in use. Other 
big users are railroads, banks, mail- 
order houses, and city, state and 
government offices. 

The Bank of France, the Bank 
of England, and other of the world's 
largest financial institutions do the 
burden of their figure work on adding 
machines made in the United States. 
The German post-office uses more than 
1,200 machines. There are individual American banks, like the Corn Exchange 
National Bank of New York, that employ as many as 150 adding machines in 
their work. 

Some surprising uses are found for adding machines. One is used in a Japanese 
boarding house in California; another is used by a retired Dayton millionaire to count 
the coupons he clips; the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission uses a machine in fight- 
ing the hook-worrn; the United States government uses thousands in making census 
tabulations and in other ways. Others are used by newsboys, egg farmers, house- 
wives, undertakers, dentists, judges in automobile races, and by persons in a thousand 
different lines of business. Without adding machines the public would be obliged to 
wait for days for the results of most elections. 

In this way, the idea of a tired bank clerk came to change the figuring methods 
of the world. 




ONE OF THE SMALLEST ADDING MACHINES 
is ADAPTED FOR USE BY RETAIL MERCHANTS 
AND OTHERS WHO DO NOT ADD FIGURES OF 
MORE THAif FIVE DIGITS 

Courtesy of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. 



The words "Almighty Dollar" have been generally adopted since Irving first 
used them in his "Creole Village," and the use of "lynching" to represent mob law 
and the action of mobs has become common oince a Virginia farmer by that name 
instituted the first vigilance committee in America. 



356 WHERE DOES ERMINE COME FROM 

Where does Ermine Come From? 

The ermine fur, with which we are all familiar, is furnished by the stoat, a small 
animal of the weasel tribe. It is found over both temperate Europe and North 
America, but is common only in the north. 

Because of that change which occurs in the color of its fur at different seasons 
by far most marked in the Arctic regions it is not generally known that the ermine 

and stoat are the same. In whiter, in cold countries 
or severe seasons, the fur changes from a reddish- 
brown to a yellowish-white, or almost pure white, 
under which shade the animal is recognized as the 
ermine. In both states the tip of the tail is black. 
Like many other species of this genus, the ermine 
has the faculty of ejecting a fluid of a musky odor. 
Its fur is short, soft and silky; the best skins 
being brought from Russia, Sweden and Norway and 
Hudson Bay territories. Its fur was formerly one 




ERMINE (Mustela Erminea) 



of the insignia of royalty, and is still used by judges. 
When used as linings of cloaks the black tuft from 
the tail is sewed to the skin at irregular distances. 



What is the Principle of " Foreign Exchange "? 

Exchange, in commerce, is a transaction by which the debts of people residing 
at a distance are canceled by a draft or bill of exchange, without transfer of any 
actual money. 

A merchant in New York who owes $1,000 worth of goods in London, gives a 
bill or order for that amount which can be negotiated through banking agencies 
or otherwise against similar debts owing by other parties in London who have pay- 
ments to make in New York. This obviates the expense and risk of transmitting 
money. 

The process of liquidating obligations between different nations is carried on in 
the same way by an exchange of foreign bills. When all the accounts of one country 
correspond in value with those of another, the exchange between the countries will 
be at par, that is, the sum for which the bill is drawn in the one country will be the 
exact value of it in the other. 

Exchange is said to be at par when, for instance, a bill drawn in New York for 
the payment of $1,000 in London can be purchased there for $1,000. If it can be 
purchased or less, exchange is under par and is against London. If the purchaser 
is obliged to give more, exchange is above par and in favor of London. 

Although the thousand circumstances which incessantly affect the state of debt 
and credit prevent the ordinary course of exchange from being almost ever precisely 
at par, its fluctuations are confined within narrow limits, and if direct exchange is 
unfavorable between two countries this can often be obviated by the interposition 
of bills drawn on other countries where an opposite state of matters prevails. 

What do We Mean by " The Old Moon in the New Moon's Arms"? 

"Earth-shine/' in astronomy, is the name given to the faint light visible on 
the part of the moon not illuminated by the sun, due to the illumination of that 
portion by the light which the earth reflects on her. It is most conspicuous when 
the illuminated part of the disc is at its smallest, as soon after new moon. Thia 
phenomenon is popularly described as "the old moon in the new moon's arms." 



The Story in a Bowling Alley 

From the " stone age" onward the probabilities are that man has always had 
some kind of bowling game. 

Bowling, as we know today, is an indoor adaptation of, and an improvement 
upon, the old Dutch game of " nine-pins." This game was brought from Holland 
by those colonists who settled Manhattan Island in 1623. 

Washington Irving, in his story, "Rip Van Winkle," refers to the old Dutch 
fairy tale, that the rolling thunder on the mountain tops of the Catskill was the 
noise made by the rolling balls as the elfs and gnomes engaged in their favorite 
pastimes of bowling. 

That little section of New York City known as Bowling Green is the original 
spot which, in 1732, Peter Bayard, Peter Jay and John Chambers leased for eleven 
years and enclosed for a bowling green. 

With the influx of German immigrants, who brought with them a game similar 
to the Dutch game, additional popularity was given to the sport. 

The game was originally played on the bare ground. The Germans used a board 




LOOP THE LOOP RETURN 

about a foot wide on which to roll the ball, and then improved on this by using cohe- 
sive mineral substances solidly packed together. At an early date, the Dutch had 
covered the alley with a roof, and later enclosed it in a rough shed, to protect it and 
make play possible in any kind of weather. But, great as these improvements were 
over the crudeness of previous centuries, they are not worthy of comparison with a 
modern bowling academy. 

In the best hard-wood section of the United States, one of the large bowling 
equipment manufacturers owns about thirty thousand acres of maple. From this 
raw material is gathered the chief stock that goes into bowling alleys and the pins. 

The company has its own logging crews that cut the timber and pile it on flat 
cars, whence it is transported over a private railroad until it arrives at the company 
sawmills. Here the raw material enters upon the manufacturing process. 

The rough stock-strips for the alley "bed," "leveling strips," "return chute," 
"post" and "kick-backs" are sawed out of certain of the logs. They are then 
shipped to a factory where they are seasoned, being kiln dried. The stock is next 
cut to the required sizes. 

* Illustrations by courtesy of The Brunswlck-Balke-Collender Co. 

(357) 



358 



THE STORY IN A BOWLING ALLEY 



The bed stock is cut into strips, planed on all sides, and tongued and grooved 
on the widest sides. When finished, the strips measure 3x1 inch. Part of the 
bed stock, however, is hard pine, shipped from the Southern states in the rough boards. 
This is finished similar to the maple strips. 

The " kick-backs" are the two partitions, shaped somewhat like a ship's rudder, 
which form the two pit sides. Each consists of two facings of the best maple with 
a core of hard but resilient wood in the middle. They are built in this way to make 
the pins that fly side-wise spring back on the bed and knock down other standing 
pins, and also to withstand the exceedingly rough usage to which they are subject 
by the flying pins and rolling balls. 

The cushion forms the rear end of the pit. The frame is stoutly constructed, 
and the face thickly upholstered with scrap leather and a heavy but pliable covering. 
It swings on hinges which suspend it from the cross bar, running from each of the 
kick-backs across the pit end at the top. The cushion diminishes the force of the 
rolling balls and flying pins, permitting them to fall gently into the pit. 

The " gutters" are the concave boards that extend the complete length of the 
alley, from the foul Une to the pit, on both sides of the bed. The purpose is to take 

care of the misdirected balls that roll 
off the bed before reaching the pit. 

The "return chute," or "loop-the- 
loop return," is the railway along 
which the balls travel in their return 
from the pit to the bowler. It is 
usually placed on the right-hand side 
of the alley, or between a pair of alleys. 
At the pit end, the chute is solidly 
constructed with a concave flanged 
surface placed on the top of the kick- 
back. It conforms to the downward 
curve of the latter, but the rail work 

begins at the top of the incline and extends back to the newel post at the bowler's 
end of the alley. The flanges easily accommodate the balls when placed on the 
chute by the pin boy. 

The newel post is not made of a solid block, but is built up, being veneered on 
the inside, as well as on the outside, to make it impervious to atmospheric changes. 
The top contains a sponge cup to moisten the fingers of the bowler. 

The rails form a semicircle at the post, with the ends of the arc pointing down 
the alley. A tightly stretched leather strap extends horizontally from the upper 
end of the arc back to the post, where it is fastened with a swivel screw. Half way 
up, from the points of the arc, a second rail, i. e.j the " receiver," is built, with suffi- 
cient space between it and the strap to allow the passage of the largest size ball. 
With the momentum gained by rolling down the incline of the kick-back, the ball 
rolls back on the inside of the curve until it strikes the strap, where its course is 
stopped, and it drops on the receiver, ready again for use by the bowler. 

In beginning the construction of an alley, the mechanic lays the leveling strips 
on which the bed is to rest. These are set at right angles to the direction in which 
the bed is to lie, and must be spirit-leveled for accuracy, and firmly fastened to the 
foundation. A strip of cork carpet is then laid the full width of the alley and extending 
the entire length of the bed. This is to reduce to a minimum the sound of the balls 
dropping on and rolling down the bed. 

On the leveling strips at the extreme side of where the bed is to lie, a 3 x 1-inch 
maple strip is laid, widest side downward, with its finished one-inch edge nearest to 
the gutter. One end of this strip marks the extreme end of the approach. The 




CROSS-SECTION OF BOWLING BED SHOWING STEEL 
CLAMP 



THE ^STORY IN A BOWLING ALLEY 359 

other end of the strip is continued by adding other strips the full length of the bed. 
When these have been carefully squared to the exact direction the alley is to run, 
they are fastened to the leveling strips. 

The next strip, also of maple, is tongued into the lower one, but its continuous 
length extends only about five feet beyond the foul line, or about eighteen feet from 
the approach end. 

A bowling bed cannot be laid as an ordinary floor. It is built upon its side and 
when finished resembles a wooden wall about seventy-five feet long four inches high 
and three inches wide. 

The approach end of the bed, approximately eighteen feet long, is constructed 
of maple, with each alternate strip of the 3 x 1-inch bed stock about eighteen inches 
shorter. The pit end of the bed is similarly constructed for a distance of about 
six feet. The space between is filled in with the pine strips of the same dimensions, 
and the alternate long and short strips at the inner ends of the approach and pit- 
ends form mortices into which the pine dovetails. 

The wear on the bed occurs where the bowler walks and drops the ball and 




PIT END SECTION OF BOWLING ALLEYS 

where the ball strikes the pins; hence the hard maple. The interior is filled with 
pine, which is softer, because it retains a higher polish and prevents the rolling ball 
from bumping; thus throwing it from its proper course. 

The bed is thus built up for its continuous length, strip by strip, the tongue of 
one strip fitting into the groove of the other, and both nailed firmly together, until 
the proper width (while being built, the height) is attained. When the bed is 
finished, the strips are clamped with steel clamps, the turned-up ends of which 
firmly grip the sides of the bed, thus preventing warping or spreading. While the 
bed is still in this upright position, a one-inch slot is cut across where the foul line 
is to rest, and holes are bored through the bed. A black composition strip, i. e., 
the "foul-line," is inserted in the slot and bolted through the holes to the bottom 
of the bed. 

At the pit end, circular slots are cut and holes bored for the purpose of counter- 
sinking and fastening the "pin spots." The latter are of the same substance as 
the foul-line and all are sunk flush with the surface of the bed. 

This clamping and fastening explains the necessity for building the bed on 
its side. 

It is now ready to be placed into position. It is merely toppled over, face side 
upward, clamped side underneath. So exact has it been built, according to specifi- 



360 



THE STORY IN A BOWLING ALLEY 



cations and alignment, and the mass is so heavy, that the dead weight makes it lie 
where it falls and only the slightest adjustment is necessary. 

The height of the leveling strips, plus the height of the bed, lift its surface about 
six inches from the foundation floor. At the pins end of the bed, this forms one 
of the sides and the bottom of the pit. The bottom is floored with maple and covered 
with a specially prepared pit mat, durable, yet soft, so as not to damage the balls 
and phis falling upon it. The back and sides of the pit are formed by the kick-backs, 
braces and cushion. 

After the kick-backs are placed in position, the gutters are laid, and then the 

return chute railway is laid, between 
and slightly above them. At the ap- 
proach end of the bed the newel post 
is firmly fastened to the foundation, and 
the floor that is laid above the latter and 
flush with the surface of the bed serves 
to brace the post, making it immovable. 
The curved end of the chute and the 
receiver are then added. 

The bed is then planed its entire 
length, sandpapered, shellaced and pol- 
ished. The remainder of the woodwork 
is finished in its natural color except the 
gutters, which are stained mahogany 
and shellaced. They are thus stained, 
not only for artistic effect, but to clearly 
define the outer edges of the bed a 
matter of great importance to the bowler 
when trying to knock down the two 
outer pins in the third row. 

In making the pins, the best selected 
logs are sawed into blocks about 2x1 
feet. These are placed in a lathe and 
gouged out, forming the pin in the 
rough. They are next turned down to 
size and selected for quality and weight, 
after which they are kiln dried and 
receive a final turning to perfect their 
formation, then smoothed and finished. 
The Backus pin-setter is almost 
human in its operation. The old way 
was to hire boys to set up the pins on 
the spots and return the ball via the return chute. The phi-setter relieves the boy 
of the major and most time-consuming part of this work. A frame holding the 
machine is set up over the spots. It is placed so high that it does not interfere 
with either the flying pins or the rolling balls. 

As the pins are knocked off into the gutters, or the pit, the pin boy picks them 
up and lays them flat on their sides into the pockets at the top of the machine. When 
a "frame" is rolled those pins standing on the alley remain there and the machine 
is lowered by a balance weight controlled by a lever. As it descends the pins are 
automatically set on end, and when they rest on the spots on the alley the machine 
releases them and springs up to its original position. 

Wooden balls for bowling were never satisfactory. They wore put too easily 
and never retained perfect rotundity. Fortunes were spent in experimenting with 
other materials until at last the famous "mineralite" ball was perfected. 




BACKUS AUTOMATIC PIN SETTERS 



THE STORY IN A BOWLING ALLEY 361 

Its composition is a trade secret, but its chief ingredient is rubber. 

First the composition is rolled into sheets. These are then molded and later vul- 
canized, being subject to terrific pressure. The balls are then smoothed and polished. 

As it is impossible to make a perfectly round ball and have the weight equally 
distributed, the ball can not roll true; an ingenious device overcomes the difficulty. 
The ball is set in a basin of mercury, where it floats. Naturally, the heavier side 
of the ball swings to the bottom. On the top, diametrically opposite to the center of 
weight, a chalk mark is placed on the ball and it is then lifted out of the mercury. 

Diametrically opposite to the chalk mark a small hole is punched into the ball 
to indicate the weightiest point. Directly beneath this is stamped the trademark 
of the firm. 

Having ascertained the proper distance apart the finger holes are to be bored, 
the ball is weighed to determine the excess of its proposed weight when finished. 

The holes are then machine bored at the respective points, sufficiently deep 
to reduce the weight to exact specifications. 



How are Artificial Precious Stones Made? 

The art of manufacturing gems synthetically, that is, by the combination of 
chemical elements present in the real stone, has reached a high degree of success. 

The diamond, which is an allotropic form of carbon, has hitherto resisted attempts 
to reproduce it of sufficient size to have a commercial value. By dissolving carbon 
in molten iron and suddenly cooling the molten mass by a stream of water, where- 
upon the outer part contracts with great force and compresses the interior so that 
the carbon separates out, Moissan, the French chemist, succeeded in isolating small 
crystals, none, however, as large as one-twenty-fifth of an inch in diameter. 

Experiments in the manufacture of the ruby have met with such success that 
the synthetic ruby is produced of a size and of a perfection that would place a pro- 
hibitive value on the natural stone. The ruby, chemically considered, is crystal- 
lized alumina, or oxide of aluminum, with a small percentage of oxide of chromium. 

Sapphire is of the same material, differing from the ruby only in color. The 
ruby owes its fine red color to the presence of oxide of chromium; the sapphire its 
deep blue to either a lower oxide of chromium or to an oxide of titanium. 

Crystallized alumina in the different colors receives different trade names, as 
Oriental emerald for the green; Oriental topaz for the yellow; Oriental amethyst 
for the purple; while the water-clear, colorless crystal is known as white sapphire. 

The process of manufacture of rubies is carried on with the oxyhydrogen blow- 
pipe, to whose intense heat the powdered alumina with its coloring oxides is sub- 
jected. Rubies have been thus produced weighing twelve to fifteen carats when 
cut. The average weight of the native Burmese ruby is about one-eighth of a carat. 
The sapphire and the so-called Oriental stones are prepared in the same manner, 
with the addition of proper coloring matter. 

The emerald and opal have not emerged from the experimental stage, although 
Becquerel, a French chemist, is reported to have produced opals from solutions of 
silicates with high-tension electric currents. 

To be distinguished from synthetic gems are reconstructed stones, which (as 
yet only done with the ruby) are pieces of the natural stone fused together. They 
are very brittle. 

The pearl is not produced synthetically, but many imitations exist. The 
Japanese produce them by fastening a piece of mother-of-pearl in the shells of the 
pearl-oyster and allowing it to remain there for a number of years. 

The turquoise, a phosphate of aluminum colored with copper, is not synthetically 
produced, although various experiments with its manufacture have been made. 



362 



WHAT IS A MEXICAN BULL-FIGHT LIKE 




WHAT IS A MEXICAN BULL-FIGHT LIKE 363 

What is a Mexican Bull-Fight Like? 

Bull-fights are among the favorite diversions of the Spaniards. They are 
usually held in an amphitheater having circular seats rising one above another, and 
are attended by vast crowds who eagerly pay for admission. 

The combatants, who make bull-fighting their profession, march into the arena 
in procession. They are of various kinds the picadores, combatants on horseback, 
in the old Spanish knightly garb; the chulos and banderilleros, combatants on foot, 
in gay dresses, with colored cloaks or banners; and finally, the matador (the killer). 

As soon as the signal is given the bull is let into the arena. The picadores, who 
have stationed themselves near him, commence the attack with their lances, and the 
bull is thus goaded to fury. Sometimes a horse is wounded or killed (only old, worth- 
less animals are thus employed), and the rider is obliged to run for his life. The 
chulos assist the horsemen by drawing the attention of the bull with their cloaks; 
and in case of danger they save themselves by leaping over the wooden fence which 
surrounds the arena. The banderilleros then come into play. They try to fasten on 
the bull their banderillas barbed darts ornamented with colored paper, and often 
having squibs or crackers attached. If they succeed, the squibs are discharged and 
the bull races madly about the arena. 

The matador or espada now comes in gravely with a naked sword and a red flag 
to decoy the bull with, and aims a fatal blow at the animal. The slaughtered bull 
is dragged away, and another is let out from the stall. Several bulls are so disposed 
of in a single day. 

What is the Difference between " Alternating " and " Direct " Current? 

Strong currents of electricity are generated in the electric central stations and 
supplied to our homes, street lamps and so forth, in one of the two forms, either 
"alternating" or " direct." While many of us know which kind is furnished to our 
homes, everyone does not always understand the difference between the two. 

The central station contains a number of powerful dynamo machines, driven 
usually by steam power. The positive and negative terminals of the dynamo are 
put in connection with the positive and negative main conductors which are to supply 
the district, and from these mains smaller conductors branch off to the houses or 
lamps. All these conductors are of copper, that metal when pure having seven times 
the conductivity of iron. 

Different methods are in use for keeping the supply of electricity steady in spite 
of the varying demands made upon it. In some systems of distribution, instead of 
the two main conductors being one positive and the other negative, each is positive 
and negative alternately, the reversals taking place some hundreds of times per 
second. The currents are then said to be " alternating." When such reversals do 
not take place, the currents are said to be " direct." 

What was the " Court of Love "? 

The " Court of Love" existed in what we call the chivalric period of the 
middle ages. 

It was composed of knights, poets and ladies, who discussed and gave decisions 
on subtle questions of love and gallantry. The first of these courts was probably 
established in Provence about the twelfth century. They reached their highest 
splendor in France, under Charles VI, through the influence of his consort, Isabella 
of Bavaria, whose court was established in 1380. An attempted revival was made 
under Louis XIV by Cardinal Richelieu. 



The Story of the Addressograph* 

If you were asked to enumerate the different kinds of clerical work performed 
in the modern business office, you would probably fail to mention the writing of 
names. Yet the writing and rewriting of names is as essential in most offices as 
the addition of figures or the dictation of correspondence. 

In fact, names represent the backbone of nearly every business or organization. 
There is the list of names of those people you sell to; the names of those people you 
want to sell to; the names of those people you buy from; the names of those people 
who owe you money; the names of those people to whom you owe money and the 
names of those people who work for you. Then, lodges, clubs, churches and other 
organizations must maintain lists of names of then* members; and so the different 
kinds of lists go on ad infinitum. 

Now, in most offices, these names must be written and rewritten over and over 
again often many times each month on envelopes, price-lists, statements, checks, 
pay forms, ledger sheets, order forms, tags, labels, etc. And in many offices the 
writing of names is still a slow, tedious, drudging ta&k as the workers in those offices 
will testify. 

The Birth of Mechanical Addressing. 

But in one office this monotonous task of writing and rewriting the same names 
over and over again became such a hardship that the man who had to do it, thinking 
twenty-five years ahead of his time, had a vision of performing such work mechanically. 
That vision was the forerunner of the Addressograph. 

In the early 90's, Mr. Joseph S. Duncan was manager of a little flour and grist 
mill in Iowa. The requirements of his business necessitated the daily addressing 
of 100 quotation cards. Those were the days of pen and ink and the imperfectly 
developed typewriter. Mr. Duncan's office was small. He was the sole worker in 
that office and as the typewriter was still a curiosity in that section of the country, 
Mr. Duncan was obliged to depend upon pen and ink in addressing his daily price 
cards. This routine task wasted a great deal of his valuable time each day. In an 
effort to finish the work quickly, so that he could devote his attention to more 
important matters, Mr. Duncan found that he was frequently sacrificing accuracy 
for speed. Result his concern often suffered considerable loss of profit because 
his quotation cards did not reach the people for whom they were intended. Finally, 
becoming disgusted with inefficient and inaccurate pen and ink addressing methods, 
Mr. Duncan made a trip to Chicago for the purpose of purchasing a machine for 
addressing his price cards. But, on visiting the leading stationery and office equip- 
ment stores, he was told there was no such machine. He returned to his office 
resigned to the task of addressing his 100 daily quotation cards by pen and ink. But 
the drudgery and monotony of this work would not down in his mind. The mistakes 
and omissions made hi addressing these price cards became no less frequent. Finally, 
because Mr. Duncan could no longer be reconciled to the drudgery, inaccuracy and 
expense of hand addressing, he determined to build for himself a machine that would 
lift from his shoulders this monotonous task. 

Builds First Addressograph. 

Mr. Duncan invented and built his first addressing machine in 1892. He called 
it the " Addressograph" a coined word meaning "to write addresses." Although 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the Addressograph Co. 

(364) 




THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 365 

Mr. Duncan appreciated the saving of time and money and increase in accuracy 
which his little invention would surely create in the writing of names and addresses, 
he did not at first realize the great place his remarkable invention was destined to 
take in the commercial world as a " business energizer" and simplifier of routine work. 

Like the first steam engine, telephone or automobile, 
the first addressograph was crudely simple and of course 
presented an uncouth mechanical appearance. Mr. 
Duncan experimented by gluing the rubber portion of a 
number of hand stamps to a wooden drum. This drum 
was placed on an operating shaft in the addressograph, 
so that after the printing of one name and address, the 
drum revolved so that the next name and address came 
into printing position. The type impressions thus ob- 
tained were fairly readable. But Mr. Duncan soon 
realized that the idea of gluing the type permanently to a 
wooden drum was unpractical. Only a few addresses 
could be placed around the drum and the method of gluing 
them permanently into place made it practically impos- 
sible to make corrections when changes in address 
occurred, or to add new names as occasion demanded. 

Greater flexibility was needed. So Mr. Duncan 
designed and built what is now known as the first chain 
addressograph. Individual rubber type characters were 
pushed into metal type holders with a pair of tweezers. 
These type holders were then ingeniously linked together THE FIRST ADDRESSOGRAPH 
in the form of an endless chain. These chains were 

placed over a revolving metal drum, and as each separate name and address came 
to the printing point of the addressograph, the operator pushed down on a vertical 
stamper rod which pushed the envelope, or whatever form was to be addressed, 
against the rubber type which was inked just before reaching the printing point. 
Here, at last, was a practical addressing machine which enabled the user to accurately 
print names and addresses typewriter style ten times faster than was possible 
by any other method, and, quite as important, to make changes and additions to 
the list. 

The Beginning of a Great Industry. 

By this time, Mr. Duncan had moved his base of operations from Iowa to 
Chicago. So well was his first practical model of the addressograph received by 
Chicago business men that he sold the first half-dozen manufactured within a short 
time. Enthused with his success, Mr. Duncan decided to enter into the manufacture 
and sale of addressographs on as extensive a basis as the demand for his invention 
warranted. But to do this it was necessary for him to secure more capital. Conse- 
quently, he interested Mr. J. B. Hall a Chicago business man in his project, and 
in January, 1896, Mr. Duncan and Mr. Hall formed a partnership and called it the 
" Addressograph Company." 

Mr. Hall's first step was to find out what the leading business men of his time 
thought of the addressograph. So he made a trip to New York City taking with 
him one of the little hand-operated chain addressographs. Here, Mr. Hall called 
upon Henry Clews, J. Pierpont Morgan and other prominent business men. He 
also visited the offices of the large public service and insurance companies. In every 
case, Mr. Hall was courteously received, but after demonstrating the addressograph 
was told that while it was interesting and a step in the right direction, it was still 
in too primitive a state to prove of any great value in addressing a large list of names. 




366 THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 

Answering Demand for Greater Speed. 

Naturally, Mr. Hall's first thought on his return to Chicago was to induce Mr. 
Duncan to build a larger model, capable of greater speed and greater output. Acting 
upon Mr. HalPs suggestion, Mr. Duncan, in a short time, perfected a larger chain 
addressograph, operated by foot-lever and embodying several important improve- 
ments. As the Addressograph Company was maintaining at that time only a 
small sales office, a contract was let to the Blackman Machine Company, of Chicago, to 
build fifteen of these new foot-lever chain addressographs. And it was this new 
model which caused the addressograph to take its place in the business world as one 
of the leading office appliances. Many of these new chain addressographs were 

sold. Having formerly been engaged in 
the public service field, Mr. Hall was quick 
to realize the advantages which mechanical 
addressing offered to gas, electric light, 
water and telephone companies. As a 
result, the majority of the first addresso- 
graph sahs were made to these lines of 
business. 

With the constantly increasing use of 
the addressograph, suggestions for improve- 
ment and further development were freely 
offered by addressograph customers and just 
as liberally entertained by Mr. Duncan. 

RUBBER CHAIN ADDRESSOGRAPH OPERATED A s a f^ult of these suggestions another 
BY FOOT LEVER AND MOUNTED IN WOOD important advance took place in addresso- 
CABINET graph development. A customer, after 

writing words of praise about his addresso- 
graph, suggested that if some means could be arrived at to avoid the necessity of 
setting and resetting the individual pieces of rubber type, a great saving in time 
and money could be accomplished in making changes and additions to a list of names. 

Invents Embossed Metal Address Plate. 

After considerable thought, Mr. Duncan hit upon the plan of embossing, type- 
writer style, characters upon a metal plate. To do this, it was necessary for him 
to invent and perfect the Graphotype a machine which writes names and addresses 
on metal plates almost as quickly as the same data can be written on paper with the 
typewriter. The first embossed metal plates were linked together in the form of 
an endless chain, similar to the rubber type plates. A new addressograph was 
perfected for printing impressions from these embossed metal plates. It was called 
the No. 2 Chain Addressograph. 

The Addressograph Company now had two models to sell. But, owing to the 
fact that the rubber chain addressograph permitted users to make changes and 
additions in their own offices, a greater number of machines of this model were sold 
than of the metal chain addressograph; because, with the latter model, it was neces- 
sary for the customer to send to Chicago to have his new metal links embossed with 
the graphotype for the changes and additions of his list. 

By this time, the Addressograph Company had established itself in its own 
factory in Chicago. Branch offices had also been opened in New York, Philadelphia, 
Boston and other principal points, and out of these offices was traveling a small 
but enthusiastic group of salesmen. Many firms, large and small, throughout the 
country were using and recommending the chain addressograph. And, crude as 
that model seems now, it was proving a wonderful time and labor saver in the offices 
in which it was used and paying back its cost many times each year because of 



THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 



367 




RUBBER CARD INDEX ADDRESS PLATE 



the fact that it accurately printed names and addresses ten times faster than was 
possible to write such data by pen or typewriter. 

A Card Index that Addresses Itself. 

As the use of the addressograph increased, Mr. Duncan and Mr. Hall realized 
the need of a more efficient way of making changes and additions to the list of names. 
It was important that individual names be 
located and removed from the list more 
quickly than was possible with the chain 
addressograph. Demand for improvement 
along this line was stimulated by the loose- 
leaf and card index wave which was just 
then beginning to sweep the country. And 
Mr. Duncan, taking the card index idea as 
a basis, designed what he called the Model 
"A" or Rubber Card Index Addressograph. 
Instead of the separate plates being linked 
together in the form of a chain, they were 
inserted into a tin holder called the frame 
which closely resembled in appearance a 
3x5 paper file card. In addition to carry- 
ing a printing plate, this frame also carried a paper card bearing a proof of its respec- 
tive printing plate. In this complete form, these address plates were filed in steel 
filing drawers like ordinary paper cards. About every fifteenth address plate in a 
drawer was equipped with a vertical, subdividing tab numerical, alphabetical or 
geographical as the case might require. Each filing drawer carried a printed label 
showing the contents of the drawer and by means of these complete card index 
features it proved a simple matter to locate and remove individual names when 
making revisions to the list; and, in addition, these features afforded all of the 
advantages of a perfect reference file, as the paper proof card could be provided 
with a printed form for retaining memoranda. 

Of course, a new addressograph was necessary to handle this card index improve- 
ment. And in the Model "A" Addressograph, we find the basic principle of the 

addressograph of today. A drawerful of 
plates is emptied into the magazine. The 
empty filing drawer is placed beneath the 
addressograph so that after addressing the 
address plates fall back into the original 
drawer in their original card index order. 

Electric Motor Increases Speed. 

Not only was it necessary to meet the 
demand for card index conveniences, but 
it was also important to equip the Model 
"A" Addressograph with an electric motor 
for increasing its speed of operation and 
insuring a greater output. As was to be 
expected, the card index and electrically 
operated features caused thousands of concerns, large and small, to adopt the addresso- 
graph. Large mercantile houses, addressing thousands of names who had formerly 
held aloof from the addressograph because of itr> limited advantages for making changes 
and additions now placed their orders with instructions to rush delivery. With busi- 
ness houses all over the country rapidly changing from bound books to loose-leaf cart( 



Albany Belting & Supply Co., 

1375 Washington Ave. , 
- Albany .N.Y. 




METAL CARD INDEX ADDRESS PLATE 



368 



THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 



index records, the demand for chain addressograph models diminished and more and 
more orders were received for the rubber card index addressographs. Business men, 
generally, were now taking a real interest in mechanical addressing and the saving which 

the addressograph made possible in their offices. This 
interest was increased materially with the growth of 
mail-order businesses and the constantly increasing 
use of direct-by-mail advertising by business con- 
cerns, large and small. Firms having mailing lists 
were increasing them. Those firms which had not 
previously used direct-by-mail advertising were now 
coming to realize the many advantages of that 
modern selling short-cut and were compiling large 
lists of names. The rubber card index addresso- 
graph had by now proved itself a wonderful time and 
labor saver in addressing and maintaining lists of 
names of average size. But, with the advent of large 
lists, the high cost of rubber type presented a serious 
objection to many firms regarding the installation 
of the addressograph. Furthermore, large lists of 
names were subject to 
many changes and ad- 
ditions and in this 
connection, setting up 
the address plates in 
rubber type proved 
quite slow and expen- 
sive. So, to bring the 
addressograph abreast 
of modern conditions, 
Mr. Duncan combined 
the card index filing 
ideawith the embossed 
metal plate which he 

had previously worked out for use with the chain 
addressograph. With the coming of the metal card 
index addressograph and the modern graphotype for 
making the metal address plates, the addressing ma- 
chine business was "revolutionized," as Mr. Duncan 
put it. With the graphotype, address plates for 
changes and additions could be made at almost type- 
writer speed. The card index address plate required 
less filing space than was true of the rubber card index 
address plate, printed cleaner impressions and from 
every standpoint was superior to the rubber type 
system. In order that customers could make their 
changes and additions right in their office, the grapho- 

type was further developed and furnished in two models, ^J% 
one operated by motor, the other by hand. CHARACTERS ON METAL ADDRESS 

PLATES 
Attachments Increase Utility of Addressograph. 

The first addressographs were intended for printing names and addresses 
consecutively on envelopes and post cards. And so much time was saved on this 
one application that customers soon began applying it to other kinds of work in their 




ELECTRIC GRAPHOTYPE WHICH 
EMBOSSES TYPEWRITER STYLE 
CHARACTERS ON METAL ADDRESS 
PLATES 




THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 



369 




AUTOMATIC LISTING ATTACHMENT 




HIGH SPEED AUTOMATIC FEED ADDRESSO- AUTOMATIC ENVELOPE FEED AD- 

GRAPH. CAPACITY, 7, 500 ADDRESSED ENVELOPES DRESSOGRAPH. SPEED, 5,000 ADDRESSED 
PER HOUR ENVELOPES AN HOUR 



370 THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 

offices. To do this effectively, it was necessary for Mr. Duncan to work out addi- 
tional parts called "attachments" which permitted the addressing, listing and 
imprinting of names and other data on office forms of every nature. To illustrate: 
the dating attachment enabled users to apply the addressograph to their statement 
work. With this attachment which can quickly be thrown in or out of operation 
the current date is printed at the head of a statement simultaneously with the 
printing of the name and address. Further, to use the addressograph effectively 
for statement work, it was necessary to devise a skipping attachment manipulated 
by the operator's knee permitting him to skip the printing of impressions from 
address plates of those customers who had paid their accounts. By working out 
the listing attachment, Mr. Duncan made it possible for users to list names in one 
or more vertical columns on pay sheets, drivers' route sheets, dividend and trial 
balance sheets. This attachment automatically feeds the paper and spaces the 
proper distances between the printing of each address. Then came the electric 
bell signal and automatic selector attachments. Users of classified lists of names 
were enabled by these attachments to place tabs in sockets at the top and back of 
the address plates to indicate the different classifications on the list, such as " Buying 
Seasons," "Kinds of Products Wanted," "Territories," " Expired Dates," etc., 
and by means of these attachments, automatically select for addressing certain 
address plates, skipping the addressing of others. 

As the various uses for the adressograph increased, so the demand for different 
special attachments increased, until today, the addressograph addresses, lists and 
imprints names, addresses and other data upon every office form. The history of 
the addressograph has been one of constant development. With the growth of large 
lists, the demand for greater speed in addressing was answered by automatic feed 
addressographs. The Automatic No. 1 Addressograph was designed to automatically 
feed and address envelopes and cards at the rate of 4,000 to 5,000 an hour. In the 
Automatic No. 3 Addressograph we find the highest development of the system. 
This machine automatically feeds and addresses public service bills, insurance premium 
notices and receipts, cards, envelopes, ' circulars, etc., at the great speed of 6,000 
to 8,000 an hour. The wrapper addressograph answered the demand of publishers 
for great speed and 100 per cent accuracy. This model of the addressograph 
automatically feeds wrappers from a roll and in addition to printing the name and 
address exact typewriter style, also prints the name of the publication and postal 
permit from electrotypes, indicates mail routes on the back of the wrappers, separates 
into a separate drawer the address plates of those people whose subscriptions 
have expired, and cuts the wrapper to the proper size all at the speed of 7,500 
per hour. 

Small Users not Overlooked. 

But, while Mr. Duncan and his associates have given every attention to the 
needs of users of large lists of names, he has not overlooked the lodge secretaries 
and other users of small lists of names. In the hand addressograph, which sells for 
as low as $27, he has worked out three practical models having an average speed 
of from 750 to 1,500 names and addresses an hour. Thousands of these little 
machines are in daily use and, like the larger models of the addressograph, are 
driving drudgery out of the office freeing thousands of hands from the monotonous, 
laborious task of writing names and addresses by pen and ink in short, elevating 
the position of the office worker far above that of a mere automaton and making it 
possible for him to earn more money and enjoy a happier existence by doing brain 
work instead of manual labor. 



THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 



371 




WRAPPER FEED ADDRESSOGRAPH. SPEED, 6,000 TO 8,000 
ADDRESSED WRAPPERS PER HOUR 




SHOWING HOW TABS ARE INSERTED 
HAND ADDRESSOGRAPH (PRINTS THROUGH IN BACK OF ADDRESS PLATE FOR PUR- 
A RIBBON). SPEED, 1,000 TO 1,500 TYPEWRITTEN POSES OF INDEXING AND CLASSIFYING 
ADDRESSES AN HOUR LISTS 



372 THE STORY OF THE ADDRESSOGRAPH 

The Addressograph Its Place in Business. 

Twenty-five years' use of the addressograph in over 300 different lines of busi- 
ness manufacturers, wholesalers and dealers, insurance companies, public service 
companies, government departments, associations, clubs, churches, lodges, hotels 
and schools, laundries, commission merchants, publishers, railroad and steamship 
companies in truth, every business, large and small, where a list of names is fre- 
quently addressed have proved the utter folly of slow, tiring hands attempting to 
compete with swift, untiring wheels. Wherever names are written, there you will 
usually find the addressograph in use, saving time and money, guaranteeing 100 
per cent accuracy and insuring maximum efficiency. There are many different models 
some operated by hand or foot-lever, others by electric motor; some are entirely 
automatic. So, no matter how many names and addresses are written fifty or 
a million the addressograph, like the telephone or typewriter, has come to be 
recognized as a modern business necessity, 



What is " Dry Fanning "? 

Dry farming is a method which has been recently developed and which is coming 
into even wider use. The United States Department of Agriculture, through its 
experiment stations, has made a careful study of the conditions, possibilities and 
limitations of the practice, and the following is a brief abstract of the results: 

In defining the term dry farming it is explained that the practice includes (1) 
deep plowing before the rainy season sets in, in order to provide in the soil a capacious 
water storage reservoir and an ample space for root development; (2) light, deep, 
even seeding or planting in a well-prepared, moist soil; (3) frequent, thorough, 
level cultivation before as well as after sowing or planting; (4) the use of seed bred 
and selected for the conditions prevailing; (5) the use of machinery of large capacity; 
(6) the adoption of methods for the concentration of crops. 

Crops must be selected or developed that will fit the environment, and there 
is ample field for investigation in the improvement and development of crops suitable 
to dry lands. Wheat stands at the head among cereal crops. The durum or 
macaroni wheats do especially well; but other varieties are also grown, as are oats, 
rye, barley and spelt. The millets are among the best paying dry-farming crops. 
There are few legumes that have shown value on dry lands, but peas, beans and 
alfalfa are the most promising of development. Vegetables and both shade and fruit 
trees are being grown in districts where dry farming is practiced. 

Fall seeding of cereals, wherever the conditions will permit, is preferable to 
spring seeding, and it is important to retain the snow upon the land, especially in 
sections where it forms the chief part of the total precipitation. The snowfall may 
be retained by leaving the ground rough after the late fall plowing, by throwing up 
borders across the field at right angles with the prevailing winds, or by planting 
hedge rows or shrubbery across the field at short intervals. Usually less seed should 
be planted per acre under dry-farming conditions than is used in humid sections. 
The less precipitation, the smaller should be the amount of seed planted. 

What is a " Drying Machine " Like? 

This is a machine used in bleaching, dyeing and laundry establishments, con- 
sisting of two concentric drums or cylinders, one within the other, open at the top, 
and having the inner cylinder perforated at its side with numerous small holes. 
The goods to be dried are placed within the inner cylinder, and the machine is then 
made to rotate with great velocity, when, by the action of centrifugal force, the water 
escapes through the holes in the side. 



THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE 



373 




374 THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE 

How does the New York Stock Exchange Operate? 

The New York Stock Exchange is typical of most American stock exchanges, 
the leading ones of which are located in Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Chicago, 
Baltimore, Cleveland, Cincinnati, New Orleans, Salt Lake City, Denver, San 
Francisco and St. Louis. American stock exchanges differ somewhat in their opera- 
tion from the foreign stock exchanges, the principal ones of which are those of London, 
Paris, Berlin, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, Vienna and Petrograd. 

A stock exchange is really an organization of professional brokers, which con- 
ducts speculation and investment in securities, the paper representatives of trans- 
portation, industrial, mining, commercial and other properties. On the American 
stock exchanges one broker may specialize in the shares of the Union Pacific Railroad, 
for instance, another in those of the United States Steel Corporation, and so on. 
Some brokers deal particularly in "odd lots" blocks of less than one hundred 
shares and some members, called "room traders/' speculate entirely for their own 
account and do no commission business for customers. The commission charged 
for buying or selling is twelve and a half cents a share, so that on the usual order 
of one hundred shares, the broker receives twelve dollars and a half. 

The business of buying and selling shares is done in a large room known as the 
"floor." Scattered over the floor are a large number of high posts. Each post 
bears the name of the stock or stocks which may be traded in at that post. This 
provision is to bring buyers and sellers in any security together as quickly as possible. 
A broker desiring to buy shares of a certain stock will go to the part allotted to that 
stock and call out its name with the number of shares wished and the price he will 
pay. This is his bid. Other brokers may offer the stock to him at a slightly higher 
price, or his bid may be accepted at once. As soon as a price is agreed on, each broker 
the buyer and the seller makes a memorandum of the transaction, which is 
reported to the offices at once by telephone. Meanwhile the broker also hands 
another memorandum of the transaction to an errand boy, who takes the memorandum 
at once to the telegraph operator, who in turn sends it out onto the little instrument 
called the "ticker." 

Transactions on the New York Stock Exchange may be made in three different 
ways: "Cash," "regular" or on a "limited option" to buyer and seller as to the 
time of delivery or acceptance. "Cash" means that stock bought in this manner 
is taken up and paid for the same day; "regular" transactions mean that the stock 
bought in this way must be taken up and paid for by a quarter past two o'clock of 
the following afternoon. 

Upon the outbreak of the European war, panic ensued among holders of 
securities, and the stock exchanges of the world were closed to prevent the selling 
of stocks at prices which would have brought ruin to banks and other financial 
houses. Practically none of them were opened until December, 1914, and then only 
under severe restrictions which were held in force until confidence had returned. 

How did the Term " Cowboys " Originate? 

The term "cowboys" was first used during the American Revolution. It was 
applied to a band of Tories who infested the neutral ground of Westchester County, 
New York, stealing cattle from both parties and doing other mischief. 

It has been used of recent years to designate the skilled horsemen who have 
charge of the cattle on the great ranges of the West. Many of them enlisted in the 
Rough Rider regiment of the Spanish war and proved daring soldiers. 



The Story in a Chemical Fire 
Extinguisher* 

A little smoke, a flash, and a waste basket, a curtain or something else is in 
flames. A few years ago an excited person would fail to extinguish the blaze with 
water or with any other first aid at hand and would call for the fire department. 
When that arrived the fire frequently would be beyond control. 

Modern methods have wrought great changes. 
Nowadays, in case of fire, any man, woman or child 
can reach for a fire extinguisher and after a few strokes 
of the pump the fire is out. 

This change did not come all at once. The fire 
extinguisher has been developing ever since man learned 
to fear fire. Devices for extinguishing fire are almost 
coeval with that element itself. In the second century 
before Christ, the Egyptians had pumps worked by 
levers to put out their fires. The Roman, Pliny, refers 
to fire extinguishers but gives no account of their con- 
struction. Apollodoms, architect of the Emperor 
Trajan, speaks of leathsrn bags with pipes attached. 
Water was projected by squeezing the bags. Medieval 
Europe used various forms of water pumps, and it was 
not until the opening of the nineteenth century that 
chemicals were used to combat fire. 

There are two classes of chemical fire extinguishers : 
the soda and acid tank or three-gallon type, and the 
one-quart pump type. The latter came when the 
efficiency of carbon tetrachloride as an extinguishing 
agent became known. All the extinguishers of this 
type use a liquid which has carbon tetrachloride as a 
base. The liquid is a combination of organic materials 
with an aromatic odor and high specific gravity. When 
subjected to a temperature of 200 F. or over, it changes 
to a heavy, cohering, non-poisonous gas blanket which 
surrounds the burning material and cuts off the air suppy 
necessary for the life of the fire. 

The first one-quart pump type of extinguisher 
appeared in the United States in 1907. There was 
little resemblance between it and the extinguisher of 
today. A cylindrical tube with a perforated end con- 
tained the liquid. The user was expected to sprinkle the 
liquid over the fire just as salt is sprinkled from a salt- 
cellar over meat. 

One company applied the idea of pumping the liquid on the fire in 1909. They 
introduced a single-acting pump. The user inserted the nozzle in the liquid, drew 
it into the pump, and then ejected it on the flames. This company substituted a 
double-acting pump early in 1910. The container for the fluid and the pump were thus 
combined and the extinguisher had the general appearance of those now on the market. 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the Pyrene Manufacturing Co. 

(375) 




376 STORY IN A CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHER 






Brass construction was substituted for tin in the latter part of 1910, and in 1911 
all brass construction was adopted. The extinguisher has remained practically 
unchanged since 1911. 

This was the only one-quart type extinguisher on the market until 1911. Since 
then several others have been marketed. All use an extinguishing liquid with carbon 
tetrachloride as a base. They differ principally in the manner of 
its ejection. The original type pumps the liquid out by hand. 
Others eject it by air pressure or by a combination of the two 
methods. The objection made by some people to the use of air 
pressure is that it demands attention and the use of a complicated 
mechanism which more readily gets out of order. 

The liquid extinguishing agent has seen little change since 
1907. In 1914 it was modified so that it injures nothing with 
which it comes in contact. It puts out fires originating in oily 
wastes, turpentine and shellac, and fires resulting from the ignition 
of gasoline, benzine or acetylene gas, on which ordinary chemicals 
and water are useless. It extinguishes electrical fires without 
injuring insulation or apparatus and without injury to the operator. 
A stream of this liquid has been directed upon a circuit of 110,000 
volts without the least harm to the operator. 

A German originated the soda and acid type 
of extinguisher from tests made in Denmark 
between 1830 and 1835. The enterprising 
Teuton divided a hogshead into two parts. He 
filled one part with a solution of alcohol and 
water; the other division was partly filled with 
sulphuric acid. His problem was to unite the 
two when he wanted to put out a fire. This 
was accomplished by fastening a charge of 
gunpowder in such a way that when exploded 
it would break the partition and mix the solu- 
tions. French ingenuity added slight improvements a short 
time later. 

Alexander Graham, of Lexington, Virginia, applied for patents 
on this type of extinguisher a number of times between 1844 and 
1849. He was unable to patent his invention. A fire extinguisher 
company in Chicago and one in Baltimore obtained patents on what 
was known as the " bicarbonate of soda and sulphuric acid" extin- 
guisher by a special act of Congress in 1865. These patents were 
known as the Graham patents, and both extinguishers were called 
the " break-bottle type" because the soda and acid were mixed 
when a glass bottle containing the latter was broken. 

The " up-set" type of soda and acid extinguisher was adapted 
by Meyerose in St. Louis in 1891. The improvement lay in the 
vessel containing the acid being upset instead of broken. This extin- 
guisher was of copper construction and had a capacity of three gallons. One fire 
extinguisher company improved upon the original type of "up-set" extinguisher 
in 1893 by lining the extinguisher with lead which the acid did not affect. 
Since 1893 there have been no improvements of consequence on the soda and 
acid extinguisher. It consists of a cylindrical container with a solution of 
sodium bicarbonate. Over the bicarbonate is suspended a vessel containing 
sulphuric acid. When in use the acid is tilted over and comes in contact with 
the bicarbonate. This liberates carbon dioxide. The pressure generated is 



STORY IN A CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHER 377 

sufficient to throw a stream of the bicarbonate solution forty feet. The chief dis- 
advantages of the soda and acid type of extinguisher are that its weight makes it 
cumbersome to operate and it cannot be safely used on electrical fires until the current 
has been turned off. 



How is Gold Leaf Made? 

The gold is cast into ingots weighing about two ounces each, and measuring 
about three-quarters of an inch broad. These ingots are passed between steel rollers 
till they form long ribbons of such thinness that a square inch will weigh six and 
one-half grains. Each one of these is now cut into 150 pieces, each of which is beaten 
on an anvil till it is about an inch square. These 150 plates are interlaid with pieces 
of fine vellum about four inches square, and beaten till the gold is extended nearly 
to the size of the vellum leaves. Each leaf is then divided into four, interlaid with 
goldbeater's skin, and beaten out to the dimensions of the skin. Another similar 
division and beating finishes the operation, after which the leaves are placed in paper 
books ready for use. The leaves are about three and a quarter inches square and are 
produced in ten different shades of color, according as the gold was alloyed with much 
or little copper or silver. 

What is the Natural Color of Goldfish? 

It is greenish in color in the natural state, the golden-yellow color being found 
only in domesticated specimens, and retained by artificial selection. 

These fishes are reared by the Chinese in small ponds, in basins or porcelain 
vessels, and kept for ornament. By careful selection, many strange varieties have 
been propagated. 

They are now distributed over nearly all the civilized parts of the world, but 
in large ponds they readily revert to the color of the original stock. 

When was " Liquid Fire " First Used in Warfare? 

Long before the European war, an inflammable and destructive compound was 
used in warfare, especially by the Byzantine Greeks. 

It was poured from caldrons and ladles, vomited through long copper tubes, 
or flung in pots, phials and barrels. 

The art of compounding it was concealed at Constantinople with the greatest 
care, but it appears that naphtha, sulphur and nitre entered into its composition. 

How did the Greyhound Get His Name? 

The name appears to have no reference to the color, but is derived from the 
Icelandic "grey," meaning a dog. They are used chiefly in the sport of coursing, 
a work for which their peculiar shape, strength, keenness of sight and speed make 
them exceedingly well fitted. This sport is preferred by many people to horse racing. 
There are several varieties, as the Irish greyhound, the Scottish, the Russian, the 
Italian and the Turkish. 

The common greyhound is of an elegant make of body, and is universally known 
as the fleetest of dogs. 

A good hound has a fine, soft, flexible skin, with thin, silky hair, a great length 
of nose, contracting gradually from the eye to the nostril, a full, clear and penetrating 
eye, small ears, erect head, long neck, chest capacious, deep, but not wide, shoulders 
deep and placed obliquely, ribs well arched, contracted belly and flank, a great depth 
from the hips to the hocks of the hind-legs, fore-legs straight and shorter than the 
hind legs. 






378 



WHY IS IT CALLED "BATTERY PARK"? 




THE GATEWAY TO AMERICA 

The famous statue of Liberty in New York Harbor. The grassy space in the 
foreground is Battery Park, and the round building is the Aquarium. Here in the 
early days stood a rude "castle" or fort, later supplanted by an opera house. 
Washington often walked in the old garden around the building, as did other great 

Americans. Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. 






WHY IS IT CALLED "BATTERY PARK"? 379 

Why is It Called " Battery Park "? 

The extreme southern end of Manhattan Island is both popularly and officially 
known as " Battery Park" because it was fortified in the seventeenth century for the 
protection of the town. In the picture the round building is the Aquarium, which 
is abundantly supplied with sea and river fishes. The picture was taken from a 
platform of the Elevated Railway, the trains of which run from this point to prac- 
tically the northern extremity of the island, making stops en route at stations situated 
at approximately every eighth street. 

Manhattan Island was first visited in 1609 by Henry Hudson. The first settle- 
ment was located three years afterward on the present site of Battery Park. The 
Dutch settlement here formed gradually grew into a town called New Amsterdam, 
which in 1648 had 1,000 inhabitants. In 1664 it surrendered to the British and took 
its new name from the Duke of York, into whose hands it came. It was the capital 
of the State of New York from 1784 to 1797, and from 1785 to 1790 it was the seat 
of the Federal Government. Washington was inaugurated to the presidency at New 
York in 1789. The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 gave the city command of 
internal commerce and since that date its progress has been rapid, almost beyond 
example. 

How do we Know that the Earth is Round? 

We have all been taught that the earth is a nearly spherical body which every 
twenty-four hours rotates from west to east around an imaginary line called its axis 
this axis having as its extremities the north and south poles respectively while in 
the course of a year it completes a revolution around the sun. 

To an observer whose view is not obstructed, any part of the earth presents itself 
as a circular and horizontal expanse, on the circumference of which the heavens appear 
to rest. Accordingly, in remote antiquity, the earth was regarded as a flat, circular 
body, floating on the water. But even in antiquity the spherical form of the earth 
began to be suspected. 

It is only on this supposition that we can explain how the horizon of vision grows 
wider and wider the higher the position we choose, how the tops of towers and moun- 
tains at a distance become visible before the bases, how the hull of a ship disappears 
first as she sails away, and how, as we go from the poles towards the equator, new 
stars become visible. Besides these proofs, there are many others, such as the 
circular shadow of the earth seen on the moon during an eclipse, the gradual appear- 
ance and disappearance of the sun, and especially the fact that since 1519 the earth 
has been regularly circumnavigated. 

The earth is not, however, an exact sphere, but is very slightly flattened at the 
poles, so as to have the form known as an oblate spheroid. In this way the polar 
diameter, or diameter from pole to pole, is shorte'r than the diameter at right angles 
to this the equatorial diameter. The most accurate measurements make the polar 
diameter about twenty-seven miles less than the equatorial, the equatorial diameter 
being found to be 7,925.6 miles, and the polar 7,899.14. 

What were " Ducking Stools "? 

A ducking stool was a sort of a chair in which "common scolds" were formerly 
tied and plunged into water. They were of different forms, but that most commonly 
in use consisted of an upright post and a transverse movable beam on which the seat 
was fitted or from which it was suspended by a chain. 

The ducking stool is mentioned in the Doomsday survey; it was extensively in 
use throughout the country from the fifteenth till the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, and in one rare case at least at Leominster was used as lately as 1809. 



The Story in Photo-Engraving* 

Modern advertising would not have been possible without photo-engraving. 
Attention has been attracted, desire has been created and goods have been sold, 
largely through the pictorial or other artistic embellishments which have lifted par- 
ticular "ads" out of the mass and attracted the favorable attention of the cursory 
reader. Pictures are the universal language, not only to those of divers tongues, 
but to those of every stage of mental development. 

Photo-engravings are a comparatively modern product. They superseded wood 
engravings, which "for years has been the recognized medium for illustrations to print 

on a type printing press. Photo-engrav- 
ings, broadly speaking, are divided into 
two classes line engravings and half- 
tones. The distinction between them 
lying in the fact that one, as its name 
implies, is a reproduction of a drawing 
made in lines or stipples, while the 
other, the halftone, gets its name from 
the method of its manufacture. 

Briefly stated, the process of making 
halftones is as follows: The subject to 
be engraved is photographed through a 
halftone screen, so-called. This half- 
tone screen is a glass plate ruled with 
lines at right angles ranging, for different 
purposes, from 60 to 200 lines to the inch. 
This screen is placed between the lens 
and the sensitized plate which is to be 
the negative. The necessity for this 
screen is due to the fact that a photo- 
graph is made up of "tones." That is 
to say, that the color changes imper- 
ceptibly in subtle gradations of light and 
shade. If this copy were photographed 
HALFTONE ENGRAVING on a pi ec e of copper it would present 

no chance for the etching fluid to act. 

The idea is to break up the surface into various sized dots, as the various grada- 
tions of color on the original cannot be transferred by any other method to a sheet 
of copper and etched. 

The various tones must be changed either to lines or dots, so as to make a 
printing surface for the ink roller of the press to operate. This is necessary to get 
the desired printing surface. 

The dots are of various sizes, ranging from a minute stipple to a solid black, 
and they present to the eye the same effect as the unbroken tones of a photograph. 
The negative when finished shows the drawing exactly like the original. The whites 
are opaque, the solid blacks are clear glass, the intermediate tones showing the same 
values in stipples of various sizes. The film of the negative is next removed from the 




* Illustrations by courtesy of Gatchel & Manning. 



(380) 



THE STORY IN PHOTO-ENGRAVING 



381 




glass, turned and placed on a heavier plate glass with a number of others and printed 

on a sheet of metal which has been coated with a sensitized solution. 

This plate of heavy glass containing the several negatives is placed with the 

sensitized metal in a printing frame. The light passes through the clear part of the 

negative, the solid parts prevent the passage of 

light; thus we have the light acting chemically 

on the sensitized surface. 

After the print is removed from the print- 
ing frame, it is developed, the parts acted on 

by the light adhering to the metal. The opaque 

parts, through which no light has penetrated, 

leave the solution soft on the surface of the 

metal. This is removed by placing in water 

and wiping gently with absorbent cotton. The 

print is then dried and heated over a stove 

which bakes the sensitized solution to the metal. 

It can readily be seen that this sheet of metal 

is now in such shape that the etching fluid will 

etch away the uncovered portions of the metal 

and allow the protected parts, which represent 

the color of the original, to remain in relief. 
This plate is etched a flat proof, so called, 

is pulled on a hand press and it is then taken 

up by the re-etcher. The re-etcher is the artist 

of the etching room. He takes the plate and by 

covering up certain parts and etching again gives 

additional play of color. Smaller developments of lights are worked out by careful 

manipulation of the etching fluid with small sable brushes. The differences in cost 

in the production of halftones is due largely to the length of time devoted to this 

work. The engraver or finisher then takes 
charge of it, preparing the engraving for the 
routing department, where the superfluous metal 
is removed. The plate is then returned to the 
engraving department, which completes the 
work, burnishing darks, engraving highlights, 
removing slight imperfections and otherwise per- 
fecting the plate. 

It is then proofed and blocked. Nine 
separate men handle each engraving in the half- 
tone department. 

The making of line engravings follows the 
same general course, with the exception that no 
halftone screen is needed, the copy to be repro- 
duced being already made up of lines or dots 
or a combination of them. In the handling of 
line work, eight skilled men successively handle 
each plate. 

In addition to plates made by either line 
or halftone process, combinations of the two 
are frequently used, as, for instance, where 



LINE ENGRAVING 




COMBINATION ENGRAVING 



decorative pen work is used to embellish a halftone picture, or where lettering is 
to be used in connection with a halftone and form part of the same plate. These 
plates made up of both line work and halftones are known as combination plates 



382 



THE STORY IN PHOTO-ENGRAVING 



or double-prints, depending upon the way they are produced. In both cases, nega- 
tives are made of both the halftone and line copies. 

Combination plates are made by combining the halftone and line negatives 
together and making one complete print on the metal. 

Double-print is used where the surface is covered with halftone screen, either 

the line or halftone negative is printed on the 
metal, the other is superimposed on it. 

The Benday process, so called, is the use of 
mechanical appliances for adding lines or stipples 
to either drawings or plates. Its use is very 
extensive in the making of tint blocks or color 
work, used either in connection with line or half- 
tone key plates. ^ 

The highlight process, possible only with 
certain kinds of copy, is a modification of the 
halftone in which, by manipulation of the time 
of exposure and the screen when making the nega- 
tive, the halftone stipples are lost and in this 
way halftones are produced in which there are 
pure whites, without the necessity of the finisher 
cutting them by hand. 

BENDAY ENGRAVING Color Engravings. 

Let us assume that we have a painting or a 

drawing in colors fronTwhich it is desired to produce a set of printing plates to 
produce that drawing in facsimile. Under the old method of procedure, lithog- 
raphy, it would have been necessary to make a stone for each of the colors, which 
would mean, roughly speaking, from twelve to eighteen stones to reproduce it it will 
be understood that this means the finished print must go through the press once 
for each color. This would mean twelve to eighteen impressions to get the desired 
result. The expense of doing this limited the use of lithography. 





HIGHLIGHT ENGRAVING 



The modern or photo-engraving method of reproducing a colored copy is based 
on the theory of the three primary colors, yellow, red and blue. It is assumed that 
every color is formed by some combination of these three colors the problem con- 



THE STORY IN PHOTO-ENGRAVING 383 

fronting us, therefore, is to separate these three colors and if possible make a printing 
plate of each color with the color values varying from light to dark in such proportions 
that when the three are printed in proper register over each other, with transparent 
printing inks, the varying color values will blend so as to reproduce the original. 

We go about this by making three negatives, one of each color, the red negative 
is made by placing at the lens a so-called color filter, which separates the red rays, 
whether they appear as pure red or any part of an orange or a purple, or any of the 
many tones of which red may form a part. In like manner the yellow and blue 
plates are made by the use of appropriate color filters, each of which acts for its 
required color as that used for the red. 

So far this would appear to be a purely mechanical operation, requiring simply 
the usual care in negative making, but unfortunately this theory does not work out 
so absolutely in practice, and for this reason, while any color may be produced in 
light rays by the union of the three primary colors of the proper quality, when the 
operation is attempted with material pigments or ink, produce results varying widely 
from the ideal. No pigment is absolutely pure, the adulterants or foreign substances 
will cause sufficient deviation from the abstract standard to cause a very noticeable 
difference in the finished result when united with another color which is of itself 
impure. The result is that the three negatives, instead of each being a true unit, 
ready for combination with the others, is really only a basis for further work. It 
might justly be compared with a sketch which is all right as far as it goes, but which 
requiries toning down and elaboration before becoming a finished work of art. 

The three negatives are each printed on sensitized copper, as was noted with 
the black and white halftone; they are then turned over to the re-etcher, who may 
be rightly termed an " artist-etcher." He has before him three prints on copper; 
on each of them are tones which to his trained eye are too light or too dark to produce 
the desired result when printed with the other two, which also vary more or less. 
It is his duty to strengthen and reduce and otherwise manipulate the plates so that 
they will, when finally printed, have the desired result. 

For every particular use to which an engraving can be put, there is some par- 
ticular style or grade of engraving better adapted than any other. The successful 
use of halftones, whether in black and white or in colors, depends on the care with 
which the particular screen is selected to suit the paper stock and printing conditions. 
To illustrate this, the 150-line screen has 22,500 stipples to the square inch. It is 
apparent, therefore, that only certain kinds of paper can be used for such halftones, 
whereas a 60-line screen contains only 3,600 stipples to the square inch, which permits 
its use on a newspaper stock. 

The production of engravings is just as highly technical and scientific and 
involves as much experience and judgment in their application as any of the learned 
professions. 



Where are Milk-Pails Filled from Trees? 

In South America there are some trees known as "cow-trees' 7 which, when 
wounded, yield a rich, milky, nutritious juice in such abundance as to render it an 
important article of food. This fluid resembles in appearance and quality the milk 
of the cow. 

The cow-tree is a member of the bread-fruit family, and is most common in 
Venezuela, growing to the height of a hundred feet. The leaves are leathery, about 
a foot long and three or four inches broad. 

In British Guiana the name is given to another large, much-branched tree, and 
there are also other varieties in Para and along the Rio Negro, which is a tributary 
of the Amazon River. 



384 HOW THE WEARING OF A CROWN ORIGINATED 



How did the Wearing of a Crown Originate? 

When we speak of a crown now we mean the head-dress worn by royal personages 
as a badge of sovereignty, but it was formerly used to include the wreaths or garlands 
worn by the ancients upon special occasions. 

Among the Greeks and Romans, crowns made of grass, flowers, twigs of laurel, 
oak, olive and so forth, and later of gold, were made use of as honors in athletic 
contests, as rewards for military valor, and at feasts, funerals and so forth. 

It is, however, with the eastern diadem rather than with the classic corona that 
the crown, as a symbol of royalty, is connected; indeed, it was only introduced as 
such a symbol by Alexander the Great, who followed the Persian usage. Antony wore 
a crown in Egypt, and the Roman emperors also wore crowns of various forms, from 
the plain golden fillet to the radiated or rayed crown. 

In modern states they were also of various forms until heralds devised a regular 

series to mark the grades of rank from the 
imperial crown to the baron's coronet. 

The English crown has been gradually built 
up from the plain circlet with four trefoil heads 
worn by William the Conqueror. This form was 
elaborated and jeweled, and finally arched in 
with jeweled bands surmounted by the cross 
and scepter. As at present existing, the crown 
of England is a gold circle, adorned with pearls 
and precious stones, having alternately four 
Maltese crosses and four fleur-de-lis. From the 
top of the crosses rise imperial arches, closing 
under a mound and cross. The whole covers 
a crimson velvet cap with an ermine border. 

The crown of Charlemagne, which is pre- 
served in the imperial treasury of Vienna, is 
composed of eight plates of gold, four large and 
four small, connected by hinges. The large 
plates are studded with precious stones, the 
front one being surmounted with a cross; the smaller ones, placed alternately with 
these, are ornamented with enamels representing Solomon, David, Hezekiah and 
Isaiah, and Christ seated between two flaming seraphim. 

The Austrian crown is a sort of cleft tiara, having in the middle a semicircle of 
gold supporting a mound and cross; the tiara rests on a circle with pendants like 
those of a miter. 

The royal crown of France is a circle ornamented with eight fleur-de-lis, from 
which rise as many quarter-circles closing under a double fleur-de-lis. The triple 
crown of the popes is more commonly called the tiara. 

Why do Lobsters Change Colors? 

Before a lobster is cooked he is green, that being the color of the rocks around 
which he lives on the bottom of the ocean. However, as soon as a lobster is placed 
in boiling water his shell changes from green to red. This is due to a certain chemical 
substance contained in the shell which acts in that way when boiled. 

How~do Fishes Swim? 

The fish is entirely surrounded by water which exerts an equal pressure on all 
sides. When the fish moves its tail, or makes any movement at all, he moves in the 
water. Of course, by moving his tail from side to side he propels himself forward and 
by bending his tail he goes in the direction in which it is bent. 




CROWNS 



1. 



Crown of England. 2. 

3 5. F Imtfal c' 
magne's). 



Russian 



WHERE DO PEARLS COME FROM 385 

Where do Pearls Come From?* 

Below the surface of the ocean, there's a strange, enchanted world. Living in 
the midst of its grandeur are most marvelous and delicate creatures that ceaselessly 
toil to strew the ocean's bed with lustrous gems pearls. 

Nature provides for the denizens of the deep that make these beautiful gems. 
The ocean pearl oyster or bivalve (avicula margaritifera) and fresh water mussel (unio 
margaritifera) have wonderful homes their shells. Coarse, rough, rugged, often 
distorted on the outside, within they are lined with smooth, softly-glowing, iridescent 
"mother of pearl." The membrane, attaching the bivalve to its shell, extracts lime 
from the water, building the shell from the inside outward in successive layers, 
preserving the finest nacreous secretions for the smooth inside lining, thus protecting 
its delicate body. 

In this comfortable home the mollusk is contented, but an enemy sometimes 
attacks it by boring through its hard shell. Leucodore, clione and other borers, 
parasitic or domiciliary worms work into the shell, and instinctively the protecting 
nacreous fluid envelops the intruder. This is the birth of the pearl. The intruder, 
now covered entirely with the pearl-nacre, is constantly rolled and lapped about, and 
successive layers of nacre are applied until in a few years a pearl of great size and 
value is formed and awaits the hardy, daring pearl fisher. 

Pearls were the first gems discovered and used as ornaments in prehistoric ages. 
Found in their natural state in utmost perfection, needing no cutting nor polishing, 
these glowing beads of the sea were the first baubles of savages, tribes and nations. 
Today the pearl is the favored gem of those who are surfeited with valuable jewels. 
It is essentially a gem for the wealthy. The connoisseur, accustomed to the possession 
of jewels, finds in its soft luster a grandeur above that of all the sparkling stones. 

Fancy pearls include all those of decided color, having a rare and beautiful tint. 
"White pearls" include pure white and white slightly tinted witn pink, blue, green 
or yellow. Of these colored white pearls, the delicate, lightly-tinted, pink pearl of 
fine color and luster known as "rose" is most beautiful. Every white pearl is classi- 
fied according to its respective tint and thus its price is determined, the values ranging 
in the order named above, from highest for pure white, to lowest for yellowish-white. 

What is Cork? 

Cork is the outer bark of a species of oak which grows in Spain, Portugal and 
other southern parts of Europe and in the north of Africa. The tree is distinguished 
by the great thickness and sponginess of its bark, and by the leaves being evergreen, 
oblong, somewhat oval, downy underneath, and waved. 

The outer bark falls off of itself if let alone, but for commercial purposes it is 
stripped off when judged sufficiently matured, this being when the tree has reached 
the age of from fifteen to thirty years. In the course of eight or nine years, or even 
less, the same tree will yield another supply of cork of better quality, and the removal 
of this outer bark is said to be beneficial, the trees thus stripped reaching the age 
of 150 years or more. 

The bark is removed by a kind of ax, parallel cuts being carried around the tree 
transversely and united by others in a longitudinal direction, so as to produce oblong 
sheets of bark. Care must be taken not to cut into the inner bark, or the tree would 
be killed. The pieces of cork are flattened out by heat or by weights, and are 
slightly charred on the surface to close the pores. 

Cork is light, impervious to water, and by pressure can be greatly reduced in 
bulk, returning again to its original size. These qualities render it peculiarly service- 
able for the stopping of vessels of different kinds, for floats, buoys, swimming-belts or 
jackets, artificial limbs, etc. Corks for bottles are cut either by hand or by means of 
a machine. The best corks are cut across the grain. 

31 * Courtesy of Mr. Charles L. Trout. 



The Story in a Giant Cannon 

Origin of the Cannon. 

The shotgun and rifle, the familiar weapons of the sportsman and the foot- 
soldier, are not the ancestors of the cannon, as might be surmised. On the contrary, 
the cannon was the predecessor of the musket and its successors. The rifle, however, 
antedated the rifled cannon, the type of modern artillery. We do not know when 
cannon first appeared, but it may have been soon after the discovery of gunpowder 




THREE-INCH FIELD GUN UNDER TEST AT FORT RILEY, KANSAS 

In the trials conducted by the Board of Ordnance and Fortification of the United 
States Army. This gun and carriage, complete, weighs 2,020 pounds. Charge, 18.5 
ounces of smokeless powder. Weight of projectile, 15 pounds. Muzzle velocity, 1,800- 
foot seconds. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

in Europe. This explosive seems to have been known in China long before knowledge 
of it reached the west, but we do not know to what extent it was developed arid 
used in that country. 

The earliest cannon of which we have any knowledge were clumsy contrivances, 
at first wider at the mouth than at the chamber, and made of wood, and later of iron 
bars, hooped together with iron rings, a system of the same type as that now in use 
in the wire-wound cannon. They at first seem to have fired balls of stone, iron balls 
coming later. A doubtful statement exists to the effect that cannon were used at 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 387 

the siege of Belgrade in 1073, and it is said that Edward III used them against the 
Scotch in 1327. Other dates of their use are 1338 and 1346, in which latter year 
Edward III employed them against the French at Crecy. For this we have the 
authority of Froissart. They were known under the varied names of bombards 1 , 
serpentines, etc. Twelve cannon cast by Louis VII were named after the twelve 
peers of France, and Charles V gave twelve others the names of the twelve apostles. 
Other titles came later into general use, the royal or carthorne, carrying 48 pounds; 
the culv nu, 18 pounds; the demi-culverin, 9 pounds; the basilisk, 48; the siren. 




Weight of gun and mechanism, 675 pounds. Length of gun, 74.35 inches (25 cali- 
bers). Weight of projectile, 13 pounds. Travel of projectile in bore, 62.9 inches 
(20.97 calibers). Weight of charge, 18 ounces of smokeless powder. Muzzle velocity, 
1,650-foot seconds Muzzle energy, 246-foot tons. Weight of gun, carriage, limber, 
drag ropes, tools, etc., and 60 rounds 01 ammunition, complete, 3,420 pounds. The 
carriage and limber have each two removable interchangeable ammunition boxes for 
12 rounds each, with a box for 12 rounds below the axle of the limber. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

60, etc. In still later times cannon became known by the weight and the balls they 
carried, 6-pounders, 12-pounders, etc. But they are now usually called after the 
size of their bores, .as 6-inch, 8-inch, or 12-inch cannon. The oldest example still 
in existence is "Mons Meg," preserved at Edinburgh Castle. This is one of the 
iron-bar type, hooped by iron rings. It is supposed to have been used by James II 
of Scotland, at the siege of Threave Castle in 1455. 

Louis VI used bombards of great length and power against the Flemish in 1477, 
while as early as 1401 bronze cannon had been cast in several cities of West Prussia. 
Iron cannon were not cast until near the end of that century. Coming down to 
the seventeenth century, we are told of the great Bijapur cast-iron gun, the "Lord 
of the Plain," cast by the Mogul emperor Auremgzebe or by his foes the Mahrattas. 
This huge gun was 14 feet long, 28 inches bore, and fired a ball of 1,600 pounds weight. 
Smooth-bore cannon and mortars of cast-iron and bronze are still retained in some 
fortresses, though rifled cannon are the only type now made. As late as 1864 smooth- 
bore 100- and 150-pounder wrought-iron guns were made for the British navy and 



388 



THE" STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 




THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



389 




390 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 




'THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



391 




Ill 



392 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



a few bronze rifled guns were made in 1870 for service in India, but all such guns 
are now obsolete. 

The development of the rifle from the old smooth-bore musket, by cutting 
grooves or channels in the form of a screw in the interior surface, was found so 
advantageous in increase of precision of aim and length of range, that the rifling of 
cannon in tune followed and is now universally used. Breech loading has also replaced 
muzzle loading, another vast advantage in the use of artillery. A form of breech- 
loading cannon w.s introduced in the sixteenth century, but the advantageous use 




THREE-INCH .HELD GUN, LONG IIECOIL CARRIAGE AND LIMBER 

Weight of gun, carriage and limber complete, including 36 rounds of ammunition, 
4,200 pounds; ground clearance, 22.5 inches. Seats are provided on axle of carriage for 
two gunners in transportation, one of whom operates the road brake. 
(Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

of this device is of late invention. An important result of these changes is the use 
of elongated instead of round balls, this permitting of the employment of much heavier 
projectiles for the same width of bore. 

Modern Cannon. 

Until 1888 the largest cannon in use was the 119-ton Krupp, made in 1884 for 
Italy; but in 1888-90 the same house produced a 135-ton gun for Cronstadt. The 
heaviest British gun at that time was of 111-ton weight. This threw a projectile 
of 1,800 pounds with a muzzle velocity of 2,216 feet per second. But there later 
came a reaction in favor of lighter guns and quick firers. The heavy cannon of 
recent times are not cast, as of old, but are made of forged-steel by what is known 
as the building-up process. The different parts of these are called the tube, jacket* 
hoops, locking rings, trunnion rings, wire winding, etc. 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



393 



Cannons are subject to great stress in firing, this being of two kinds. One is 
the longitudinal stress, acting in the direction of the length and tending to pull the 
muzzle away from the breech. The other is the circumferential or tangential stress, 
which tends to split the gun open in lines parallel to the axis of the bore. These 
stresses are results of the longitudinal and radial pressures of the gas developed by 
the ignition and explosion of the powder. Such destructive forces have to be 




THREE-INCH MOUNTAIN GUN AND CARRIAGE 

Weight of gun, 206^ pounds. Length of gun, 37.25 inches (12.4 calibers). Weight 
of projectile, 12 pounds. Travel of projectile in bore, 27.55 inches (9.2 calibers). Weight 
of charge, 12.5 ounces of smokeless powder. Muzzle velocity, 1,224-foot seconds. Muz- 
zle energy, 123-foot tons. Weight of gun and carriage complete, 726 pounds. This gun 
and carriage break up into four loads of approximately 200 pounds each. The equipment 
carries 16 complete rounds of ammunition with it, which are divided equally among four 
boxes. The saddles are so made that the load will go on any saddle. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

guarded against in the building of a cannon and have led to a great development 
over the old-time casting processes. As long as projectile velocities under 1,500 
feet per second were employed cannons cast in one piece sufficed, but when greater 
velocities were sought, the pressure grew so extreme that no cast or forged metal 
tube would stand the strain. 

How Cannon are Now Made. 

It was found that the inner surface of the tube stretched more than the outer 
surface, and that after the inner surface had been stretched to its limit of elasticity 
the outer part failed to add to its strength, so that further thickness was of no benefit. 



394 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



To do away with this condition cannon were constructed on the principle of varying 
elasticity, the metal with the greatest elongation within its elastic limit being placed 
next to the bore, yet in high-powered guns this system failed to yield the result 
d"fiired and it was replaced by what is known as the initial tension system. This 




RAPID-FIRE GUN 

Six-inch rapid-fire gun equipped with patented two-handed elevating gear, con- 
sisting of two hand wheels on opposite ends of the same shaft, the handles being 180 
degrees apart. The pointer uses both hands in elevating and depressing the gun. The 
electric firing trigger A is worked by the index finger of the right hand without releasing 
the handle. There is a second firing handle B attached to the slide, for firing either 
electrically or percussively. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

comprised two methods: the plain built-up gun and the wire-wound gun. In the 
latter certain parts of the gun were wrapped with wire in the form of a ribbon. 

Built-Up and Wire- Wound Guns. 

A built-up gun is made of several layers of forged steel. The parts of such a 
gun are known as the liner, the tube, the jacket and the hoops. The liner is a single 
piece which extends the length of the bore and is intended to contain the rifling and 
the powder chamber. This is inclosed by the tube, which is also in one piece, sur- 
rounding the liner throughout its length. Outside this is the jacket, made in two 
pieces and shrunk on the tube. Over the jacket lie the hoops, six or seven of these 
being used in a big gun. Like the jacket, these also are shrunk on. All these parts 
are made of the finest quality of open-hearth steel. 

These pieces are prepared with the utmost care to prevent any defective material 
entering into the make-up of the gun. After the parts are put together a thorough 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



395 




o i> 

!l 

3 .9 

55 8 

!I 



~" 

o ai 



3% THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 




THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



397 



.2.2 




398 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



It Li 




GIANT GUNS THEIR MUZZLE-ENERGY, PROJECTILES, AND PENETRATING POWERS 

The British 13.5, which was known as the 12-inch-A until the "Lion" was launched, 
has a length of 45 calibers, and a muzzle-energy ten per cent greater than that of the 
50-caliber 12-inch of 1909 and 1910. It may be noted that the caliber is the diameter 
of the bore of a gun. The statement that a gun has a length of 45 calibers, for 
example, implies that the gun is forty-five times the bore's diameter. Thus a 12-inch 
gun of 45 calibers is 45 feet long. 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



390 



forging follows, either by use of hammer or press, the latter being now used in prefer- 
ence. The usual practice in forging is to continue it until the ingot is decreased 
to one-half its original thickness and is within two inches of the desired diameter 
of the finished work. It is then annealed with great care to relieve the strains set 
up in the metal by the forging and next goes to the machine shop to be rough bored 
and turned. The final boring takes place after a second annealing. The above is 




ORDNANCE PROVING GROUND 

View showing smoke cone occurring during the proof firing of a twelve-inch gun with 

brown powder. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

only a rapid sketch of the total process, in which elaborate care is taken to prevent 
imperfection of any kind. 

In a wire-wound gun an inner tube of steel is thoroughly wrapped by successive 
layers of ribbon wire, each layer being wound with wire at a different tension. This 
type of gun is preferred by foreign manufacturers, but within the United States 
the built-up system is in higher favor and is almost exclusively employed. The 
makers of the wire-wound cannon claim for it a positive soundness of material impos- 
sible to secure in a built-up gun, and that it has greater firmness of material and 
superior tangential strength. But with this come certain disadvantages, a notable 
one being a lack of rigidity in the longitudinal direction, this tending to increase 
the "droop "of the muzzle and give a certain "whip" to the piece when fired that 
reduces accuracy. This and other disadvantages have given the built-up guns 
general preference in this country, they being found strong enough to bear any pres- 
sure desirable in eervice. In addition they are much cheaper to build then the 
wire-wound guns. 



100 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



Modern heavy guns are made of medium open-hearth carbon steel, forged as 
stated. The liner and tube are then placed upright in an assembling pit, the jacket 
and hoops shrunk on, and the finishing work done, as above said, the breech mechanism 
being finally fitted. Within recent years there has been a steady increase in the 
size and range of cannon, until an immense size and weight have been attained. 
For naval purposes the 14-inch gun is the largest now used in American battleships, 
but in the United States coast defense forts, 16-inch guns are installed. England 
IIMS oquipped several of her latest battleships with 15-inch guns and other nations 




FOUR-INCH FIFTY CALIBER RAPID-FIRE GUN ON .PEDESTAL MOUNT 
Extraction of cartridge case by opening of breech mechanism. Weight of gun, 
6,170 pounds. Length of gun, 205 inches (51.2 calibers). Weight of projectile, 33 
pounds Travel of projectile in bore, 165.6 inches (41.4 calibers). Weight of charge, 
15 pounds of smokeless powder. Muzzle velocity, 2,900-foot seconds. Muzzle energy, 
1 928-foot tons. Weight of mount with shield, 9,470 pounds. Thickness of shield, 2 
inches of nickel steel. Gun equipped with telescopic and night sights and with ele 
and percussion pull-off firing gear. 
Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

are following in the same direction. In recent great battleships four turrets are 
used, each carrying three of these great guns, giving a broadside of twelve of these 
monster weapons of war. Of the three guns, the middle one is raised above the line 
of the others. A battleship thus armed 'is able to fire six guns ahead and six astern 
by raising the second and third turrets so as to fire over the others. 

Military cannon are divided into three classes, based upon the length of caliber, 
and technically known as guns, mortars and howitzers. In guns the length is rela- 
tively great, in mortars relatively small, compared to their calibers. Howitzers 
form a class between guns and mortars in length. The field guns of the American 
army, are the 3.6-inch breech-loading mortars, and the 3.6-inch heavy and 6.2-wch 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



401 



light guns. The siege guns in the service are the 5-inch siege guns, the 7-inch howitzer, 
and the 7-inch mortar. The coast defense artillery consists of the 8-, 10-, 12- and 
16-inch guns and the 12-inch mortars. In the recent European war very heavy 
cannon were used for field service, pieces of the size usually placed in forts being 




FLUID COMPRESSION PLANT 

While still in a molten condition in the mold, the steel used in 
manufacturing guns and shafting is subjected to hydraulic pressure 
until the ingot has cooled, thus insuring the solidity of the metal. The 
upper head of the compressor weighs 125 tons, and the lower one, 
including the cylinder through which the hydraulic pressure is applied 
135 tons. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

drawn to the field by powerful tractors, set on concrete platforms and used in attacks 
on fortified cities. It was through the use of such ordnance that the German army 
so easily reduced the strongly fortified Belgian cities. 

The range of these giant cannon is enormous and their destructive power great, 
this being added to by the fact that the explosive shell has replaced the solid round 
shot of old-time gunnery. A 14-inch gun of 45 caliber can discharge a 1,400-pound 






402 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



AMMUNITION. (Lee i a- o 41C.J 




TWO-HANDED ELEVATING GEAR.* (See page 410.) 



* Illustration by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



403 




RANGE FINDER AND PREDICTOR; HOME AND DISTANT STATION INSTRUMENTS.* 

(See page 410.) 



r 




ARMOR PIERCING PROJECTILES, CAPPED AND UNCAPPED.* (See page 410.) 



Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



404 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



CONTINUOUS READING RANGE ,\ A7IMUTM 
FINDER ANO PRtDCTOR 
CHART ATTACHMENT 





RANGE FINDER AND CHABT ATTACHMENT*. (See page 410.) 





ElGHTEEN-INCH. 



* Dluatratioos by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



405 




FIRING GEAR FOR GUNS.* (See page 410.) 



1 




FUSES.* (See page 410.) 



* Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co* 



406 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



projectile at a muzzle velocity of 2,600 feet per second. If we rompiire this with a 
locomotive going at the speed of sixty miles an hour, we have in the latter a speed of 
eighty-eight feet per second to compare with the 2,600 feet per second of the 
cannon ball. From this we can well conjecture the vast speed with which the 
latter moves, its enormous range and vast powers of destruction. 

As facts are better than theories, it will be of interest to adduce a recent example 
of gunnery of a most illuminating type, but as regards distance and remarkable 
acenripv of aim. In September, 1916, the American battleship "Pennsylvania, 1 ' 




THREE-INCH HORSE ARTILLERY GUN, LONG RECOIL CARRIAGE AND JLIMBER 

Length of gun, 85 inches (28 calibers). Weight of projectile, 12 pounds. Travel 
of projectile in bore, 74.65 inches (24.88 calibers). Weight of charge, 17.1 ounces of 
smokeless powder. Muzzle velocity, 1,750-foot seconds. Muzzle energy, 255-foot tons. 
Weight of gun, carriage and limber, containing 36 rounds of ammunition, 3,355 pounds. 
Ground clearance, 18 inches. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

armed with a main battery of twelve 14-inch guns, fired these simultaneously at a 
target in the Chesapeake 22,000 yards, or more than twelve miles, away. The target 
was the sunken hulk of the "San Marcos/' formerly the battleship "Texas," which 
for several years had been used for similar purposes. As the target was invisible 
to the gunners it was hardly to be expected that any of the shots should fall near 
the target. But the extraordinary result appeared that five of these twelve shots 
struck the hulk. As each of these projectiles weighed 1,400 pounds any battleship 
receiving such a broadside would probably have gone promptly to the bottom. The 
result, which has never before been equaled in accuracy, sufficiently attests the 
remarkable proficiency in range-finding that modern engineers have developed. 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



407 



As for the penetrating powers of such huge shot we may take the 15-inch gun, 
the type of the largest guns in our fortifications and which is claimed to be able to 
pierce sixteen inches of armor at a range of 18,000 yards and ten inches at a range of 
20,000 yards. A notable example of this took place on September 15, 1916, at the 
proving grounds at Indian Head, on the Potomac River, when a 16-inch, 2,100- 
pound, solid steel shell, said to be the first ever fired from a naval gun of that caliber, 
with a small charge of explosive, went through a plate of armor, penetrated a thick 
sand backing, and continued its course, striking the house of an employee of the 




PATENTED CHAIN RAMMER 

As applied to loading twelve-inch turret guns. The space occupied by this rammer 
in the rear of the gun is less than one foot, with a possible ramming stroke of fifteen 
feet. The rammer being attached to the gun's cradle or slide, moves with the gun in 
elevation and depression. The ammunition car also moves with the gun. Loading can 
be performed while the gun is kept in motion following a moving target. This rammer 
is stift in all directions when extended. 

Uourtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 

proving grounds and plunging through the kitchen rending all before it. This was 
a naval gun, the largest yet made for naval purposes. 

[n the make-up of modern guns the breech-loading mechanism is of essential 
importance, it being necessary that the breech should be capable of rapid opening 
for tne insertion of the charge into the loading chamber, as rapidly closed and firmly 
secured to prevent it being forced open by the reaction of the discharge. It also 
must fit with such tightness as to prevent any escape of the gas in that direction, 
and force it to exert all its impelling power upon the ball. Various methods are used 
for this purpose, with the result that loading and firing can be very quickly and 
effectively performed. In the case of guns in fortifications, the disappearing carriage 



408 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



is a highly important invention of recent date. By its aid the gun is quickly lifted 
to fire over the walls of the fort and is driven backward by the force of its discharge, 
sinking to a place of safety behind the walls. This saves the gun and its crew, from 
injury by return fire. 

We may say in conclusion that the great European war was notable for the 
use of artillery to an extent far surpassing its employment in any previous war. 
This great conflict, indeed, was very largely a contest of gun fire, in which the opposing 
fields of the battling armies were so swept with shells and other explosives as to render 
life impossible on the open land, trench digging being one of the main employments 
of the embattled hosts. Never before had the supreme value of gunnery in war- 
fare been so fully demonstrated. 




GEAR WHEEL AND DRUM FOR COAL HOISTING PLANE 

Diameter of wheel, 20 feet 9^ inches; face, 43 }/% inches; diameter of hub, 26 inches; 
number of teeth, 128; pitch, Gy& inches; pitch diameter, 249.554 inches; shipping weight, 
108,873 pounds. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 



409 









SIX-INCH RIBBED CAVITY ARMOR-PIERCING SHELL 

Projectile was loaded with two pounds of black charcoal powder 
and fused with magazine fuse. Fired at six-inch Krupp hard-faced 
armor plate. Shell burst about eight feet to rear of plate after pene- 
trating the same. Weight of largest fragment recovered 10^ pounds. 
Average weight of fragments, 2 ^ ounces. Total number of pieces 
recovered, 650. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co 



410 THE STORY IN A GIANT CANNON 

AMMUNITION. (See page 402.) 

Made-up ammunition, with brass cartridge cases, and cast-iron and forged steel shells and armor- 
piercing projectiles. The rounds shown are as follows: Rounds with forged steel shell for one- 
pounder gun, for three-pounder gun and for six-pounder gun respectively; round with cast-iron shell 
for three-inch field gun; round with capped armor-piercing shell for three-inch fifty-caliber rapid- 
fire gun; round with forged steel shell for four-inch forty caliber rapid-fire gun; round with capped 
armor-piercing projectiles for the four-inch and twelve-centimeter fifty-caliber rapid-fire guns 
respectively, and round with forged shell for six-inch gun. 

TWO-HANDED ELEVATING GEAR. (See page 402.) 

Method of obtaining a variable movement of a miniature target, corresponding to rolls of a 
vessel of from 1 to 10 degrees. A series of 25,000 shots were fired thus, by eight gun pointers, at 
targets corresponding to the size of a battleship as seen at ranges of 1,500, 3,000, 6,000 and 9,000 
yards. Using a sub-camber rifle rigidly attached to the muzzle cf the gun and fired electrically by the 
firing gear of the big sun. The record shows that under circumstances of avemge difficulty at sea 
(say 5 degrees roll antl range of 3,500 yards), the gain in accuracy (increase in hits with a given 
expenditure of ammunition) is about 25 per cent, and the gain in speed of hitting (number of hits in 
a given time) is 50 per cent, with the two-hand gear as compared with the usual one-hand gear. 

RANGE FINDER AND PREDICTOR; HOME AND DISTANT STATION INSTRUMENTS. (See page 403.) 

Continuous readings, by means of automatic indicators, of either the actual or the predicted 
ranges and azimuths of moving target at every instant and for any distance from 1,000 to 15,000 
yards and through an azimuth of 160 degrees, are clearly presented at all times. The ranges are 
read in scales of 10-yard steps, and the azimuths for each .01 degree are traversed. The corrected 
ranges for the various guns served by the instruments, either actual or automatically predicted for 
any interval of time, are constantly communicated to the various guns whose fire is being directed 
by the observation instrument. 

ARMOR-PIERCING PROJECTILES, CAPPED AND UNCAPPED. (See page 403.) 

The projectiles shown are a three-inch capped, a four-inch capped, a five-inch and a six-inch 
uncapped, eight-inch uncapped and capped, ten-inch uncapped and capped and twelve-inch capped. 

RANGE FINDER WITH CHART ATTACHMENT. (See page 404.) 

The chart is drawn on the lower and ground side of a ground glass plate. A pencil point is 
.ecured to moving cross-head and marks position of target on ground glass, tracing movement 
of same thereon. The pillar mounting allows of ready removal of chart attachment when it is 
lot desired to use the same. 

ElGHTEEN-INCH, THIRTY-CALIBER TORPEDO GUN. (See page 404.) 

Weight, 134,000 pounds. Length of gun, 528 inches. Weight of projectile, 2,000 pounds. 
Travel of projectile in bore, 432.4 inches (24.02 calibers). Weight of charge, 310 pounds of smoke- 
Ij 3ss powder. Muzzle velocity, 2,000-foot seconds. Muzzle energy, 55,500-foot tons. Greatest 
diameter of gun, 45 inches. Its breech mechanism was opened and closed by one man in nine 
seconds. It was also opened without great effort by a boy twelve years of age. 

FIRING GEAR FOR GUNS. (See page 405.) 

External firing gear for guns using loose ammunition. The primer is inserted in the firing gear 
when the breech mechanism is open, but is held at an angle to the lighting vent until the final locking 
motion of the breech block, making it impossible to light the gun's charge before the breech mechan- 
ism is pafely closed, even if the primer should be prematurely exploded. The primer case is auto- 
matically ejected by the opening of the breech mechanism. 

FUSES. (See page 405.) 

The fuses shown from left to right are: minor caliber percussion fuse, minor caliber magazine 
percussion fuse, major caliber percussion fuse, major caliber magazine percussion fuse, triple, double 
and single train time fuses. The time fuses all contain a percussion element to insure their exploding 
on impact if not previously exploded. No special tool is required for setting these fuses. They are 
made, up to 27 seconds burning time for guns of 2,600-foot seconds muzzle velocity, and up to 
36 seconds for mortars and guns of 1,400-foot secondi muzzle velocity. 



WHAT IS A DEEP-SEA DIVER'S DRESS LIKE 411 



What is a Deep-Sea Diver's Dress Like? 

There are now two general types of deep-sea diving equipment: an India rubber 
dress, covering the entire body, except the head, which is covered by a helmet, and 
another apparatus which is constructed entirely of metal. 

The India rubber dress has a neck-piece or breast-plate, fitted with a segmental 
screw bayonet joint, to which the head-piece or helmet, the neck of which has a 
corresponding screw, can be attached or removed. The helmet has usually three 
eyeholes, covered with strong glass, and protected by guards. Air is supplied by 
means of a flexible tube which enters the helmet and communicates with an air 
pump above. To allow of the escape of the used 
air there is sometimes another flexible tube, 
which is led from the back part of the helmet 
to the surface of the water. But in the more 
improved forms of the dress, the breathed air 
escapes by a valve so constructed as to prevent 
water from getting in, though it lets the air out. 
Leaden weights are attached to the diver, and 
his shoes are weighted, that he may be able to 
descend a ladder, walk about below, etc. 

Communication can be carried on with those 
above by means of a cord running between the 
diver and the attendants; or he may converse 
with them through a speaking tube or a tele- 
phonic apparatus. One form of diving-dress 
makes the diver independent of any connection 
with persons above the water. It is elastic and 
hermetically closed. A reservoir containing highly 
compressed air is fixed on the diver's back, which 
supplies him with air by a self-regulating appa- 
ratus at a pressure corresponding to his depth. 
When he wishes to ascend he simply inflates his 
dress from the reservoir. 

Another form, known as the Fleuss dress, makes the diver also independent of 
exterior aid. The helmet contains a supply of compressed oxygen, and the exhaled 
breath is passed through a filter in the breast-piece which deprives it of its carbonic 
acid, while the nitrogen goes back into the helmet to be mixed with the oxygen, the 
supply of which is under the diver's own control, and to be successively breathed. 
A diver has remained an hour and a half under thirty-five feet of water in this suit. 

A considerable enlargement of the field of deep-sea diving is the result of the 
invention recently of a form of diving apparatus which is unaffected by the limitations 
hitherto imposed on work of this kind. A possible depth of 204 feet is recognized 
by the British Admiralty regulations under the conditions that obtain with the 
common form of diving suit. Yet this depth has probably never been reached. One 
hundred feet is the rare descent of the average diver and 150 feet his maximum. 
With the new apparatus a submergence of 212 feet has been obtained, and this might 
have been indefinitely extended had there been a greater depth of water at the place 
where the experiment took place Long Island Sound during the latter part of 1914. 

The new diving apparatus is constructed entirely of metal, is rigid and is made 
of such materials that it is strong enough to resist the great pressures found in the 
depths to which it can penetrate. The material used is an alloy of aluminum, and 
the diving case weighs complete about 500 pounds. When in the air, the man inclosed 
in it is incapable of imparting movement to it, but in the water, which counter- 
balances the dead weight of the apparatus, he can easily move the articulated sections 




DIVING-DRESS AND DIVING-HELMET, 
BY SIEBE, GORMAN & Co. 

A. Pipe by which air is supplied. 
B. Valve by which it escapes. 



412 WHAT IS A DEEP-SEA DIVER'S DRESS LIKE 

as well as give himself motion through the water. The articulated portion consists 
of about fifty turning joints, fitted with leather packing, which swells and has an 
increased effectiveness under increased water pressure. To prevent the pressure- 
force of the deep sea from jamming the joints, roller bearings are so arranged about 
them that freedom of action is constantly maintained. 

The diving case is not absolutely water-tight, nor is it desired that it should be 
so, as the slight leakage acts as a lubricant to the joints, and aids in their move- 
ments. The danger arising from the intake of water thus into the diving case is 
averted by the action of an ingenious pump appliance, which serves two purposes: 
that of pumping the water out and pumping the air in. The diver in this invention 
carries his pump with him and has air supplied to him at atmospheric pressure. 

At the back of the diving case is a recess and in it is installed a compact but 
powerful pump, which sucks from the feet of the suit all leakage and forces it at 
once outward. This pump is worked by compressed air, and the air, after performing 
its mechanical part of driving the pump, is exhausted into the suit for the diver to 
breathe and then passes to the surface through the free space in an armored rubber 
tube, within which are led down to the diver the compressed air pipe for driving the 
pump, and the electrical connections for telephone and lamp. Thus the diving case 
receives a thorough ventilation, and it has been found that should the pump fail to 
work for a number of minutes there would still be enough air remaining in the diving 
case and the tube space to supply the diver's needs for at least the length of time he 
is being hauled to the surface. 

During the experiment in Long Island Sound the pump was stopped for ten 
minutes, while the diver was at a depth of 100 feet. He suffered no inconvenience, 
and when the compressor again was started he was lowered to a depth of 212 feet. 
If such a condition as failure of the pump to work for ten minutes had arisen during 
a descent in the old elastic diving dress the result must necessarily have been fatal. 
Nor is a delay necessary in hoisting the diver clad in the new diving apparatus to the 
surface. According to the British Admiralty regulations, should a diver go down to 
a depth of 204 feet, the time of his ascent must be not less than one hour and a half. 
In the Long Island Sound experiments the diver was hoisted to the surface in eighty- 
seven seconds. He was totally uneffected by the abrupt change in pressure, although 
the deepest he had ever been was ninety feet, and on that occasion he had suffered 
from bleeding at the nose and bars. 

Why do We Smile when We are Pleased? 

We smile to express our pleasure. When you meet a friend on the street you 
smile as you greet him. This is an indication of your pleasure at seeing him. This 
is often caused by an unconscious nervous action produced by the impression the 
occurrence creates on the brain. You do not have to think about smiling, but the 
muscles of your face contract and give you that pleased look without any effort on 
your part. 

Why do Some of Us have Freckles? 

Some people have freckles, when others do not, because all skins are not alike, 
just the same as eyes are not all of one color. People with certain kinds of skin freckle 
more quickly when the skin is exposed to the sun. The action of the sun on their 
skin causes small parts of the second layer of skin to give out a yellow or yellowish 
brown substance. Freckles are most common in persons of fair complexion and hair. 
In some cases freckles are permanent, but in most cases they disappear with the 
coming of cold weather. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 413 




MINING ORE, ISLAND OP CUBA.* (See page 415.) 




LOADING ORE, ISLAND OF CUBA.* (See page 415.) 

Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



414 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




PIG IRON CASTING MACHINE* (See page 415,} 




OPEN-HEARTH FURNACE STOCK YARD.* (See page 415.) 



* Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 415 

MINING ORE, ISLAND OF CUBA. (See page 413.) 

The immense veins of magnetic ore lie close to the surface and are mined or quarried by working 
along a series of benches or ledges. 



LOADING ORE, ISLAND OF CUBA. (See page 413.) 

The ore is loaded into small buggies at the mines and run down an inclined plane, where it ia 
dumped into railroad cars for transportation to the shipping wharves, seventeen miles distant. 



PIG IRON CASTING MACHINE. (See page 414.) 

No. 1 casting machine has a capacity of 1,000 tons per day. There are 180 molds, each pig 
weighing about 125 pounds. 

No. 2 machine has a capacity of 1,800 tons per day. It has 278 molds, each for 125-pound pig. 
Product, low phosphorus, Bessemer and basic, or high phosphorus machine-cast pig iron. 



OPEN-HEARTH FURNACE STOCK YARD. (See page 414.) 

The raw materials for the open-hearth furnaces are received on elevated railroad tracks graded 
and piled preparatory to sending to the furnaces. Yard No. 1 is 950 feet long and 87 feet wide, 
and is served by three electric traveling cranes of twenty tons and sixty tons capacity. Yard No. 2 
is 790 feet long and 84 feet wide, and is served by two ten-ton electric traveling cranes. 



OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. (See page 416.) 

No. 1 open-hearth plant consists of twelve furnaces, two ten-ton, two twenty-ton, five forty- 
ton and two fifty-ton basic furnaces and one forty-ton acid furnace with gas producers. Length 
of floor, 623 feet. 

No. 2 plant consists of ten fifty-ton furnaces with gas producers. Length of floor, 890 feet. 



CHARGING FLOOR OF OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES. (See page 416.) 

The stock is delivered to the charging floor in iron boxes loaded on narrow-gauge buggies, ana 
is charged into the furnaces by electric charging machines. Length of floor of No. 1 open-hearth 
plant, 477 feet; width, 28 feet. Length of floor of No. 2 open-hearth plant, 890 feet; width, 50 feet. 



BLAST FURNACE STORAGE PLANT. (See page 417.) 

The coal, coke, ore, etc., is delivered direct by the railroad cars under a traveling cantilever 
crane running on tracks laid the length of a wharf and is dumped from the cars through chutes into 
buckets and piled until needed at the furnaces. The plant is capable of storing over 1,000,000 tons 
of material. 



BLAST FURNACES. (See page 417.) 

Showing stock house, blowing-engine house, etc. Plant consists of four furnaces 70 feet high, 
18-foot boshet and 12-foot hearth. One furnace 90 feet high, 22- foot boshet and 11 feet 6 inches 
hearth. Blowing engines are of horizontal compound and horizontal vertical compound types, 
capable of blowing a pressure of 25 pounds of air. Four furnaces provided with fire-brick regen- 
erator stoves 100 feet high and 18 feet in diameter. Large furnace has six stoves 100 feet high by 
22 feet in diameter. Boilers fired with waste got from furnace. 



416 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




OPEN-HEARTH FURNACES.* (See page 415.) 




CHARGING FLOOR OF OPEN HEARTH FURNACES.* (See page 415.) 



'Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 417 




- 



BLAST FURNACE STORAGE PLANT.* (See page 415.) 




BLAST FURNACES.* (See page 415.) 



* Illustrations by courtesy of the Btblehem Steel Co. 
27 



418 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




15,000-ToN HYDRAULIC FORGING PRESS 

In all respects this press is the largest and most powerful forging 
press in the world. Water is supplied to the two plungers under a 
pressure of 7,000 pounds per square inch, giving it a maximum capacity 
of 15,000 tons. The columns supporting the cross-head are 14 feet 
6 inches apart, and the working height under cross-head is 17 feet 
1J4 inches. 
Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



PICTORIAL STCRV OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 419 




DROP FORGE DIE SHOP.* (See page 421.) 




VIEW OP A SECTION OF PROJECTILE FORGE SHOP.* 



page 421.) 



* Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



420 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




FORGING HOLLOW HEAVY SHAFT.* (See page 421.) 




OIL-TEMPERING HEAVY SHAFT.* (See page 421.) 



* Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 421 

DROP FORGE DIE SHOP. (See page 419.) 

This shop has a floor space of 20,400 square feet. With full equipment of most modern die 
sinking tools. 



VIEW OF A SECTION OF PROJECTILE FORGE SHOP. (See page 419.) 

This shop has a floor space of 22,000 square feet and is thoroughly equipped with the necessary 
hammers, presses, furnaces, etc., for the forging, punching, closing in, treating and tempering of all 
sizes of armor-piercing and explosive projectiles and shells. 



FORGING HOLLOW HEAVY SHAFT. (See page 420.) 

No. 22. The biocK has a hole bored through its center, and in this the mandrel is inserted, the 
tube being forged around it. The hydraulic pressure for this 5,000-ton press is furnished by Whit- 
worth pumping engines. This department contains also a 2,500-ton press of similar design. 



OIL-TEMPERING HEAVY SHAFT. (See page 420.) 

Showing a shaft weighing about 33,000 pounds being taken from the vertical heating furnace 
and suspended over the oil-tank preparatory to being lowered for tempering. The heating furnace 
and oil tank are served by a sixty-ton traveling crane and forty-ton jib crane. The shrinking pit for 
assembling is situated between the heating furnace and. oil tank. 



ARMOR PLATE MACHINE SHOP. (See page 423.) 

The varied and complex machining required on armor plate demands tools of enormous size 
and strength as well as varied capacity. The equipment of this shop consists of large saws, planers, 
etc., together with numerous portable drill presses, grinders, etc. In this shop the different groups 
of armor are assembled in the positions they will occupy on the vessel and are finally inspected before 
shipment. 



FORGING ARMOR. (See page 423.) 

After heating, the ingot is placed under a 14,000-ton hydraulic forging press and forged to the 
required dimensions. The press is served by two 200-ton cranes with hydraulic lift and pneumatic 
travel. Weight of the porter-bar and chuck which hold the plate for forging is 125,000 pounds, 
exclusive of counter-weights used. 



SPECIAL CAR BUILT FOR THE SHIPPING OF LARGE AND HEAVY MATERIAL. (See page 424.) 

Length of car over couplers, 103 feet 10^ inches; capacity, 300,000 pounds. Weight of car, 
196,420 pounds. Shown here loaded with casting of large 5,000-ton flanging press. Weight of 
casting, 252,000 pounds. 



THE LARGEST STEEL CASTING IN THE WORLD. (See page 424.) 

Combining the product of five 40-ton open-hearth furnaces. Steel casting forming part of a 
12,000-ton armor-plate hydraulic forging press. Weight of casting, 325,000 pounds (145 gross tons). 



422 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




BENDING ARMOR PLATE 

After being rough-forged to size and re-heated, the plate is sent to 
the bending press to be straightened or bent to shape. The one shown 
is a nickel steel side armor plate, 14 inches thick. The press exerts a 
hydraulic thrust of 7,000 tons, with two independently operated plungers, 
and is served by direct-fired furnaces with movable car bottoms and two 
seventy-five ton hydraulic cranes. 
Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 423 




AHMOR PLATE MACHINE SHOP.* (See page 421.) 




FORGING ARMOR.* (See page 421.) 



* Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel CQ. 



424 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




SPECIAL CAR BUILT FOR THE SHIPPING OF LARGE AND HEAVY MATERIAL * 

(See page 421.) 




THE LARGEST STEEL CASTING IN THE WORLD.* (See page 421.) 



* IJJuat-rationB b y courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 425 











BATTLESHIP TURRET.* (See page 427.) 




NICKEL STEEL FIELD RING FORGED WITHOUT WULD FOR A 5,000-HoRSE-PowEB 
DYNAMO.* (See page 4270 



* Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



426 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




TURRET FOR Two TWELVE-INCH GUNS FOR UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP "ALABAMA".* 

(See page 427.) 





CONNING TOWER AND ENTRANCE SHIELD FOR UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP 
"MASSACHUSETTS. " * (See page 427.) 



* Illustrations by courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel CP, 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 427 



BATTLESHIP TURRET. (See page 425.) 

Twelve-inch turret carrying two forty-five caliber twelve-inch guns for the U. S. Navy. 
These guns can be loaded at any angle of elevation or azimuth or while in motion. The turret is 
equipped with a broken or double hoist. The lower hoist supplying ammunition from the magazine 
to an upper handling room immediately below, and revolving with, the turret pan. This makes 
the upper or gun hoist shorter and increases the speed of ammunition service, besides interposing 
two fireproof bulkheads between the guns and the magazine handling room. 

NICKEL STEEL FIELD RING FORGED WITHOUT WELD FOR A 5,000-HoRSE -POWER DYNAMO. 

(See page 425.) 

Forged dimensions: outside diameter, 141 inches; inside diameter, 131 inches; width, 51 
inches. Rough machined dimensions: outside diameter, 139% inches; inside diameter, 130 inches; 
width, 50% inches; weight, 28,840 pounds. Average physical properties shown in United States 
Standard test bar taken from full-sized prolongation of end of forging: Elastic limit, 53,560 pounds 
per square inch. Elongation, 27.05 per cent. 

TURRET FOR Two TWELVE-INCH GUNS FOR UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP "ALABAMA." 

(See page 426.) 

Balanced type. Thickness of inclined plate, 14 inches; of side plates, 10 inches. Height of 
side plates, 7 feet. Largest diameter of turret, 393 inches. Weight of turret, 192.41 tons. 

CONNING TOWER AND ENTRANCE SHIELD FOR IGNITED STATES BATTLESHIP "MASSACHUSETTS." 

(See page 426.) 

Conning tower, one piece hollow forging, nickel steel, oil tempered. Thickness of walls, 10 inches. 
Inside diameter, 83 inches. Height, 82 % inches. Top plate, nickel steel, oil-tempered, l^j inches 
thick. Shield, face-hardened nickel steel, 10 inches thick, 66 inches high. 




>Ai-'E .DEPOSIT ARMOR .PLATE VAULT 

Size, 42 feet 6 inches by 24 feet 6 inches by 9 feet 6 inches high; weifht, 450 gross tons. 
Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



428 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




FRONT DOOR, WITH TIME LOCK, FOR ARMOR PLATE 
SAFE DEPOSIT VAULT 

Thickness of front door plate, 12 ^ inches; weight of door plate, 
12,000 pounds. 

Courtesy of the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 429 




.2 



I 

8 
8. 



. 

I 



il 



F s.sp 

O ft 

ill 



4JI 



II 

a. o 
< ^ 
as ^ 



430 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 



431 




432 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




GIRDLING THE EARTH WITH STEEL 

A steel beam, red-hot, drawn out 90 feet long in a huge steel mill in Pitts- 
burgh. Steel rolled here may find its place as part of a skyscraper in the Babel 
of New York, be builded into the framework of a vessel in the shipyards of San 
Francisco, or help to construct a railroad into the heart of China. 
Cpyra If]/ Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 433 




ARMOR PLATE FORGING PRESS 

The Bethlehem Steel Company installed this great hydraulic press to replace a 135- 
ton steam hammer, which was abandoned because the shock of its blow disturbed the 
alignment of the big machines in nearby shops. This press is the largest of its kind 
in the world, having a capacity of 15,000 tons, induced by pressure as much as 7 r OOOi 
pounds per square inch in its two hydraulic cylinders of over 50 inches diameter. 



434 PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 




PICTORIAL STORY OF THE STEEL INDUSTRY 435 




Courtesu of Bethl'hem Steel (!c. 



FORGING 



One-piece, 90-degree, double-throw crank shaft for 5,400 H. P. gas engine. Diameter 
of shaft, 37 inches, with 10-inch hole. Length over all, 25 feet 5 inches. Crank webs, 
16% inches thick, 6 feet 1% inches long, 4 feet 1 inch wide. Forged weight of shaft, 
133,400 pounds. Finished weight, 83,855 pounds. 



We have always said "a white elephant" when we have meant something we 
didn't know what to do with, since the King of Siam first sent a white elephant to 
a courtier whose fortune he wished to destroy. 

What do We Mean by " Deviation of the Compass "? 

When people speak of " deviation of the compass" they mean the difference 
of a ship's compass from the magnetic meridian, caused by the near presence of iron. 
In iron ships the amount of deviation depends upon the direction, with regard to the 
magnetic meridian, in which the ship lay when being built. It is least when the ship 
has been built with her head south. Armor-plated ships should be plated with their 
head in a different direction from that in which they lay when built. 

The mode now generally employed to correct deviation is by introducing on 
board ship masses of iron and magnets to neutralize the action of the ship's mag- 
netism so far as possible. 

Compasses are sometimes carried on masts in iron vessels as a means of removing 
them from the disturbing influence of the iron of the hull. In this position they serve 
as standards of comparison for the binnacle compass. 

Wooden ships are also affected, though in a far less degree, by the direction in 
they lie when building. 



The Story in the Making of a Pair 

of Shoes* 

The covering and protection of the feet has been a necessity in all but the 
warm climates for very many centuries, various articles being used for this purpose. 
Leather is now very generally employed, though wood is often used in Holland and 
France and paper in China and Japan. The moccasin of the American Indian was 
made of untanned deer skin. The first historical mention of a shoe is in the Old 
Testament, where Abraham refused to take as much as a "shoe-latchet" from the 
King of Sodom. This probably meant a sandal, leather strapped to the foot, though 
the Jews wore shoes as well, and both shoes and sandals were worn in Greece and 
Rome. Both in ancient and modern times the styles of shoes worn have varied 
greatly, fashion taking hold of them. In the reigns of the English kings Henry I 
and Stephen, the people of the court wore shoes with long points stuffed with tow 
and made to coil like a ram's horn, and by the time of Richard II the points had 
grown so long as to reach the knee, to which they were fastened by silver or gold 
chains. In the eighteenth century ladies wore shoes with absurdly high heels, a 
ridiculous fashion which has come back within our own times. An improvement 
which was adopted in the early nineteenth century was that of making shoes right 
and left. Boots, which have at times been much worn, are a variety of shoe lengthened 
to protect part of the legs. 

Until within a recent period the trade of shoemaker was an active one, all boots 
and shoes being made by hand. At the present time, however, the old-time shoe- 
maker, with his bench, lapstone, last and awls has almost gone out of business, 
except as a cobbler, mending instead of making having become his usual occupation. 
In his place has come the factory hand, nearly all footwear being now a product of 
machinery, and this of greatly varied and effective character. In this form shoe- 
making has become a thriving industry in New England and in some other parts 
of the United States. This method has greatly decreased the cost of shoes, inven- 
tion having so hastened and cheapened all its processes that the number of shoes 
that it would take an old-time shoemaker a year to make can be turned out in a few 
hours by modern machinery. 

Shoemaking by Machine. 

The variety of inventions used in shoe factories is rather bewildering, every 
one of the many processes having a machine of its own, and each of these doing its 
work with admirable precision. We can name here only the more important of these 
implements. 

First comes the clicking machine. This has a cutting board resembling that 
used by the hand workmen. Over this is a beam containing a cutting die under 
which the leather is passed. At every descent of the die a piece of leather is cut 
out of the skin of the size and shape needed for the upper leather of a shoe. Thus 
in an instant is done what was slowly done by a sharp knife moved around a pattern 
m the old method. 

The piece of leather thus cut out is next passed under the skiving machine, which 
shaves down its edges to a bevel, the thinned edge being then folded, after which 

* Illustrations by courtesy of United Shoe Machinery Co. 

(436) 



STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 437 




IN THE DAYS OF THE AWL, LAPSTONE 
AND HAMMER 




CROSS-SECTION OF GOODYEAR WELT SHOE, SHOWING THE 
DIFFERENT PARTS AND THEIR RELATION TO I^ACH OTHER 




AMAZEEN SKIVING 
MACHINE 




INSOLE TACKING MACHINE 



438 STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 




IDEAL CLICKING MACHINE 





DUPLEX EYELETING MACHINE 



ENSIGN LACING MACHINE 



STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 439 





REX UfP'EIi 'l RIMMING 

MACHINE 




ilEX PULLING-OVEK iVlACHIJSj 



CROWN TIP PUNCHING 



440 STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 




BED LASTING MACHINE 






GOODYEAR UNIVERSAL INSEAM 
TRIMMING MACHINE 



TACK-PULLING AND RE- 
SETTING MACHINE 



CONSOLIDATED HAND METH- 
OD WELT LASTING MACHINE 



STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 441 





IMPROVED SOLE LAYING MACHINE 



STAR CHANNEL CEMENTING 
MACHINE 





GOODYEAR AUTOMATIC SOLE LEVELING MACHINE 



AMERICAN LIGHTNING NAILING 
MACHINE 



442 STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 

the toe caps are passed through a punching machine which cuts a series of ornamental 
perforations along the edge of the cap. The linings of the shoe are then prepared 
and put in place and the whole goes to the stitchers, by which all the parts of the 
upper are united. This is done by a range of machines, which perform the varied 
operations with wonderful rapidity and accuracy. The eyelets are next added by a 
machine which places them in both sides of the shoe at the same time and directly 
opposite each other, this operation finishing the upper part of the shoe. 

The sole leather portions of the shoe pass through another series of machines, 
being cut from sides of sole leather by the dieing-out machine, cut to exact shape 
by the rounding machine and to exact thickness by the splitting machine, and then 
toughened by passing under a heavy rolling machine. These and other machines 
complete the soles and hcjels, which are finally sent to the making or bottoming room, 
where the completed shoe uppers awaits them. 

The first process here is that of the ensign lacing machine, which puts a strong 
twine through the eyelets and ties it in an accurate manner. This is done very 
swiftly and exactly, its purpose being to hold the parts of the shoe in their normal 
position while the shoe is being completed. The last, made of wood, is now put in 
place and tacked fast by the insole tacking machine, when the upper is placed over 
it and fastened by two tacks to hold it in place. Then comes the pulling-over machine, 
the pincers of which draw the leather securely against the wood of the last, to which 
it is fastened by other tacks. These tacks in the upper are driven only part way 
in, so that they may be easily drawn out when no longer needed. 

The welt lasting machine next takes the job in hand, it being almost human- 
like in the evenness and tightness with which it draws the leather around the last, 
other tacks being driven partly in to hold it in place. A second lasting machine of 
different kind, draws it around the toe and heel. Then comes the upper trimming 
machines, which cuts away the surplus parts of the leather, the Rex pounding machine, 
which hammers it around the heel, the tack pulling machine which removes the 
lasting tacks and puts in others to hold the new placed leather, and the upper stapling 
machine, which forms a little staple fastening from wire which securely holds the 
shoe upper to the channel lip of the insole. 

The shoe is now ready to receive the welt, a narrow strip of prepared leather 
which is sewed along the edge of the shoe and holds all its parts firmly together. 
This used to be one of the most difficult tasks in hand-work, but is done rapidly 
and exactly by this machine. After this all protruding parts of the welt and upper 
are trimmed off by another machine, the insole tack pulling machine removes all 
the remaining temporary tacks, and the welt-beating and slashing machines beats 
the welt with little hammers till it stands out evenly from the side of the shoe. 

It may seem as if the number of machines engaged in this work are almost beyond 
number, but there are nearly as many more to come. In fact, a factory shoe in many 
cases is not completed until 170 machines and 210 pairs of hands have taken part 
in putting it together and getting it into shape for the wearer, and each of these 
machines works with an accuracy which no hand-work can equal. We have so far 
witnessed the assembling of the several parts of the shoe into one connected whole. 
The remaining processes must be run over more rapidly. 

There is a sole-laying machine, a rounding and channeling machine, a loose 
nailing machine (the Jatter driving nails into the heel at the rate of 350 per minute), 
a heel seat rounding machine, and various others, one sewing the welt to the shoe, 
a leveling machine, a second nailing machine, which does the final work of attaching 
the heel to the shoe, and so on somewhat indefinitely. 

The remaining machines have to do with the final finishing. They include 
trimmers, stitch separators, edge setters, buffers, finishers, cleaners, stampers, shoe 
treers, creasers, etc., each playing a part of some importance in giving a final finish 



STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 443 







EDGE TRIMMING MACHINE 





CLIMAX FINISHING SHAFT 





GOODYEAK HEEL SEAT 
ROUNDING MACHINE 



LOOSE NAILING MACHINE 



THE HADAWAY STITCH 
SEPARATING MACHINE 



444 STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 





NAUMKEAG BUFFING MACHINE 



REGENT STAMPING MACHINE 





GOODYEAR UNIVERSAL ROUNDING AND CHANNELING MACHINE 



STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 445 





GOODYEAR WELT AJNTD TURN SHOE MACHINE 





STITCH AND UPPER CLEANING 
MACHINE 



TWIN EDGE SETTING MACHINE 



446 STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 




GOODYEAR OUTSOLE RAPID LOCKSTITCH MACHINE 





IMPROVED VAMP CREAS- 
ING MACHINE 



MILLER SHOW TREEING MACHINE 



STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 447 




THE EVOLUTION OF A GOODYEAR WELT SHOE 

1. A last. 2. An upper. 3. An Insole. 4. Shoe 
lasted and ready to have welt sewed on. 5. Welt partly 
sewed on. 6. Welt entirely sewed on the shoe. 7. An 
outsole. 8. Shoe with outsole laid and rounded; channel 
lip turned up ready to be stitched. 9. Shoe with sole 
stitched on. 10. Shoe with heel in place. 11. Heel 
trimmed and shoe ready for finishing 



448 STORY IN THE MAKING OF A PAIR OF SHOES 

to the shoe and making it presentable to the wearer. The whole operation, as will 
be seen, is a highly complicated one, and is remarkably effective in preparing an 
article that shall appeal to the salesman and purchaser and prove satisfactory when 
put into use. 

Such is the complicated process of making a shoe by machinery. It would 
be hard to find any machine process that surpasses it in complexity and the number 
of separate machines involved. Poor old St. Crispin would certainly expire with 
envy if he could see his favorite thus taken out of the hands of his artisans and the 
shoe whirled rapidly through a host of odd but effective contrivances on the way 
to become made fit for wear. 



What is " Standard Gold "? 

Gold is one of the heaviest of the metals, and not being liable to be injured by 
exposure to the air, it is well fitted to be used as coin. Its ductility and malleability 
are very remarkable. It may be beaten into leaves so exceedingly thin that one 
grain in weight will cover fifty-six square inches, such leaves having the thickness 
of only 1 /282000th part of an inch. It is also extremely ductile; a single grain may 
be drawn into a wire 500 feet long, and an ounce of gold covering a silver wire is 
capable of being extended upwards of 1,300 miles. It may also be melted and 
remelted with scarcely any diminution of its quantity. It is soluble in nitromuriatic 
acid and in a solution of chlorine. Its specific gravity is 19.3, so that it is about 
nineteen times heavier than water. The fineness of gold is estimated by carats, 
pure gold being twenty-four carats fine. 

Jeweler's gold is usually a mixture of gold and copper in the proportions of 
three-fourths of pure gold with one-fourth of copper. Gold is seldom used for any 
purpose in a state of perfect purity on account of ite softness, but is combined with 
some other metal to render it harder. Standard gold, or the alloy used for the gold 
coinage of Britain, consists of twenty-two parts of gold and two of copper (being 
thus twenty-two carats fine). 

Articles of jewelry in gold are made of every degree of fineness up to eighteen 
carats, i. e., eighteen parts of gold to six of alloy. The alloy of gold and silver is 
found already formed in nature, and is that most generally known. It is distinguish- 
able from that of copper by possessing a paler yellow than pure gold, while the 
copper alloy has a color bordering upon reddish yellow. Palladium, rhodium and 
tellurium are also met with as alloys of gold. 

Gold has been found in smaller or larger quantities in nearly all parts of the 
world. It is commonly found in reefs or veins among quartz, and in alluvial deposits; 
it is separated, in the former case, by quarrying, crushing, washing and treatment 
with mercury. The rock is crushed by machinery and then treated with mercury, 
which dissolves the gold, forming a liquid amalgam; after which the mercury is 
volatilized, and the gold left behind; or the crushed ore is fused with metallic lead, 
which dissolves out the gold, the lead being afterwards separated by the process of 
cupellation. 

By the "cyanide process," in which cyanide of potassium is used as a solvent 
for the gold, low-grade ores can be profitably worked. In alluvial deposits it is 
extracted by washing, in dust grains, laminae or nuggets. 

In modern times large supplies of gold were obtained after the discovery of 
America from Peru, Bolivia, and other parts of the New World. Till the discovery 
of gold in California, a chief source of the supply was the Ural Mountains in Russia. 
An immense increase in the total production of gold throughout the world was 
caused by the discovery of gold in California in 1848, and that of the equally rich 



WHAT IS "STANDARD GOLD' 



449 




ROLLING ROOM 



The upper view shows the melting room in the United States Mint, Philadelphia. 
The man at the right is about to pour hot metal into the iron molds. The lower view 
is in the coining department, where the ingots such as are seen on the truck in foreground, 
are rolled into long strips of the thickness of the several coins, and then cut into blanks 
or planchets. 



450 WHAT ARE CYCLONES 

gold fields of Australia in 1851. The yield from both sources has considerably 
decreased. Other sections of the United States have of late years proved prolific 
sources of gold, especially Colorado, which now surpasses California in yield, and 
Alaska, which equals it. Canada has gold fields in several localities, the richest 
being those of the Klondike. 

At present the richest gold field in the world is that of South Africa, which 
yielded in 1910 a value of $175,000,000, somewhat exceeding the combined yield 
of the United States and Australia. Russia and Mexico followed these in yield. 
The total production throughout the world amounted to over $450,000,000, of which 
the United States produced $96,000,000. 

What are Cyclones? 

A cyclone is a circular or rotatory storm, or system of winds, varying from 50 to 
500 miles in diameter, revolving around a center, which advances at a rate that may 
be as high as forty miles an hour, and towards which the winds tend. 

Cyclones of greatest violence occur within the tropics, and they revolve in opposite 
directions in the two hemispheres in the southern with, and in the northern against, 
the hands of a watch in consequence of which, and the progression of the center, 
the strength of the storm in the northern hemisphere is greater on the south of the 
line of progression and smaller on the north than it would if the center were sta- 
tionary, the case being reversed in the southern hemisphere. 

Ail anti-cyclone is a storm of opposite character, the general tendency of the 
winds in it being away from the center, while it also shifts within comparatively small 
limits. Cyclones are preceded by a singular calm and a great fall of the barometer. 

What Metals can be Drawn into Wire ECst? 

The wire-drawing of metals depends on the property of solid bodies, which renders 
them capable of being extended without any separation of their parts, while their 
thickness is diminished. This property is called "ductility." 

The following is nearly the order of ductility of the metals which possess the 
property in the highest degree, that of the first mentioned being the greatest: gold, 
silver, platinum, iron, copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, palladium, cadmium. 

Dr. Wollaston succeeded in obtaining a wire of platinum only 1 /30000th of an 
inch in diameter. The ductility of glass at high temperatures seems to be unlimited, 
while its flexibility increases in proportion to the fineness to which its threads are 
drawn. 

How are Cocoanuts Used to Help Our Warships? 

The fibrous husks of cocoanuts are prepared in such a way as to form "cellulose/' 
which is used for the protection of warships, preventing the inflow of water through 
shot holes. 

The United States adopted the preparation for this purpose in 1892. 

It is very light and compressible and when tightly packed between the steel 
plating and the side of the vessel will expand when wet and fill up the space through 
which a shot may have passed. 

Another and cheaper product experimented with is the pith of the cornstalk, 
which is much lighter than the cocoanut fiber and serves the same purpose. 

How did the Dollar Sign Originate? 

The sign, $, used in this country to signify a dollar, is supposed to date from 
the time of the pillar dollar in Spam. This was known as the "Piece of Eight" 
(meaning eight reals), the curve being a partial representation of the figure 8. The 
two vertical strokes are thought to represent the Pillars of Hercules, which were 
stamped upon the coin itself. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF FIRE APPARATUS 



451 




MOTOR DRIVEN AERIAL TRUCK* 

The 66-foot ladder of this truck is raised by the motor which drives the machine. 
A full equipment of scaling ladders and fire-fighting apparatus is carried. 




MOTOR FIRE ENGINE AND HOSE TRUCK* 

One of the latest fire-fighting units. A powerful gasoline engine supplies the motive 
power and drives the pump which has a capacity of 700 gallons per minute. The 
machine also acts as a hose cart and carries a full complement of firemen. 



^Courtesy of James Boyd & Bro., Inc. 



452 



PICTORIAL STORY OF FIRE APPARATUS 




A CRANE NECK HAND FIRE ENGINE* 

This engine was manned by sixty trained men and 
under expert operation would throw a stream of 1.53 
gallons per stroke more than 200 feet. 




THE FIRST STEAM FIRE ENGINE BUILT IN 1841* 



* Courtesy of American LaFrance Fire Engine Co. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF FIRE APPARATUS 



453 




THE SPLENDID HORSES BY WHICH THE HAND-DRAWN FIRE APPARATUS 
WERE SUPPLANTED ARE IN TURN GIVING WAY TO POWERFUL MOTOR 
ENGINES AND TRUCKS.* 




AN OLD-TIME LAFRANCE PISTON STEAM FIRE ENGINE* 

Built in 1894, at which time it had a capacity of 900 gallons per min- 
ute. This steam engine was equipped with a LaFrance boiler. This 
particular engine was in service in Superior, Wis., and was in continuous 
service pumping water on a coal fire night and day from November 18, 
1913, to February 18, 1914 (just exactly three months), during which time 
it was only shut down twice to replace burned-out grates and three times 
to replace broken springs. During all of this time this steamer was incased 
in snow and ice. 



* Courtesy of American LaFrance Fire Engine Co. 



454 



PICTORIAL STORY OF FIRE APPARATUS 




GASOLINE TWO-WHEEL FRONT-DRIVE, FIRST SIZE J^TEAM FIRE 

ENGINE * 

Seventy horse-power, four-cylinder motor; speed, 35 miles per 
hour; locomotive bell and hand-operated siren horn; boiler, 36x66 
inches; suction hose, 2 lengths, 43^-inch diameter; lanterns, three, 
fire department standard; hydrant connections; carrying capacity, 
four men. 




COMBINATION CHEMICAL ENGINE AND HOSE CAR* 

Seventy horse-power, four-cylinder motor; speed, 60 miles per hour; hose capacity, 
1,200 feet 2>-inch hose; chemical cylinder, one 40-gallon capacity; chemical hose, 
200 feet %-inch chemical hose; acid receptacles, two; one 10-inch electric searchlight; 
locomotive bell and hand-operated siren horn; extinguishers, two 3-gallon Babcock, fire 
department standard; ladders, one 20-foot extension ladder, one 12-foot roof ladder with 
folding hooks; lanterns, four, fire department standard; axe, one, fire department stand- 
ard; pike pole, one; crowbar, one of steel held by snaps; carrying capacity, seven men. 



* Courtesy of American LaFrance Fire Engine Co. 



PICTORIAL STORY OF FIRE APPARATUS 



455 




11 
II 

w bC 
O'O 



II 

M ^ 
P5 02 

O a 



5 AS 



I Hj 

I'S 
* ro o> 

H a& 
S l.a 

S DH^ 

<S|o 



456 



PICTORIAL STORY OF FIRE APPARATUS 




I 



g I 

Or*> 
4 

II 

w 



1 1 
ll 

5 o 



fc d 
o - a 






PICTORIAL STORY OF FIRE APPARATUS 



457 




THE BODY OF THIS CAR HAS A CAPACITY OF 800 FEET OF 2^-lNCH FIRE 
HOSE AND IS ALSO EQUIPPED WITH A 40-GALLON TANK, WITH CHEMICAL HOSE, 
FIRE EXTINGUISHER AND EXTENSION LADDER.* 




GASOLINE Two- WHEEL FRONT-DRIVE AERIAL TRUCK* 

Une hundred horse-power; six-cylinder motor; speed, 25 miles per hour; locomotive bell and 
hand-operated siren horn; extinguishers, two 3-gallon Babcock, fire department standard; lanterns, 
four, fire department standard; axes, four, fire department standard; wall picks, two; crowbars, 
two; shovels, two; wire cutter, one; door opener, one; tin roof cutter, one; pitchforks, two; bat- 
tering ram, one; Manila rope, tackle and snatch block; pull-down hook with pole, chain and rope; 
rubber buckets, four; crotch poles, two; pike poles, six, assorted lengths; wire basket, one under 
frame; one 10-inch electric searchlight. 




GASOLINE TWO-WHEEL BEVEL-GEAR FRONT-URIVE \VATEK TOWER* 

One hundred horse-power; six-cylinder motor; speed, 25 miles per hour; one 10-inch 
electric searchlight; locomotive bell and hand-operated siren horn; deck turret, one, mounted; 
nozzle tips, three for deck turret, 1^-inch, 1%-inch, 2-inch; three for tower nozzle, 13^-inch, 
1%-inch, 2-inch; hose, one 35-foot length, 4-inch cotton, rubber lined; lanterns, two, fire 
department standard; axes, two heavy pick back, fire department standard; crowbar, one of 

Steel, held by snaps. * Courtesy of American LaFrance Fire Engine Co. 



The Story of the Taking of Food 
From the Air* 

What is the greatest discovery of the last twenty-five years? Probably you 
will say the wireless telegraph, the flying machine, moving pictures or the phono- 
graph, but it would be none of these, according to the Scientific American. This 
publication discussed at great length the subject of what invention of the last twenty- 
five years was of greatest value to mankind. First place was given not to the wonderful 
inventions that are so large in the public eye, but to the fixation of nitrogen from 
the air for fertilizer purposes. Why? Simply because this discovery stands between 

man and starvation. Other 
inventions are vastly impor- 
tant, but this one is vital. 
Looking at it from the broad- 
est view there can be no 
other decision. The time is 
here when to feed the world 
is becoming a more and more 
difficult problem. 

During the past ten 
years our population has 
increased at the rate of two 
per cent per annum, while 
our crop production has in- 
creased only one-half as fast. 
In six years the number of 
beef cattle produced in this 
country has fallen off about 
five per cent per annum. The 
cost of foodstuffs recently 
has been increasing at the 

rate of five per cent per annum. The hardships experienced by wage-earners, par- 
ticularly in the United States, have been very great in view of the fact that the cost 
of food increased more rapidly than wages at a rate approximately double. The 
same tendencies apply with some modifications to the clothing of mankind. These 
facts point to the necessity of increasing the yields both of the food crops and the 
crops that are used in the making of clothing. 

The problem of decreasing the cost of living has been given far more attention 
abroad than it has in this country, owing to the much greater density of population 
in the principal nations of Europe. For a long time it has been known that plants 
require food the same as animals and human beings. Without food plants cannot 
live and grow, and just to the extent that plant food is present in the soil, to that 
extent will a crop be produced. The most important of plant foods is nitrogen. 
While the earth is literally bathed in nitrogen, this element is found to only a very 
slight degree in the soil. That is to say, the air which we breathe and in which we 
move is four-fifths nitrogen, yet in the richest soil there is seldom more than one- 
tenth or two-tenths of one per cent of nitrogen. Put on a wheat crop one pound 

*niu8trations by courtesy of American Cyanamid Company. 

(458) 




WRAPPER LEAF TOBACCO CROP FERTILIZED WITH CYANAMID 
MIXTURES. GROWN IN HATFIELD, MASS. 



STORY OF TAKING POOD FROM THE AIR 



459 



of nitrogen and you can take off twenty pounds more wheat and forty pounds more 
straw than you could if you failed to make this application. One pound of nitrogen 
properly applied to a cornfield will add thirty-five pounds to the crop; one pound 
of nitrogen will produce one hundred pounds of increase in the potato crop; one 
pound of nitrogen will produce five pounds of cotton, without any extra labor being 
devoted to the production of the crop. Nitrogen is the heart ^ and soul of the problem 
of growing more crops and cheaper crops. Take any nation that produces large 
crop yields per acre and you will find that the nation that uses the most nitrogen 
per acre grows the largest crops. 

For years the nations of Europe have been depending to ^a great extent upon 
supplies of nitrate of soda obtained from Chile, in South America. Germany alone 
imported nearly a million tons of this salt annually before the war. Then, too, the 
by-products of many indus- 
tries furnish a quantity of 
nitrogen, but all this, it was 
realized, furnished but a 
small part of what was 
required to combat the con- 
stantly rising cost of pro- 
ducing food. 

For years it was the 
dream and life-ambition of 
the world's greatest scientists 
to discover how to make the 
supplies of nitrogen in the 
air available to plants as 
food. The only way that 
this could be done in nature 
was through the agency of 
bacteria working on the roots 
of certain plants, such as 
clovers, but this process was 




SUGAR CANE CROP FERTILIZED WITH CYANAMID MIXTURES. 
GROWN IN CALUMET, LA. 



entirely too slow for practical purposes and could be applied on only a small acreage 
at one time. The free nitrogen of the air cannot be utilized directly by plants. It 
must first be converted into some combination with other chemicals, as a solid or 
liquid, which can be absorbed by the plant. Among others who worked on the 
problem of fixing atmospheric nitrogen were two German chemists, Doctors Caro 
and Frank, who found that a compound of calcium and carbon heated to a high 
temperature would absorb nitrogen and retain it in a form that could be applied to 
the soil and serve as a food for plants. 

This discovery is the basis of the Cyanamid "Atmospheric Nitrogen" industry 
or the making of fertilizer from the nitrogen in the air. After the discovery was 
made and tested on the laboratory scale it took several years to put it on a practical 
basis, as can well be imagined when it is understood what the problems involved 
were. Besides air this process required as raw materials limestone and coke. The 
limestone must be burned to quicklime and the quicklime and coke must be fused 
together to form calcium carbide. Only the most powerful electric furnaces are 
capable of performing this work. Any other means of heating is far from adequate. 
For instance, the hottest flame that can be produced by the burning of gas, namely, 
the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe flame, can be directed against a stick of burnt lime without 
doing anything beyond making the lime glow brilliantly, thus producing the caiciam 
or lime-light formerly much used in theaters as a spot-light. In the electric furnaces, 
however, the lime is heated so powerfully that it actually melts to a liquid, and in 



460 



STORY OF TAKING FOOD FROM THE AIR 




this condition it dissolves the coke with which it is mixed and the compound resulting 
is calcium carbide which can be run off from the interior of the furnace in liquid form 
At the cyanamid plant at Niagara Falls, in Canada, there are seven of these 

great carbide furnaces, each 
about fifteen feet long and 
half as wide and one-third 
as deep. We all have some 
idea of how much heat is gen- 
erated in the ordinary electric 
arc light such as is used for 
street lighting. In the car- 
bide furnace the carbon pen- 
cil, instead of being six or 
eight inches long and as large 
around as your finger, is six 
feet long and two feet in 
diameter. There are three of 
these in each furnace, and 
when the furnace is in full 
action it can be imagined 
that there is a terrific heat 

Two OF THE CARBIDE FURNACES AND ELECTRODE REGULATORS generated; in fact, when the 
. , . fused lime and coke come out 

ol the furnace in the form of molten carbide the brightness of the molten material is 

so dazzling that one cannot look at it with the naked eyes without injury. 

Then there is the problem of producing pure nitrogen gas, that is, separating 

the eighty per cent of nitrogen in the air from the twenty per cent of oxygen. The 

latter is the element that we breathe and which passes into the body, there to com- 
bine with the impurities 

resulting from the various life 

activities. If the nitrogen 

and the oxygen were both 

allowed to act upon calcium 

carbide the oxygen would 

burn up the carbide before 

the nitrogen could be fixed in 

it, hence these two elements 

must be separated and all 

other impurities removed so 

that only chemically pure 

nitrogen is brought to the 

calcium carbide for fixation. 

The separation is accom- 
plished by means of liquid 

air machines. This industry, 

therefore, not only utilizes 

the greatest heat obtainable 

on a practical scale, but it 

also utilizes the greatest cold. 




ONE OF THE CARBIDE MILLS 



While the electric furnaces produce a temperature of 

over 4000 F., or about twice as hot as molten cast-iron, the liquid air machines 
work at a temperature of 372 F. below zero. The air must first be purified and 
dried. ^ It is then compressed, cooled while under pressure, and then expanded. The 
expansion lowers its temperature considerably. If this extra cool air is used for 



STORY OF TAKING FOOD FROM THE AIR 



461 



cooling another batch of air under pressure, the latter upon expansion becomes 
still colder than the first batch expanded. By repeating this operation the final 
temperature of 372 below zero is reached, at which the air liquifies. 

How cold this is can be seen from some simple experiments. For instance, 
if a dipper full of the liquid air is drawn, in an instant the outside of the dipper is 
covered with a coating of frost deposited upon it from the surrounding atmosphere. 
The surrounding air is so much hotter than the liquid air that the liquid boils violently. 
If a piece of rubber hose is held in the liquid air for eight or ten seconds and then 
struck with a hammer the rubber flies into pieces just like glass. To dip one's finger 
into this liquid air would freeze it solid in a second and would be as disastrous as 
dipping it in red-hot iron. 

When the liquid air is allowed to warm up a little, the nitrogen gas evaporates, 
while the oxygen remains 
behind in the liquid. The 
pure nitrogen then can be 
pumped into the fixation 
ovens. 

To fix the nitrogen in 
the carbide it is necessary to 
cool the latter after it comes 
from the electric furnaces 
and grind it to a very fine 
powder. This powder is then 
placed in furnaces that look 
like steel barrels but are 
three or four times larger than 
an ordinary barrel. The 
oven filled with calcium car- 
bide is then electrically heated 
with a carbon rod running 
through the center. When 
the temperature is about 
as hot as that of molten iron the pure nitrogen gas from the liquid air plant is pumped 
in and allowed to act on the calcium carbide for about a day and a half. When the 
carbide has absorbed all it will absorb the crude cyanamid formed is removed from 
the oven as a single large cake which is run through pulverizing drums and then 
put through an elaborate process of refinement and finally bagged for shipment 
in carload lots to fertilizer factories throughout the country. 

The fertilizer manufacturers mix the cyanamid with other ingredients to make 
a balanced plant food and so ship it to farmers for feeding their crops. In 1914 
7,500,000 tons of fertilizer worth $175,000,000 were consumed in this country. This 
seems like a large quantity, but it allows only a scanty application per acre cultivated. 
Germany, on one-fourth of our cultivated acreage, uses almost twice as much fertilizer 
as the entire United States. As a consequence she raises 30 bushels of wheat where 
we average 14 bushels per acre; 52 bushels of oats where we average 30; and 196 
bushels of potatoes per acre where we raise 97 bushels per acre. The explanation 
is simple, German farmers pay only about one-half as much for their plant food as 
American farmers pay. Where the German farmer gains $2.00 to $3.00 increase 
in crop from fertilizer that costs him $1.00 the American farmer pays $2.00 for the 
same fertilizer, which leaves him less profit and less incentive to use fertilizer. 

The air-nitrogen industry in the United States is said to be considerably handi- 
capped because the large quantities of electricity required are not available at a low 
enough price. There are excellent water-power sites in the United States sufficient 




LIQUID Am PLANT 



462 STORY OF TAKING FOOD FROM THE AIR 




A CARBIDE COOLING SHED 




CYANAMID OVEN ROOM 



STORY OF TAKING FOOD FROM THE AIR 463 




464 STORY OF TAKING FOOD FROM THE AIR 




SUGAR BEET CROP FERTILIZED WITH CYANAMID MIXTURES. 
GROWN IN CARO, MICHIGAN 



to furnish many times the required power, but the existing water-power laws are 
so burdensome that investors will not put their money into power development 
except on such high terms that the power is much dearer than it can be bought for 

in other countries. Practi- 
cally every civilized country 
in the world, except the 
United States, had one or 
more cyanamid factories in 
1916. These include Ger- 
many, Austria - Hungary, 
Great Britain, France, Italy, 
Switzerland, Norway, Swe- 
den, ^ Japan and Canada. 
Their combined output is 
about 1,000,000 tons per 
annum. The cyanamid plant 
at Niagara Falls, Ontario, 
which was established in 
1909, with a capacity of 
10,000 tons, had a capacity 
of 64,000 tons per annum in 
1916. It utilizes about 
30,000 electrical horse-power 
twenty-four hours a day, and 

three hundred and sixty-five days a year. Germany, at the beginning of the war, 
produced about 30,000 tons of cyanamid; in 1916 she was making 600,000 tons a 
year. She is using it both to grow crops and to make explosives for her guns. 

At the time the war broke out, in August, 1914, Germany was importing nearly 
one million tons of nitrate 
of soda per annum from 
Chile, South America. This 
supply was immediately cut 
off by enemy fleets. Not only 
was her agriculture thereby 
threatened with a great 
decrease in crop production 
but her supply of military 
explosives was also threat- 
ened. Professor Dr. Lem- 
mermann, a famous German 
scientist, advised his govern- 
ment that unless the nitro- 
gen shortage were made good 
the resulting crop shortage 
would amount to 3,300,000 
tons of grain. But if people 
require food, guns require 
powder, and no powder can 
be made without nitric acid. 
It has been reported on good authority that Germany has consumed one and 
one-third million pounds of powder a day during the war. To make one pound of 
powder requires one and one-half pounds of nitric acid, so that Germany required 
for military purposes 2,000,000 pounds of nitric acid per day. 




COTTON CROP FERTILIZED WITH CYANAMID MIXTURES. 
GROWN IN SUMTER, S. C. 



From her coke ovena 



STORY OF TAKING FOOD FROM THE AIR 465 




to 

I 

,2 



|i 

1 1 

g bC 

2 



II 



466 STORY OF TAKING FOOD FROM THE AIR 

she indeed could derive some nitrogen, but this actually furnished only about one- 
fifth of her total requirements. For the other four-fifths she turned to atmos- 
pheric nitrogen. For it is also true that this remarkable compound, cyanamid, which 
is a food for plants, can be decomposed by high-steam pressure into the purest 
ammonia gas. The ammonia can in turn be oxidized to nitric acid, which is the 
basis of all explosives. Without the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen on a tremendous 
scale there is no doubt that Germany would have become helpless before her 
enemies within a year after the war began, for no nation can fight unless it has 
sufficient food for its people and powder for its guns. 

The preservation of food is also dependent on ammonia, which produces the 
refrigerating effect in the numerous cold storage houses and artificial ice plants in 
this country. In the cold storage plants alone the cold produced by means of 
ammonia is equal to 750,000 tons of ice consumed per day, while 25,000,000 tons of 
artificial ice are produced and sold as such per annum. Cyanarnid ammonia gas 
is especially valuable for this purpose on account of its high degree of purity. 

Then, too, the ammonia gas can be fixed in any acid desired, for instance, in 
phosphoric acid, making ammonium phosphate, a fertilizer of unusual merit, or 
ammonium sulphate, another fertilizer, or ammonium nitrate, an explosive. So, 
for peace or war, the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen has become a tremendous 
factor in the life of nations. 

If the United States should be forced into war with a foreign power it would 
be a simple matter for an enemy fleet to cut off our large importations of nitrate 
of soda from Chile. These amount to about 700,000 tons per annum in normal times 
and at present about 900,000 tons per annum. In other words, we would be short 
just this quantity of nitrogen in addition to the quantity that would be required 
by the government for the manufacture of military explosives. It has been suggested 
that our coke-oven industry could be expanded to furnish a large part of this require- 
ment, but even with the largest expansion considered practical by the coke-oven 
people within the next several years, the coke ovens would not be able to supply even 
one-third of our requirements, thus leaving a large balance which could be furnished 
only by the establishment of a large nitrogen industry in this country. 



The expression "The King can do no wrong" has been widely used since it 
first caught people's fancy at the time of the explanation, made in England, that 
the Ministers, and not the King, were responsible for mistakes of government. 

What is a Drawbridge Like Today? 

We have all read of the castles in olden days into which the owner could retire 
and raise a drawbridge across a ditch, thus putting a barrier in the way of his enemies. 

That old style drawbridge, with, of course, many improvements, has been 
adopted in these modern times to use in permitting navigable rivers and channels to 
be crossed by railroads and other kinds of transportation, without preventing the 
passage of vessels up and down the rivers. 

Modern drawbridges across rivers, canals, the entrances of docks, etc., are 
generally made to open vertically, and the movable portion is called a bascule, balance 
or lifting bridge; a turning, swivel or swing bridge; or a rolling bridge, in accordance 
with the mode in which it is made to open. 

Swing bridges are usually divided into two parts meeting in the middle, and 
each moved on pivots on the opposite sides of the channel, or they may move as a 
whole on a pivot in the middle of the channel. 

Rolling bridges are suspended from a structure high above the water, and are 
propelled backwards and forwards by means of rollers. 



WHAT IS A DRAWBRIDGE LIKE TODAY 



467 





BASCULE BRIDGE OPEN* 




BASCULE BRIDGE CLOSED* 



The advantages of this type of bridge are that the entire width of the channel is 
available for navigation, and the draw may be opened and closed more readily than the 
Swing type. * Courtesy of The Strauss Bascule Bridge Co. 



The Story of a Deep Sea Monster* 

The early day was blue and silver; one of those colorful mornings peculiar to 
southern Florida. Sandwiched between the earth and the turquoise sky, the Atlantic 
lay gleaming like a huge silver wafer in the sunlight. Not the faintest suggestion 
of a ripple marred its shining surface. 

Suddenly out of the stillness of the silver water a huge black fin was lifted, and 
a little group of men lounging on the deck of an idle fishing craft drew near the rail 
and used their glasses. 

"Shark," remarked the captain pleasantly after a moment's scrutiny. "Who 
wants to go out with me for a little fun?" 

The hastily lowered lifeboat pointed a slim nose toward the large black shape 
thrashing about in the shallow water. Three men were in the boat Captain Charles 
H. Thompson of the yacht "Samoa," one of the yacht's crew, and a winter visitor 
to southern Florida. As they drew near, the sailor took one look at the gigantic 
creature and yelled to the captain : 

"For heaven's sake, man, don't harpoon that thing; we will be crushed like an 
eggshell!" ^ 

Poised in the bow of the boat, harpoon in hand, stood the captain, and as they 
drew alongside there was a flash; the steel glittered for a moment in the sunlight, 
then sank into the huge black bulk. Simultaneously the little boat spun around 
and shot out toward the Gulf Stream like an agitated and very erratic rocket, flinging 
great sheets of spray high into the air as it sped. 

Thus began a thirty-nine hours' ride filled with wildest thrills, during which 
time Captain Thompson battled with the fish, the sailor bailed the boat unceasingly, 
lest they be swamped, and the tourist raised an anxious and eloquent voice to high 
heaven. The men were without food the entire time, sharing only a small bottle 
of water among them. 

The news of the struggle spread rapidly, and soon hundreds of interested 
spectators gathered on the trestle of the East Coast sea-extension railway. Scores 
of times the men in the boat escaped death only by a miracle, as the wildly thrashing 
black tail missed them but by a hair's breadth. Finally, after two days and one 
night, the monster was worn out, and the triumphant captor managed to fasten it 
to the trestle work on Knight's Key, where, after a few hours' rest, it wigwagged a 
festive tail, smashing the large pilings as though they were toothpicks. After another 
battle the fish was firmly tied up once more, this time to the yacht "Samoa;" and 
again it waved a wicked tail, disabling the thirty-ton yacht by smashing her propeller 
and breaking the cables. A tug was then summoned, and the big fellow was towed 
one hundred and ten miles to Miami, Florida, where it was viewed by thousands of 
people. 

Five harpoons and one hundred and fifty-one bullets were used in subduing the 
monster, and it took five days to finally kill it. 

It was thought at first the creature was a whale, but later it was classified as a 
fish, for it breathed through gills of which there were five in number. Upon careful 
examination it seemed probable that it was a baby of its species, as the backbone 
was of a cartilaginous nature, a condition found only in a young creature; in a full- 
grown one this develops into true bone. That it was a deep-sea fish was indicated 
by the small eye, which was about the size of a silver dollar. The pressure of the 
water is so great at the bottom of the ocean that were the eyes large they would 

* Courtesy of The American Magaz'""v 

(468) 



THE STORY OF A DEEP SEA MONSTER 



469 




470 



THE STORY OF A DEEP SEA MONSTER 



be ruptured. That the pupil did not dilate and contract seems additional proof 
that the fish must have lived at a depth of probably fifteen hundred or two thousand 
feet, where there is little light. 

It is generally believed that some volcanic eruption drove the fish to the sur- 
face where, owing to the difference in water pressure, the swim-bladders burst, 
making it impossible for him to return to his level. 



What is an Armored Railway Car Like? 

The armored car shown in this picture is the first of a new type of armored car 
to be constructed by the United States. It was designed under the direction of the 
Board of Engineers of the U. S. Army, and was constructed by the Standard Steel 




THE RAPID FIRE-GUN HERE SHOWN is A MODEL OF A THREE- 
INCH FIELD GUN MOUNTED UPON A SPECIAL CARRIAGE. THE 
WELL IN WHICH THE GUN is LOCATED MAY ALSO BE USED AS A 
FIGHTING TOP FOR TROOPS ARMED WITH RIFLES OR MACHINE 
GUNS. 

Courtesy of the Railway Age Gazette and Standard Steel Car Co. 

Car Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., at their Hammond, Ind., plant. The car was 
designed and built within twenty-seven days. 

The car consists of heavy steel plate structure, erected upon a flat car of standard 
type. The interior is divided into three compartments. The end compartments are 
for use of troops operating machine guns and rifles through the port-holes shown on 
side of car. The center compartment, which is not the full height of the car, is used 
for ammunition storage, and is capable of holding a large quantity of ammunition, 
either for small arms or for the rapid-fire gun which is mounted on top of the car The 
rapid-fire gun here shown is a model of a three-inch field gun mounted upon a special 
carriage. The well in which the gun is located may also be used as a fighting top for 
troops armed with rifles or machine guns. 

This car is know as a light-armored car. It is armed with a three-inch rapid-fire 
gun, two machine guns and any number of rifles which the troops occupying it may 
carry. The service for which this car is intended is primarily to guard railroads and 
depots adjacent to railroads. It is not ordinarily to be employed in aggressive move- 



WHAT IS AN ARMORED RAILWAY CAR LIKE 471 




472 WHAT IS AN ARMORED RAILWAY CAR LIKE 

ments. In effect, it is a movable block-house which may be used at any point along 
the line, or it may be used as a retreat for troops when necessary. It may also be 
used for transporting troops past danger points, and for transporting explosives or 
other perishable material which might be damaged by fire from the ends. The car 
as constructed weighs 86,200 pounds. It is 47 feet long, 9 feet 3 inches wide, and 
7 feet high at the ends. When used for transportation of troops, it will accommodate 
a company of infantry seated on camp stools or benches. When used for patrol pur- 




THE INTERIOR is DIVIDED INTO THREE COMPARTMENTS 

Courtesy of the Railway Age Gazette and Standard Steel Car Co. 

poses, there would not be more than twelve men in the car, to operate the rapid-fire 
gun and machine guns. 

The car was shipped to the Sandy Hook proving grounds to be equipped with 
rapid-fire guns and ammunition and thoroughly tested and inspected by the Engineer 
and Ordnance Officer of the U. S. Army. 

What is an " Electric Eel "? 

This is an eel abundant in the fresh waters of Brazil and the Guianas, which 
possesses organs capable of developing a strong electric current and thus of giving 
a violent shock to any one touching the eels. These organs replace the lower 
muscles along the sides of the tail. The eels can be taken by driving horses into the 
water to be shocked and seizing them when thus weakened. 



The Story of Salt* 



Salt is a chemical compound composed of two elements, sodium and chlorine. 
Chemically it is known as sodium chloride. 

It is one of the things which comes into our lives daily, perhaps more than any 




A SALT WELL 

other, with the exception of water. Probably no other thing than water is used 
more by all civilized people than salt. 

Nature provides salt for us in three different forms. First, in sea water in 
solution; second, in salt springs; and third, in the form of salt rock. 

From time immemorial man has obtained salt from sea water. This is still 
being done on our sea coasts, but the salt obtained by evaporating the water is very 
crude and usually contains many impurities. 

It has been possible to obtain a large supply of salt from what are known as 
salt springs. These springs are usually the result of water flowing over a deposit of 

* Illustrations by courtesy of Diamond Crystal Salt Co. 

(473) 



474 



THE STORY OF SALT 



salt rock. The amount of salt obtained from evaporating this spring water is, how- 
ever, so small that salt springs are an impractical source of supply when it comes 
to making salt for commercial purposes. 

Rock salt forms the most common and practical source of supply. It is found in 
all parts of the world and reasonably near the surface. The deposit is said to be 
what is left of ancient salt seas. In the United States the largest deposits of salt 
are found in the states of Michigan, New York, Ohio, Utah, Louisiana, Kansas, 




SALT HEATERS AND FILTERS 

Texas and California. The above-mentioned states are the largest producers of salt 
in this country. 

One of the largest sources of salt supply in Europe is at Wielizka in Poland. 
This deposit of salt is said to be the largest in the world, the bed of salt rock being 
500 miles long, 20 miles wide and 1,200 feet thick. Some of the salt mines in 
Poland are so extensive that it is said some of the miners spend all of their lives in 
them, never coming to the surface of the earth. 

Most of the deposits of salt rock contain impurities which need to be removed 
before the salt is fit for use commercially; however, some deposits show a very pure 
salt rock and when ground up this rock salt is suitable for table use. In general, 
however, the salt made from crude salt rock is only fit for the crudest commercial 
uses. The most common impurity is gypsum and it is necessary to remove this 
gypsum before the salt can be considered pure. 



THE STORY OF SALT 



475 




476 



THE STORY OF SALT 



The general way of obtaining salt from the earth is by means of salt wells. These 
wells are drilled in the same way that wells are bored for oil and gas. A pipe about 
six inches in diameter is lowered to the surface of the salt rock and then an inside 
pipe is put down, water is forced down between the two pipes and the pressure exerted 
brings up the dissolved rock or salt brine through the inside pipe. 

As the salt brine reaches the surface the salt is extracted from it in various ways. 
At present the crude open -pan system, where the brine was poured into open pans 
and fires were built below the pans, is almost obsolete. The most practical methods 
of refining salt today are known as the Grainer, Vacuum Pan and Alberger systems. 

The Grainer system is similar in its operation to the old open-pan system. The 
brine is run through long, shallow tanks and the heat is applied through steam pipes 




BOLTERS FOR SIFTING SALT 

inside of the pan. The salt settles to the bottom of the pan and large rakes operated 
either by hand or machinery collect the salt. 

In the Vacuum Pan process tiny cubes of salt are formed and settle to the bottom 
of the pan in which a vacuum has been created. The salt is then drained out and is 
ready for clrying. 

Variations of the two above processes make possible the production of certain 
grades of table salt. Oftentimes the brine is relieved of impurities through the 
action of certain chemicals. In some instances a chemical known as "barium 
chloride" is used, but the wisdom of this process has been much questioned, owing 
to the fact that barium chloride is a deadly poison. 

The Alberger system of salt manufacture is a mechanical process which subjects 
the salt brine to a much higher temperature and removes the impurities by means 
of mechanical filters. This process is known to make a very pure salt and has been 



THE STORY OF SALT 



477 




FILLING SALT BAGS 



478 THE STORY OF SALT 

used for some time as a practical method for manufacturing high-grade dairy and 
table salt. Unlike the other two common methods of making salt, it forms tiny salt 
flakes instead of the usual cubes or lumps. 

After manufacturers obtain the salt from the brine they usually put it through 
drying processes. After drying, the salt is sifted and the fine table salt is separated 
from the coarser products. When salt is sifted it is ready for packing in bags or 
packages suitable for shipment to the consumer. 

According to recent government reports, it is estimated that the average con- 
sumption of salt per capita for all purposes is about 100 pounds per year. The salt 
industry is now said to have reached a very stable basis and the demand for salt in 
the United States is practically all supplied by American manufacturers. Salt can 
be put to a great many uses in addition to the usual requirements for table and 
cooking. It is used by food manufacturers and performs highly important functions 
in certain commercial fields. 



Why do We Call it " Denatured Alcohol "? 

Under a law passed by the United States Congress in 1907, on alcohol intended 
for use as fuel or for illuminating purposes, or other mechanical employment, the 
internal tax need not be paid. But to avoid taxation it must be rendered unfit for 
drinking by the addition of such unpalatable substances as wood alcohol, pyridin, 
benzola, sulphuric ether or animal oil. Thus treated, it is spoken of as denatured. 

What is the Difference Between a Cruiser and a Battleship? 

A cruiser is a vessel built to secure speed and fuel capacity at the expense of 
armor and battery strength. 

The modem cruiser may be regarded as the offspring of the frigate of the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The later construction has been designed for 
a minimum speed of twenty-five knots an hour, with a possible attainment of thirty 
knots or over, under favorable conditions. 

The battleship and one form of cruiser were evolved from the conflicting opinions 
of two opposite schools of design. The battleship is the expression of the thoughts 
of those who stood for extremely developed battery power, great thickness of armor 
plate, and moderate speed. The cruiser is the result of the triumph of those who 
contended for high speed at the sacrifice of heavy armor protection and excessive 
battery strength. 

The armored cruiser was the particular development of the antagonistic views 
prevailing among naval architects. The type of this class in the United States naTy 
was the " Brooklyn," which figured prominently in the war with Spain in 1898. 

Recently the armored cruiser has been superseded by the battle cruiser. The 
armor protection in this type of ship is much lower than that of the battleship, while 
the ordnance, on the other hand, is practically the same. High speed, wide radius of 
action and great battery strength are the characteristics of this type; and to meet 
these requirements the battle cruiser is planned of a size considerably larger than the 
battleship. 

The protected cruiser is a later development of naval construction. Its distin- 
guishing features are certain modifications in the distribution of the mass of protective 
armor of the ship. 

Light cruisers are vessels of from 1,500 to 7,500 tons, used in scouting, as commerce 
destroyers, et',. They are outside the armored class. 



A CRUISER AND A BATTLESHIP 



479 




480 



A CRUISER AND A BATTLESHIP 







111 



The Story of the Growth of the 
Motor Truck* 

While exact dates are not easily obtainable, it is thought to be quite within the 
bounds of reasonable accuracy to say that the motor truck only began to be recognized 
as a practical vehicle for commercial purposes in 1905. 

Today ^rnotor vehicles, both pleasure and commercial, are such a common sight 
in every city and town, and even throughout the rural districts, that one can 
scarcely believe that they were a novelty such a little time ago. 

The statistics show, however, that in 1906 the total registrations of both pleasure 



lit 




ONE OP THE EARLIEST GASOLINE TRUCKS 

and commercial vehicles, as reported by the various states, was 48,000 'about one 
month's production today of one well-known pleasure-car maker. 

In 1915 the registrations totaled nearly 2,500,000, and every day has added 
to the number. 

It can be truthfully said that the pleasure car is the father of the truck or 
Commercial car. 

The application of the internal combustion engine to the use of propelling vehicles 
was the beginning of a new era in that world. The idea, born, one might say, with 
the new century, has already done more to revolutionize transportation than all of 
the inventions of all the centuries that have gone before. 

The automobile, first looked upon as a freak, then "a rich man's plaything.* 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the General Motors Truck Co. 
(481) 



482 STORY OF GROWTH OF THE MOTOR TRUCK 

has in a few years come to be recognized as a necessity, and literally millions of 
people are employed in its production and dependent on the industry for support. 

To trace the ramifications of the industry back through the mills, mines and 
factories that produce the iron, steel, copper, brass, zinc, aluminum, lead, leather, 
lumber, glass, celluloid, etc., would make a long and interesting story, but this 
chapter deals with the motor vehicle as a commercial car or truck and the part it is 
playing in transportation of the world's goods. 

While the first commercial vehicles to come into use were electrically propelled, 
and while the electric truck has become a factor in the large cities, the gasoline power 
vehicles are, as yet, the dominant factor. 

At the first, business men were slow to take up the use of trucks for delivery 
and hauling purposes and one of the specialties of early factories was the making of 




A 1907 MODEL SIGHT-SEEING CAR 

"sight-seeing" cars which were sold to enterprising individuals in cities and summer 
resorts for the purpose of showing visitors the sights. These wagons b( came popular 
throughout the country and are still being used in many places. 

Little by little, however, progressive business men saw the advantages to be 
gained by motor delivery and the motor truck began to gain favor. Several of the 
pleasure-car manufacturers took advantage of the awakening interest and added a 
commercial vehicle section to their plants. 

Others began to see visions of the day when horses would no longer be used for 
other than strictly farm work, and motor-truck factories sprang up here and there, 
even faster than pleasure-car plants. 

Like the seed mentioned in the parable of the sower, some fell on good ground 
and grew to produce a bountiful harvest, but many withered by the wayside. 

In the early days of the motor-truck industry men bought the fini?hed vehicle, 
but later on the practice of selling chasses only became popular, and while today 
come manufacturers cater to the body trade, a large percentage of trucks are sold 



STORY OF GROWTH OF THE MOTOR TRUCK 



483 




STORY OF GROWTH OF THE MOTOR TRUCK 



to the purchaser without the body, this being built by a local builder, the truck 

manufacturer furnishing a body builder's blue-print. 

As in everything else, it has taken time to overcome the faults of the early trucks. 

Most all trucks above 1,500 pounds capacity are equipped with solid rubber tires, 

and while the solid rubber 
tires and the springs on the 
trucks give a great deal of 
resiliency, it was discovered 
that the steady pounding 
over all kinds of pavements 
soon racked a truck to 
pieces and that pleasure-car 
practice could not be fol- 
lowed successively in build- 
ing motor trucks. 

In the earlier days truck 
buyers made many mistakes 
in selecting the size or 
capacity of trucks. Some 
made the mistake of buying 
trucks too light for their 
work. Others selected trucks 
5-ToN TRUCK 1913-14 large enough to provide for 

exceptional or emergency 

loads, and would, for example, buy a truck of 3^-tons capacity when 90 per cent of 

their hauling was loads not exceeding 1^ or 2 tons. Thus they not only had a greater 

investment than necessary in the truck itself, but were paying an exclusive charge in 

the way of operating costs and depreciation. 

But the experimental days have passed, both in thp manufacture of motor trucks 





LATEST %-ToN MODEL 



STORY OF GROWTH OP THE MOTOR TRUCK 485 




\ 




486 STORY OF GROWTH OF THE MOTOR TRUCK 




A 13^-ToN TRUCK OF THE LATEST MODEL DUMPING 




A !>-ToN TRUCK OF THE LATEST MODEL LOADING 



STORY OF GROWTH OF THE MOTOR TRUCK 487 







; 




I 



REAR END CONSTRUCTION OF A MODERN 5-ToN TRUCK 




A 3>^-ToN TRUCK OP THE LATEST MODEL IN ACTIVE SERVICE 



488 STORY OF GROWTH OF THE MOTOR TRUCK 







STORY OF GROWTH OF THE MOTOR TRUCK 489 



and in their adaption to various lines of work. If the buyer has not determined by 
experience and investigation the kind and capacity of truck he should use, the older 
manufacturers are able to step in and analyze the work to be done and to intelligently 
recommend to the buyer what he should have. 

That motor trucks not only furnish cheaper transportation than horse-drawn 
vehicles, but greatly extend the radius of operation, is quite generally conceded. 
This is shown by the enormous increase in the demand for motor trucks in all lines 
of business where goods of any kind are to be moved over any considerable distance. 




CHASSIS OF THE LATEST MODEL 33^-ToN TRUCK 

With motor trucks, merchants have extended their deliveries to reach territory 
they could not touch under the horse-delivery system. 

Market gardeners, who must have their product in the city markets early and 
have it fresh, can now sell their high-priced land adjoining the cities and go miles back 
in the country where as good ground can be bought for from one-tenth to one-fourth 
the price their suburban property will bring and still be closer to market with their 
motor trucks than they were before with their horses. 

Contractors can transport material long distances and save both time and 
money. Dairymen collect milk over a radius of thirty or forty miles and get it to 
market fresh. Freight and passenger lines are possible with motor trucks where a 
steam railroad or trolley system would not be practicable. 

In short, the motor truck is revolutionizing transportation. As made today by 
the leading manufacturers, it is simple, durable and easy to operate and care for. 



What is a Diving Bell? 

Diving, aside from the pleasure afforded to good swimmers, is important in 
majiy different industries, particularly in fishing for pearls, corals, sponges, etc. 

Without the aid of artificial appliances a skilful diver may remain under water 
for two, or even three minutes; accounts of longer periods are doubtful or absurd. 



490 



WHAT IS A DIVING BELL 




WHAT IS A DIVING BELL 491 

Various methods have been proposed and engines contrived to render diving more 
safe and easy. The great object in all these is to furnish the diver with fresh air, 
without which he must either make but a short stay under water or perish. 

Diving bells have been used very effectively. A diving bell is a contrivance for 
the purpose of enabling persons to descend, and to remain, below the surface of 
water for a length of time, to perform various operations, such as examining the 
foundations of bridges, blasting rocks, recovering treasure from sunken vessels, etc. 

Diving bells have been made of various forms, more especially in that of a bell 
or hollow truncated cone, with the smaller end closed, and the larger one, which is 
placed lowermost, open. 

The air contained within these vessels prevents them from being filled with 
water on submersion, so that the diver may descend in them and breathe freely for a 
long time provided he can be furnished with a new supply of fresh air when the con- 
tained air becomes vitiated by respiration. This is done by means of a flexible tube, 
through which air is forced into the bell. 

A form, called the " nautilus," has been invented which enables the occupants, 
and not the attendants above, to raise or sink the bell, move it about at pleasure, or 
raise great weights with it and deposit them in any desired spot. 

How are Harbors Dredged Out? 

There are several forms of mechanical, power-operated dredges. One of the 
most common is the "clam-shell" dredge, consisting of a pair of large, heavy iron 
jaws, hinged at the back, in general form resembling a pair of huge clam shells. This 
with its attachments is called the grapple. In operation it is lowered with open jaws, 
and by its own weight digs into the ground that is to be excavated. Traction is then 
made on the chains controlling the jaws, which close; the grapple is hoisted to the 
surface and its contents discharged into scows alongside the dredge. 

The dipper dredge, an exclusively American type, has a bucket rigidly attached 
to a projecting timber arm. In operation the bucket is lowered and made to take 
a curving upward cut, thus dipping up the bottom material, which is discharged 
through the hinged bottom of the bucket. The pump or suction dredge operates by 
means of a flexible pipe connected with a powerful centrifugal pump. The pipe is 
lowered into contact with the bottom to be excavated and the material is pumped 
into hopper barges or into a hopper-well in the dredge itself. 

The center ladder bucket dredge operates by means of an endless chain of buckets 
moving over an inclined plane, which in structure is a strong iron ladder, one end of 
which is lowered to the sea bottom. The steel buckets scoop up the material at the 
bottom of the ladder, which they then ascend, and are discharged by becoming 
inserted at the upper end of the ladder. This dredge is the only one found satisfactory 
in excavating rock. 

How is a Razor Blade Made? 

The best scissors, penknives, razors and lancets are made of cast steel. Table 
knives, plane irons and chisels of a very superior kind are made of shear steel, while 
common steel is wrought up into ordinary cutlery. 

In making razors, the workman, being furnished with a bar of cast steel, forges 
his blade from it. After being brought into true shape by filing, the blade is exposed 
to a cherry-red heat and instantly quenched in cold water. The blade is then tem- 
pered by first brightening one side and then heating it over a fire free from flame 
and smoke, until the bright surface acquires a straw color (or it may be tempered 
differently). It is again quenched, and is then ready for being ground and polished 



The Story of the Tunnels Under the 
Hudson River* 

The building of the Hudson River tunnels was probably one of the most daring 
engineering feats ever accomplished. As is well known, the Hudson River, for the 
length of Manhattan Island, is approximately a mile wide, reducing in width at the 
Palisades north of Hoboken. In consequence of the unusual geographical situation, 
all trunk lines and other transit facilities in New Jersey terminate on the westerly 
shore of the Hudson, and passengers were of necessity compelled to use ferries to 
reach New York. ^ A conservative estimate, which was confirmed by various counts, 
indicates that, prior to the construction of the tubes, the annual passenger traffic 
between New Jersey and New York was 125,000,000, and to handle this great volume 
of traffic the transportation companies assembled in the Hudson River a fleet of 
rapid ferry boats and maintained them up to the highest and most modern standards. 
But this very expeditious ferry service was not enough, and for many years there 
was a demand for facilities for more rapid transportation of the tremendous popula- 
tion residing in the suburban district of New Jersey tributary to New York City. 
As far back as 1873, a company had been organized to construct a tunnel under the 
river, but had met with numerous and most discouraging difficulties and obstacles, 
so that it was finally compelled to abandon the work, although it succeeded in build- 
ing a considerable length of structure. Efforts were made at various times after 
that date to revive the work, with little or no results. In 1902 it was resumed, how- 
ever, and a few years later was pushed to a successful end. 

During the undertaking, more than 40,000 men were engaged in air-pressure 
work and there were many thousand more who did not work under air pressure. 
This vast army of men consisted of all nationalities and all grades and conditions 
of labor. The skilled tunnel workmen are men of character and ability, usually young, 
of good intelligence and sound of body, without a streak of fear or cowardice in their 
makeup. All of those characteristics are essential to under-water air-pressure work. 

As is quite generally known, air pressure and tunnel shields were used in all of 
the under-water work. It might be well to here correct the misconception which 
exists in the minds of many, that the use of air pressure for such purposes is some- 
thing comparatively new. This is not the case. The use of air pressure was a very 
early invention, and it is a matter of record that in 1830, Admiral Cochrane, after- 
wards Lord Dundonald, was granted letters patent for the use of air pressure in tunnel 
construction. The modern engineer has merely developed the art to a high degree. 

The method of construction used in the Hudson River tunnels has been designated 
the "shield method." In this type of construction, the primary part of the tunnel 
structure consists of an iron shell, formed of segmental rings, bolted together through 
inside flanges, and forming a large articulated pipe or tube, circular in section. 
This iron shell is put in place segmentally by means of a shield, an ingenious mechanism 
which both protects the work under construction and assists in the building of the 
iron shell. 

A tunneling shield consists essentially of a tube or cylinder slightly larger in 
diameter than the tunnel it is intended to build, which slides over the exterior of the 
finished lining like the tubes of a telescope. The front end of this cylindrical shield 
is provided with a diaphragm or bulkhead in which are apertures which may be opened 

* Illustrations by courtesy of Jacobs & Davies, Engineers. 

(492) 



STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 493 




THE NEW SHORT Cur TC NEW YORK 
Hudson River Tubes of the Hudson & Manhattan R. R. Co. 



A94 STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 

or closed at will. Behind this diaphragm are placed a number of hydraulic jacks, 
so arranged that by thrusting against the last erected iron ring the entire shield is 
pushed forward. The hind end of the shield is simply a continuation of the cylinder 
which forms the front end, and this hind end, or tail, always overlaps the last few 
feet of the built-up iron-shell tunnel. 

When the openings in the bulkhead are closed, the tunnel is protected from 
the inrush of water or soft ground, and the openings may be so regulated that con- 
trol is maintained over the material passed through. After a ring of iron lining has 
been erected within the tail of the shield, excavation is carried out ahead. When 




ONE OF THE SIXTY-SEVEN-TON TUNNEL SHIF:LDS 

sufficient excavation has been taken out, the jacks are again extended, thus pushing 
the shield ahead, and another ring of iron is erected as before. 

For the erection of these heavy plates, a hydraulic swinging arm, called the 
"Erector," is mounted, either on the shield itself or on an independent erector plat- 
form, according to conditions. This erector approaches closely the faculties of 
the human arm. It is hydraulically operated and can be moved in any desired 
direction. This method of construction can be followed in almost every kind of 
ground that can be met with, and it is especially valuable in dealing with soft, wet 
grounds. In passing through materials saturated with water, the shield is assisted 
by using compressed air in the working chamber. 

The employment of compressed air under such conditions is really a rather simple 
thing in itself, and means merely that the pressure of air in the chamber where men 
are working is maintained at a point sufficient to offset the pressure of the hydro- 
static head of water and thereby prevent its inflow. A crude comparison may be 



STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 495 




496 STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 

made by saying that if the ceiling of a room was weak and threatening to fall if 
we filled the room with sufficient pressure of air, it would support the ceiling and 
prevent it falling in. In tunnel work, air is supplied under compression from the 
mechanical construction plant located on the surface, and the pressure of air main- 
tained in the working chamber is determined by the depth of the work below tide 
level, as the hydrostatic head increases with the depth. 

Control of air pressure is never entrusted to any but the most reliable, competent 
and experienced man, as it is of the utmost importance that air pressure be main- 
tained properly. The first impulse of an inexperienced man, should he notice an 




APRON IN FRONT OF SHIELD, FIVE MINUTES BEFORE SHOVING 

inrush of water, would be to increase the air pressure, which might be a very dangerous 
thing to do. An experienced man, however, would very likely first lower his pres- 
sure in such an emergency, and then put up with the nuisance and difficulty of 
having a good deal of water in his working chamber. By doing this, he would permit 
the greater external pressure to squeeze the soil into the leaking pockets and thereby 
choke the leak. 

To improperly or inopportunely raise the air pressure would be quite likely to 
result in the air blowing a hole through the roof of the tunnel heading, allowing all 
air pressure to escape, and permitting an uncontrollable volume of water to rush in 
and flood the work. 

The outer shell of the tunnel shield is composed of two- or three-ply boiler plates, 
and the interior is braced with a system of steel girders. The shields used weighed 
approximately sixty-seven tons each. Sixteen or eighteen were used. To move 



STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER, 497 

the shield forward, each shield was equipped with sixteen hydraulic jacks, arranged 
around the shield circumferentially. These jacks were controlled by a series of 
valves, which were so designed that any one jack or any set of jacks desired could 
be operated. This was necessary as the direction of the shield was, as it were, guided 
by the pressure of the jacks. When it was desired to alter the direction of the shield, 
either upwards or downwards, or to the right or left, the jacks on the opposite side 
to which the shield was to point, were operated. The hydraulic pressure operating 
these jacks was 5,000 pounds per square inch, and the total energy, when all jacks 




CUTTING EDGE OF SHIELD IN NORTH TUNNEL 

were employed at the same time, was equivalent to 2,500 tons, which was equal to 
eleven tons per square foot of heading. 

Air pressure used to prevent the inflow of water and soft dirt varied from nothing 
up to forty-two pounds, although a fair average throughout was thirty-two pounds. 
It varied, of course, according to the condition encountered. 

The working chamber is the space between the tunnel heading where work is 
in progress and the air-lock. The air-lock is a device used for the purpose of enabling 
workmen and materials to pass from the portion of the tunnel where the atmospheric 
pressure is normal into the portion where the air pressure is greater than normal; 
that is, the working chamber. The air-lock is a cylinder, usually about six feet in 
diameter and twenty feet in length, with a heavily constructed iron door at each 
end. This lock is placed horizontally in the tunnel at such a level as the conditions 
of the work necessitate, but usually near the bottom, and around this cylinder, and 
completely filling the cross-section of the tunnel, a concrete bulkhead is built arid 
is known as the lock bulkhead. The two doors open in the same direction; the one 
at the normal pressure end opening into the cylinder, and the one at the heading end 

32 



498 STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 

opening away from the cylinder. One door is always closed, and both doors are 
closed during the operation of entering or leaving the air-pressure section. 

Going into the air pressure, the door at the heading end is held closed by the 
pressure of air against it while one is entering the lock, after which the outer door 
is also closed. A valve is then opened which permits the air to flow from the working 
chamber into the lock, until the lock becomes filled with air of the same pressure 
as exists in the heading. As soon as the pressure is thus equalized, the door at the 
neading end can be opened and the workmen pass into the heading. Going out, 
the operations are simply reversed. After the heading door is closed, with the 
workmen in the air-lock, a valve is opened which permits the air in the lock to 




SHIELD CUTTING EDGE BREAKING THROUGH WALL AT SIXTH AVENUE AND TWELFTH 
STREET, LOOKING SOUTH, OCTOBER 23, 1907 

exhaust into the normal air, until the pressure within the lock reduces to the same 
as that outside, when the outer door can be opened and persons inside the lock pass 
out. Both operations must be gradual, as a sudden change from normal to high 
pressure, or vice versa, would be very dangerous to anyone. 

In tunneling under the river, nearly every conceivable combination of rocks 
and soils were met, but for the most part the material was silt. In such material, 
with a pressure of 5,000 pounds per square inch on the shield jacks, the shield was 
pushed through the ground as though one pushed a stick into a heap of snow, pushing 
aside the silt, and thus obviating the necessity of removing any excavated material. 
Sand or gravel, or any material which would not flow or become displaced by the 
shield, of course, had to be excavated ahead of the shield, and removed from the 
heading prior to pushing it forward. In the silt the most satisfactory and economic 
progress was attained, and a record was made of seventy-two feet of finished tunnel, 
completely lined with iron, in one day of twenty-four hours. 

The most difficult combination that had to be dealt with under the river was 
when the bottom consisted of rock and the top of silt and w^t sand. In such cases, 
and there were many of them, the upper section of soft ground was first excavated 



STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 499 

and the exposed face securely supported with timbers ahead of the shield, and the 
rock underlying then drilled and blasted. This was very tedious and expensive 
work. Exceedingly small charges of dynamite had to be used and the procedure 
conducted with the utmost caution. 

In the course of their progress, the shields were subjected to the most intense 
strains and hard usage, as may well be imagined. One of the shields is illustrated. 
It was used to construct the south tunnel of the up-town pair of tubes, and passed 
from under the Hudson River, through Morton, Greenwich and Christopher Streets, 
into Sixth Avenue, and north to Twelfth Street, a total distance of 4 ; 525 feet, of which 




NOETH TUNNEL, SHOWING COMMENCEMENT OF NEW WORK 

2,075 feet was through rock overlaid with wet sand. During the progress of this 
shield, 26,000 sticks of dynamite were exploded in front of the cutting edge, causing 
great damage to the structure of the shield, so that when it arrived at its destination 
at Sixth Avenue and Twelfth Street, it was in such a condition of distortion that 
it was with difficulty that the tunnel lining could be erected behind it. 

In pushing a shield forward with the battery of powerful hydraulic jacks, each 
advance is of two feet, and must be followed immediately by installation of the 
permanent lining in the rear. In the early days, brick work was used for lining, and 
in recent years it has also been used to some extent, but even with the use of quick- 
setting Portland cement, neither brick work nor concrete has proved successful 
for subaqueous work, as the cement cannot reach the required strength within the 
time it is feasible to leave the shield standing before advancing it again. 

During the early work on the north tube of the uptown tunnels, a point was 
reached where the rock was sixteen feet above the bottom of the tunnel, and the 
overlying silt was in a semi-fluid state. Five barges of clay had been dumped in 



500 STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER' HUDSON RIVER 




STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 501 

over this point to make a roof for the tunnel, but the fluid clay could not be 
cJntroned and crept through the doors of the shield. After trying a 1 known methods 
tTset through, it was decided to bake this wet clay by means of intense heat. Two 
Inrlp barses of kerosene were sent into the tunnel, and an air pipe connected to them 
Mne blow-pipes were also attached, and the fire from the blow-pipes was impinged 
on the exposed clay until it became caked sufficiently dry and hard to overcome 
sHppbL It required eight hours of this baking to dry the clay hard and, during 
thfs period water had to be played continuously on the shield to avoid damage due 
to the high temperature. It is believed that this was the first tune that soft material 




NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY TUNNEL SHOWING SIGNAL AND CAR 

met with in tunneling under a river has been solidified by means of fire. Seven 
days after passing this troublesome point, the rock suddenly disappeared and the 
work proceeded without further trouble. 

Another unusual situation occurred in the south tunnel of the uptown tubes 
When the shield had advanced 115 feet from the Jersey side, the night superintendent 
in charge of the tunnel work, in his anxiety to push the work, disobeyed instruc- 
tions and the tunnel got away from him and was flooded, and his men had a narrow 
escape with their lives. In order to regain the tunnel several schemes were con- 
sidered, including that of sending a dredge through to dredge out the bed of thenvei 
just in advance of the shield, a sufficient depth to enable a diver to go down and timber 
up the exterior opening of the doorway, where the silt and mud had come through 
and filled the tunnel. This plan had to be abandoned, as the river above was almost 
entirelv occupied by shipping that could not be interrupted. 

Finally the difficult situation was met by obtaining two large and heavy main- 
sails, which made a double canvas cover measuring about sixty by forty feet, Inis 



502 STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 



HUDSON & MANHATTAN R. R. 




AN X-RAY VIEW or A BUSY HALF-MILE UNDER THE GROUND ON THE JERSEY SIDE OF THE 

HUDSON KIVEK 



STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 503 



Hs 







504 STORY OF TUNNELS UNDER HUDSON RIVER 

canvas cover was then spread on a flat barge, small sections of pig iron being attached 
around the edges of it. Ropes were carried to fixed points to hold it in exact position. 
The barge was then withdrawn, and the canvas cover cropped to the bed of the 
Tiver, and, most fortunately, it settled over the point where the leak had occurred, 
and a large number of bags of dirt were then deposited on it. An opening was then 
made in the bulkhead of the tunnel below, and for eight days material, under hydro- 
static pressure, forced its way into the tunnel, where it was loaded on cars, and 
finally the canvas was drawn into the hole, stopping it up. Additional material 
was then deposited into the river to fill the cavity, and finally the tunnel was recovered, 
pumped out and work resumed. This event is of somewhat historical interest, in 
that the two mainsails which were used were procured from the owner of the famous 
American cup defender, the well-remembered " Reliance." 

Probably the most unique and interesting pieces of construction are the three 
junctions on the Jersey side of the river, where the uptown tunnels from New York 
diverge, north to Hoboken and south to Jersey City and New York downtown. For 
safe and expeditious operation of trains, where the schedule is only one and one- 
half minutes, it was imperative that grade crossings should be avoided. By grade 
crossings is meant the tracks of one service crossing the tracks of another service 
at the same grade. At the point in question, this was a knotty problem to solve, 
owing to the unusual operating conditions which had to be met, there being six 
separate and distinct operating classes of trains to be handled around this triangle. 

To meet this situation, three massive reinforced concrete caissons were built 
on the surface. They are practically large two-story houses, each being over one 
hundred feet in length, about fifty feet in height, and about forty-five feet in width 
at their widest point. The bottom edges were sharp, and, with the use of air pres- 
sure and great weights, the three structures were sunk in the ground to the same 
grade as the intercepting tunnels, and the tunnels were then driven into them. 

Particular attention should be given to the Jersey City to Hoboken tube, in 
the lower part of the caisson in the foreground, in the accompanying illustration, 
which curls around the Hoboken to Jersey City tube, and rises to the elevation of, 
and connects into, the New York to Hoboken tube, at the caisson in the background, 
at the left of the illustration. Very few of the people who travel through the tube 
are probably aware of such manipulation. At the same time, the arrangement 
absolutely avoids any grade crossing whatever, and without such an arrangement 
of tracks the road could not be operated with trains run so closely together as under 
the prevailing system. 

In constructing the river tunnels the work was carried on simultaneously from 
opposite sides of the river, the tunnels meeting under the river, and it is interesting, 
if not remarkable, when one considers the difficulties under which the engineering 
work had to be carried on, to note that the tunnels met with practically absolute 
accuracy. 

What Causes Floating Islands? 

A floating island consists generally of a mass of earth held together by inter- 
lacing roots. 

They occur on the Mississippi and other rivers, being portions of the banks 
detached by the force of the current and carried down the stream, often bearing 
trees. Sometimes such islands are large enough to serve as pasture grounds. 

Artificial floating islands have been formed by placing lake mud on rafts of 
wicker-work covered with reeds. They were formerly used in the waters around 
Mexico, and may be seen in Persia, India, and on the borders of Tibet. On these 
the natives raise melons, cucumbers and other vegetables which need much water. 



VIEWS OF AIRSHIPS 



505 








! 



506 



VIEWS OP AIRSHIPS 




VIEWS OF AIR SHIPS 



507 



II 




508 



VIEWS OF AIR SHIPS 




VIEWS OF AIR SHIPS 



509 







O 

fl 



Sili 

- 1 



c 

rln 



510 



VIEWS OF AIRSHIPS 




!g 
S 



I 



- 

a 



<u 






! 



a 







W NQ 



VIEWS OF AIR SHIPS 



511 




512 



VIEWS OF AIRSHIPS 




pq 



w 

s 



VIEWS OF AIRSHIPS 



513 




Hi 






I 



1 




MH 



.a 



3 w> 






o 



" O bC 

gg = 

OS 



1 



a.1 

I 

O 02 

S l 



514 



VIEWS OF AIRSHIPS 




ZEPPELIN DEVICE FOB DROPPING BOMBS 

An armored car is suspended by three cables from the Zeppelin airship to 
a distance of several thousand feet below the monster aircraft, which is con- 
cealed in the clouds above. (Sphere copr.) 



VIEWS OF AIRSHIPS 



515 





A BELGIAN MILITARY OBSERVATION BALLOON 

The car of this balloon is equipped with wireless, which is used to send word of the 
gun positions of the enemy, movements of troops, ranges for the gunners and much 
other valuable information. A cable holds the balloon captive. 



516 



VIEWS OF AIRSHIPS 




VIEWS OF AIRSHIPS 



517 




The Story of an Automobile Factory* 

In visiting the factory where a half million automobiles are made each year, the 
visitor first comes to the power house. 

In the construction of this building 5,200 tons of structural steel were used, the 
equivalent necessary to build a modern twenty-story sky-scraper. 

Six engines of a combination gas-steam type, housed in this building, develop 
36,000 combined horse-power. They are said to be the first gas-steam engines to be 




CRANK SHAFT GRINDING DEPARTMENT 

put to practical use. Another engine, using steam only, develops 2,000 horse-power, 
while several pumping engines increase the total horse-power of the plant to 45,000, 
probably the largest individual unit of any power-plant in the world, and said to be the 
only one of its kind in actual operation. 

Some idea of the size of the engines is gained from the fact that the stroke is 72 
inches, while the gas cylinders are 42 inches in diameter and the steam cylinders are 
36 and 68 inches in diameter. 



* Illustrations by courtesy of Ford Motor Co. 



(518) 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 519 




520 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 



In producing the gas and steam for these engines only twenty-two tons of coal per 
hour are consumed, which speaks well for the efficiency of the engines. In addition to 
the steam, the daily consumption of producer gas for power purpose only is 28,512,000 
cubic feet. Added to this figure for power gas, is another item of gas used in the factory 
for various purposes, which averages nearly 1,000,000 cubic feet per day, bringing the 
per diem consumption of gas by the company up to 29,512,000 cubic feet. 

The main factory buildings are 900 feet long and 800 feet wide, four stories in 
height and of fire-proof construction. They are so designed that every part of the 
interior receives a full share of daylight. 

The heating and ventilating of the factory building is accomplished in a modern, 
scientific manner. In the winter, warm washed air is forced through long ducts in the 




OVERHEAD MONORAIL SYSTEM 

floor up into, the room. In the summer, cool washed air is handled in the same way, 
thus providing a clean, healthful atmosphere the year around. By this system the air 
in the factory is completely changed five times per hour. 

At the right as the visitor enters the factory, is seen the tool construction depart- 
ment. Here are employed approximately 1,000 expert tool makers, machinists and 
die sinkers. These men are engaged in making new machinery (designed in the com- 
pany shops), tools, jigs, fixtures and other machine shop accessories, and repairing 
those in use. 

Overhead are traveling cranes which have a capacity of forty tons each. These 
cranes facilitate the work of the tool construction department by carrying cumber- 
some parts of machinery to and from it for alterations and repairs. 

Here the visitor is standing upon the roof of a great tunnel, in which are all the 
heating, water and steam pipes, and the power cables running from the power house to 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 521 

various parts of the shop. This tunnel is large enough to permit the easy passage of 
a touring car. 

Standing in front of the factory office, the visitor is doubly impressed with the 
magnitude of the view before him. In one continuous room, containing approximately 
700,000 square feet of floor space, there are, in round numbers, 8,000 machines in 
actual operation, representing an outlay of about $5,000,000. These machines use 
some 2,500 gallons of lubricating oils and 11,000 gallons of cutting fluids each day. For 
driving the many machines, about fifty miles of leather belting are used, giving the 
room the appearance of a dense forest. 

The visitor who is familiar with machine shop practice will notice at once the 
peculiar location and setting of machinery in this shop. The machines of a class, or 




A CORNER OF THE MAIN HOSPITAL 

type, are not all located in a single group or unit. Each department contains all of 
the necessary machinery to complete every operation on each part or piece it produces. 
To illustrate, a rough forging or casting is started in a department at one point, and after 
passing through the machines doing the required operations, it leaves this department, 
in a finished condition, ready to be assembled into the car. 

Such a system necessitates the grouping together of many different kinds of 
machines, as well as including brazing furnaces, cyanide furnaces and other special 
units (most generally found in separate buildings). Chutes run from one machine to 
another, so that a workman can transport a part from his operation to the next one by 
gravity, The results of this transportation system are remarkable, making a big sav- 
ing in trucking expense, loss of material and the absence of usual delays. 

As the visitor passes down through the machine shop, he particularly notices the 
sanitary conditions of the plant. There is a department, enrolling about 500 men, 



522 THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 




THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 523 



whose duties are to keep the floors swept clean, the windows washed, in fact to keep the 
sanitary conditions surrounding the workmen as nearly perfect as possible. The floors 
of the entire plant are scrubbed at least once a week, with hot water and a strong solu- 
tion of alkali, which removes the grease. Another department of about twenty-five 
men does nothing but paint the walls and ceilings of the factory, keeping everything 
fresh and clean. 

To facilitate the inter-departmental transportation of materials in the factory, 
there is an overhead monorail system, comprising over 1^/2 miles of I-beam track. 
On this system are nine monorail cars, each car having two 2-ton hoists, by means of 
which great boxes and trays of material can be picked up and carried overhead from 
point to point in the shop. 

Near the pay office is the main first-aid department. Here the chief surgeon 
has on his staff eight regular doctors and several first-aid nurses. The surgical equip- 
ment, which includes an 
X-ray machine, pulmotor, 
operating table and electrical 
appliances, as well as im- 
proved surgical instruments, 
enables the surgeon to cope 
with any accident. 

The factory service office 
houses a department which 
is responsible for the well- 
being of factory employees. 
Of the 200 men in the division 
the majority are employed 
in the capacities of watch- 
men, to take care of the many 
entrances and exits of the 
plant and also to inspect the 
fire - fighting equipment 
which is distributed over the 
entire plant. 

This fire-fighting equipment is being continually added to as the plant expands 
and now embraces more than a mile and a half of large hose, 10,000 feet of smaller 
hose, and 2,900 feet of hose attached to chemical tanks. There are 1,421 three-gallon 
chemical extinguishers and fifty-eight 40-gallon chemical tanks, mounted on wheels. 
Surrounding the plant are twenty-seven water hydrants equipped to handle two and 
three lines of hose, while inside the plant are eight hose-houses fully equipped. Pyrenes 
to the number of 175 are distributed about the departments for combatting electrical 
fires. 

A new alarm system, said to be the most modern in the country, is being installed 
throughout the factory. Back of all other preparation is the sprinkler system, com- 
posed of water pipes hung next to the ceiling in all buildings and so designed that there 
is a sprinkler head every ten feet. Should the temperature in a room, for any reason, 
reach 160 degrees, the sprinkler heads in the immediate vicinity will open automat- 
ically, spraying out water which is piped from two tanks having a combined capacity 
of 600,000 gallons. 

In addition to its other duties the factory service department has charge of the 
lost and found articles. Since this work was included, almost every sort of personal 
property, from key-rings to motor-cycles has been found and restored to the rightful 
owners. 

Proceeding from the factory service office, the visitor finds himself in the main 




REAR AXLE ASSEMBLY 



524 THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 

crane-way, devoted exclusively to the storage of parts in the rough, or semi-finished 
condition. This crane-way contains over 67,000 square feet of floor space. Overhead 
are two 5-ton electric cranes, so arranged that they can unload material from railway 
cars at one end of the crane-way and deposit it in a position to be picked up by the 
monorail cars, or placed in bins or barrels for storage. An interesting item in regard 
to these cranes is that the load can be moved in three directions at one time, this being 
accomplished by means of the small car hoist. While the crane proper is moving 




CYLINDER MACHINING DEPARTMENT 

through the crane-way, this car travels across the crane, and at the same time raises 
or lowers whatever may be suspended from it. 

Passing by the crane-way one comes to the rear axle unit assembly. The manu- 
facturing policy of the company is to make unit assemblies in different departments 
and deliver them to the final assembly. 

In the unit assembly departments are received the finished parts from the machine 
shop. These parts are assembled on progressive traveling tracks. By this system 
each assembler, or operator, performs one operation only, and repeats this operation 
on every unit passing through the department. As a result, every operator soon 
becomes a specialist, and specialization is the fundamental principle of the entire 
organization. 

The economic results from this system have been wonderful, as will be shown in 
some of the departments yet to be described. It saves floor space, and eliminates con- 



THE STORY OF AN AtJTOMOBILE FACTORY 525 

gestion due to trucking, as large quantities of material are piled along each side of the 
conveyor, and the unit in process of assembling is moved to the stock, rather than each 
individual piece of the assembly being distributed at different places. 

After the rear axle has been completely assembled, it is immersed in a tank con- 
taining enamel, and is hung on a special trolley which runs by gravity along an I-beam 
track. This trolley carries the axle to an elevator, which lifts it to a conveyor baking 
oven, located in a section of the roof. The axles are continually moving through this 
oven, and at the expiration of about forty-five minutes emerge from the far end com- 




MOTOR ASSEMBLY 

pletely baked. They are automatically dropped onto another elevator which lowers 
them to the point near where they are used in the final assembly. All material and 
unit assemblies move in one direction that is, toward the final assembly. 

Beyond the rear axle section is the department that makes the magnets for the 
magneto, and also that in which the transmission is assembled on a conveyor track, 
ending in an automatic elevator which transports the completed transmission to the 
motor assembly line. 

In the rear of the transmission department is the motor assembly. This assem- 
bly begins at the point where the cylinder machine shop ends, so that the movement 
of the cylinder from the time it arrives in the machine shop until it goes into the 
finished motor, is continuous. In the machining of the cylinder castings, and the 
operation of assembling the motor, close inspection of the work is noticeable. By the 
use of the assembling line, better inspection is possible, than where one or two men 



526 THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 



assemble the entire motor. In addition to the inspection in the assembly, there are 
three points of trial, or working or testing, which show up any defects in the motor. 

The final operation in the motor assembly line is the block test, where the motor 
is inspected and tested before being assembled into the chassis. On the block test, the 
motor is driven by an electric motor for the final O. K. and tryout before being installed 
in this chassis. 

At the end of this testing period, if no defect has developed, the motor is approved, 
placed upon a special truck and wheeled to the final assembling line. 

The motor department just described furnishes an interesting illustration of the 
economy of the moving assembling system. Before the present system was installed 
about 1,1 00 employees were required in this department, working a nine-hour day to 
build 1,000 motors. Today, as a direct result of the new methods of assembling, and 

the efficiency gained through 

the profit-sharing with em- 
ployees, about 1,000 men are 
assembling more than 2,000 
motors in an eight-hour day. 
The assembling of the 
front axle, dash and radiator 
are fully as interesting as the 
unit just described, but space 
will not permit a detailed 
explanation of them. 

Perhaps the -most inter- 
esting department in the 
whole factory, to the visitor, 
is the final assembly. In 
this division, all the assem- 
bled units meet the assembly 
conveyor at the point where 
they are needed. At the 
start of the track a front axle 

unit, a rear axle unit and a frame unit are assembled. This assembly is then started 
in motion by means of a chain conveyor, and as it moves down the room at a constant 
speed of eight feet per minute, each man adds one part to the growing chassis or does 
one operation, which is assigned to him, so that when the chassis reaches the end of 
the line, it is ready to run on its own power. 

In following the final assembly line from the point where the chain conveyor 
engages the frame and axles, the visitor is impressed with the dispatch with which 
every movement is executed. The gasoline tank, for example, comes down from the 
fourth floor on a conveyor outside of the building, and drops through a chute onto a 
bridge over the assembly line. On this bridge is located a gasoline pump, from which 
each tank receives one gallon of gasoline before it is installed in the car. 

After the gasoline tank is assembled, a number of small units are added, such as 
the hand brake control lever, gasoline feed pipe, and fender irons, until the point is 
reached at which the motor is placed in the frame. 

Ordinarily the setting of a motor in the frame is a long operation, but in this 
assembly the motor is elevated by a hoist, and lowered into place while the chassis is 
moving along the conveyor track. From this point, other small parts are added, and 
bolts tightened, until the growing chassis reaches the bridge on which the dash unit is 
deposited by a chute from the second floor, where it is assembled. The dash unit 
includes the dash, complete steering gear, coil, horn, and all wiring ready to be attached 
to the motor, so that its installation is rapid. 




TRANSMISSION COVER DEPARTMENT 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 527 



Further along, such parts as the exhaust pipe, muffler, and side pans for the 
motor are quickly fastened in place, and the wheels are brought into the assembly. 

There will be noticed the vertical chutes, extending through the ceiling. Down 
through these, from the third floor, come the wheels, with the tires mounted and 
inflated to the proper pressure. From this point the chassis moves under the bridge 
upon which are stored the radiators, which have been delivered by a belt conveyor. 

At the end of the assembly line, the rear wheels on the finished chassis drop into 
a set of revolving grooved wheels, sunk into the concrete floor, and driven by an over- 




INSPECTION OF FRONT AXLE AFTER MACHINING 

head motor. Two ends are accomplished by this operation. First, when the wheels 
of the car revolve with the grooved wheels, this motion is transmitted to the differential, 
through the drive shaft to the motor, limbering up all these parts. The second is 
that while the parts are being limbered up, the switch is turned on and the motor 
started. 

At the end of the line the complete chassis is driven out into the yard under its 
own power. Guided by practiced hands it moves swiftly out into the yard, turns 
sharply and enters the final inspection line. A corps of inspectors at this point takes 
charge of the chassis, and the responsibility for each part is assigned to some one man. 

From the final testing line the chassis is driven to the body chutes, which extend 
into the factory yard from the third floor of the new six-story building, and are so con- 
structed that the chassis may be driven under them. The bodies are let down the 



528 THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 

chutes on belt conveyors, picked up by small derricks and swung over onto the chassis. 
The bodies are at this time placed on the chassis merely as a means of a rapid 
transportation to the freight cars, for in ordinary transportation the bodies are packed 
in the cars separate from the chassis. 

In the rear of the main plant are two six-story buildings each 60 feet wide by 845 
feet long, built parallel to each other and connected by a crane-way 40 feet wide the 
full length and height of the buildings. 

The boiler house, which furnishes the steam for heating the entire plant, is located 
in the rear of these buildings. The method of heating is worthy of particular interest, 




INSTALLING MOTOR ON FINAL ASSEMBLY LINE 

as the air is forced over coils of steam pipes located in pent houses on the roofs, and 
from this point is driven down into the various rooms through the hollow columns 
which support the floors. In the summer, cool washed air is forced down through 
these same columns, maintaining a normal, even temperature, compatible with the 
state of the weather. 

Various unit assemblies, small machine departments, and store rooms are located 
here in addition to all the body work. 

Practically the entire first floors are used as a receiving department, where all the 
material consigned to the company is checked and inspected. Railway tracks run the 
full length of both crane-ways, facilitating the unloading and loading of supplies and 
parts. 

The body department occupies the greatest amount of space, requiring, witfc the 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 529 



upholstering department, most of the three upper floors. In addition to this work the 
construction of tops, curtains and radiators is carried on, and a large space is used for 
the storage of equipment and parts, such as lamps, horns, tires, etc. A part of the 
second floor is devoted to the storage and the shipping of parts to branches and agents. 
Having seen the body placed upon the chassis, the visitor passes along toward the 
north. In succession are the chutes on which the crates of fenders are sent down from 
the fourth floor of the main factory building to the shipping platform. Here is also a 
chain elevator, which raises the wheels out of the freight cars to a runaway on which 




MECHANICAL STARTER END OF FINAL ASSEMBLY 

they travel by gravity to the third floor of the main factory. With this device it is 
possible for three or four men to unload about 6,000 wheels each day. 

One passes the loading docks, where crews of six to eight men each, working as a 
unit, remove the bodies and wheels from tho chassis, and load them into freight cars. 
So proficient are these loaders that a freight car is loaded in twenty minutes. Approxi- 
mately 150 loaded freight cars are sent out evx3ry day. Besides these factory ship- 
ments there are more than 300 loaded freight cars in transit each day from branch 
factories. 

The bodies are shipped separate from the chassis, being stood on end in one-half 
of the car and protected from dust by coverings. 

The chassis are put in the other end of the car, the first one being carried in, 
minus the wheels, and placed in a diagonal position. Brackets of cast iron, for holding 
the axle to the floor, are made in the foundry. The front axle rests on the floor, and 
the rear axle rests against the opposite wall near the top of the car. A block, with a 
hole which just fits the axle, holds it against the wall. 

The next chassis is brought in and placed with its front axle opposite the first one. 



530 THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 




o 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 531 



In this way the chassis alternate until the car is full. The space in the center of the 
car contains the fenders, and other removable parts of the equipment. 

Just beyond the loading docks is the foundry. 

The foundry is one of the most interesting divisions of the entire plant, and ranks, 
perhaps, as one of the most unique in the country, as far as practice and equipment 
are concerned. As a general rule, foundry practice has not shown the changes in an 
increase of production that machine departments have, but in this foundry, due to 
standardization of parts and specialization on the one car, it has been possible to 




CRANEWAY, SHOWING LOADING PLATFORMS 

i 

devise and install the unique equipment now used, which brings this department. down 
to the plane of expense and up in the labor-saving efficiency prevailing throughout the 
entire plant. 

This department works twenty-four hours a day, in three shifts of eight hours 
each ; iron is being melted and poured continuously during the day and first night 
shifts. An average of over 400 tons of iron is poured daily, and 426 tons of gray iron 
have been poured in a single day. This tonnage is especially interesting, as it is pro- 
duced on a floor space of only 36,324 square feet. 

All this iron is poured on overhead power-driven mold carriers, which travel about 
twelve feet per minute. These mold carriers have suspended from them pendulum- 
like arms, on the lower end of which is a shelf. The molders who make the molds for 
the castings'are stationed alongside of these conveyors; the molding sand with which 



532 THE STORY OF AN "AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 



they fill the flasks is stored overhead in a hopper, the gate of which discharges directly 
onto the molding machine. There are two molders for each part, one making the 
"drag," or lower part of the mold, the other making the "cope," or the upper half. 

When these two halves of 
the mold are finished they 
are put together; or "closed" 
on the shelf of the conveyor, 
which carries the finished 
mold to the man who pours 
the molten metal. The 
molten metal is brought to 
this man's station by means 
of large ladles, suspended 
on a trolley on an I-beam 
track, running from the 
cupola through the entire 
length of the foundry. This 
does away with the necessity 
of carrying the ladle of iron 
a long distance, thus saving 




CONTINUOUS CORE-OVEN 



much time and lessening the 
liability to accidents. 
While the mold is being poured it is in constant motion, and continues so from 
the pouring station to the end of the conveyor, where the casting is shaken out of the 
sand. The casting is thrown to one side to cool, the flasks are hung upon hooks on the 




QUENCHING STEEL FORCINGS IN HEAT-TREATMENT OPERATION 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 



533 



arm of the conveyor, to be returned to the mpider, and the sand drops through a grat- 
ing in the floor onto a belt conveyor; on this conveyor it is dropped on an elevator, 
raised overhead and "cut," or mixed with new sand, and passed on to another con- 
veyor, which deposits it in the hoppers above referred to, ready for the molder's use. 
In all this journey the sand is never shoveled. 

In casting cylinders, on account of their size and the care needed in setting the 
cores, a different style conveyor is used. The molder, instead of putting the mold on 
a pendulum conveyor, places it upon a track, where it is moved by means of a chain. 
During this travel the various cores are set, 
and the molds closed, moving to the point 
where the men with large ladles pour the 
mold. From this point it is transferred to 
another track. As it travels down this 
track, the casting is given an opportunity to 
"set," or cool. At the end of this line it is 
shaken out over a grating, and the sand 
handled in the same manner as on the 
smaller conveyors. 

As soon as the castings have cooled suffi- 
ciently they are put into great horizontal 
cylinders, called tumblers. Small metal 
stars are placed in these tumblers with the 
castings, and when the tumbler is full it is 
started revolving. This shakes all the sand 
from the castings and they come out clean 
and bright. This process continues for some 
time, depending on the size of the castings. 
Near the tumblers are the grinding wheels, 
upon which are ground off the rough edges 
and the castings put into shape for the machine 
shop. They are sorted, inspected and counted 
before removing from the foundry. 

Another interesting feature is the han- 
dling of sand in the core room. The sand is 
handled entirely in a gallery built above the 
room, equipped with storage bins and sand 
mixers. Over each core-maker's bench is a hopper, connected with the floor of the 
gallery. When the sand is mixed it is dropped through holes in the floor into the 
hoppers, which deposit the sand on the bench-convenient for the core-maker. 

This core room contains perhaps the only endless chain core oven in this country 
in which are two endless chain conveyors. These have hanging upon them large sets 
of shelves, upon which the cores are placed for baking. It is impossible to over-bake 
or under-bake a core, as the rate of travel of the conveyor is fixed at a speed which 
leaves the core in the oven the correct length of time. 

All the aluminum parts as well as a large proportion of the brass, are also cast in 
this foundry. 

The process of heat-treating steel forgings before they are machined is one of the 
most scientific and accurate features in the manufacture of this car. Vanadium steel 
is used throughout the construction of the car. It has been found from long and deep 
experimental wprk by engineers, that the structural condition of steel may be changed 
by the application of heat, and with certain conditions ascertained, by bringing a piece 
of steel to a certain temperature, and then setting the molecular condition in the steel 
by sudden cooling, or quenching, that the steel of a crank shaft can be made to stand 




STRAIGHTENING CRANK SHAFTS ON STEAM 
HAMMERS 



534 THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 

impact, that the steel of a front axle can be made a most efficient agent to withstand 
vibration. Practically every forging in the car is made of a special steel, for which a 
special formula of heat-treating has been worked out, in accordance with the work, or 
strain, the part must stand in the finished car. 

It is by the use of this high-grade, scientifically heat-treated vanadium steel that 
it is possible for the company to manufacture a light-weight car, which has the 
ability to stand up under severe usage, and to sell at the low price at which it is sold 
today. 

The heat-treating department contains about seventy-five large furnaces, which 
consume from 5,000 to 6,000 gallons of fuel oil per day. It is into these furnaces that 




PYROMETERS BY WHICH THE TEMPERATURE OF THE FURNACES is REGULATED 

the various forgings are placed for heat-treating. In each one is introduced a pyrom- 
eter, connected electrically with a switchboard located in a separate building. This 
switchboard is very similar to those used in telephone exchanges. The operator takes 
the temperature reading of every furnace on his board about every minute. The 
furnace foreman is notified by the operator as to the temperature by means of small 
colored electric lights, located above the furnace. The lighting of all the colors at the 
same time is the signal to pull the heat or, in other words, extinguish the fires and empty 
the furnace. After the required heat has been reached, the forgings are allowed to 
either cool in the air, be covered with pulverized mica, or quenched in a special solution, 
as the case may require. 

In this department are also located many grinding wheels and tumbling barrels, 
similar to those used in the foundry, so that the various forgings may be put in first- 
class condition before they are laid down in the machine shop. 

The operations in the manufacture of the crank case, or engine pan, of the motor 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 535 




THIS BELT CARRIES THE FINISHED PARTS AND SCRAPS FROM THE PUNCH PRESSES 



536 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 



is of interest for several reasons, and the visitor has the opportunity of viewing these 
processes. 

The crank case in itself is interesting because it is made from drawn sheet steel, 
instead of cast aluminum, as was once thought necessary. 

The presses on which these crank cases are drawn are especially worthy of note, 




TAKING INDUSTRIAL MOTION PICTURES 
Operator suspended from traveling crane. 

for they weigh about fifty tons each, and exert a downward pressure of about 900 tons. 
It is necessary that this drawing be made in four operations; the first and second are 
particularly interesting, on account of their depths, which are 5% and 9^ inches, 
respectively. After each drawing operation it has been found necessary that the 
case be annealed, to restore the strained or calloused surface produced at certain 
points by contact with the dies to a soft, ductile condition, to conform to the 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 537 

balance of the case, or, in other words, to produce a homogeneous condition of the 
surface. 

This annealing is accomplished by a furnace through which the cases are moved 
by a chain conveyor onto an elevator which raises them up through the roof, and down 
again, depositing them near the press which is to perform the next drawing operation. 
While moving on this elevator the cases are cooled so that they can be handled as 
soon as they are lowered. 

After the drawing operations have been completed, the case is trimmed; the side 




ASSEMBLING INDUSTRIAL MOTION PICTURE FILMS 

arms, front end supports, radius rod support, are riveted and brazed to it, making a 
case as strong and solid, and yet as light, as it is possible to make. 

Near these crank case presses are located several hundred punch and draw- 
ing presses of various sizes. These presses blank out and draw from sheet steel of 
special analysis, a large number of parts (which in ordinary practice are made from 
castings or forgings), carrying the same strength, but also very much lighter in 
weight. 

The interesting feature of this department is the arrangement of the presses, 
which enables all finished parts, as well as the scrap steel, to be deposited upon a 
traveling belt conveyor, at the end of which are stationed men who sort the various 
parts, and place them in proper receptacles. By this arrangement it is possible to 
place the presses closer together than could be done if it were necessary to leave aisles 
large enough for trucking the material to and from the presses, effecting a great saving 
in floor space. 

The pictures with which this story is illustrated were all made by the photographic 
department of the company, and are but a few of the thousands on file, portraying 



538 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 




41 

a 
<) o 

CO 

Jl 

H +> 



THE STORY OF AN AUTOMOBILE FACTORY 539 

details of every operation in the manufacture of a car. The department is completely 
equipped to take and produce motion picture films of the highest quality. 

The growth of this department, in its own peculiar field, has kept pace with the 
growth of the company as an industrial factor. But a few years ago, this department 
was an incident only. The quarters were small, the staff was composed of two men, 
and the entire work was confined to making photographs of the cars and parts for 
advertising literature. 

A modern studio is now maintained on the fourth floor of the factory the staff 
of skilled operators numbering twenty. 

The moving picture portion of the company's work is, in volume, the largest con- 
ducted by any industrial concern. As a matter of interest, it is estimated that the 
operations of this department in the " mo vie" field are equal in magnitude to the 
efforts of many of the better known film-producing studios which specialize in such 
work. And, large as the scope of operations already is, it is still growing, in response 
to an increasing demand for pictures of the factory as well as of events of general 
interest. 



The expression "The tune that the old cow died of" has been used to express 
the giving of advice instead of material help, because of an old song which told of 
a man who had nothing to feed his cow upon and so played her this tune: " Con- 
sider, good cow, consider. This isn't the time for grass to grow." 

How do Big Buildings Get their Granite? 

Stones suitable for important building purposes are usually found at a good 
distance below the surface. In the case of unstratified rocks, such as granite, the 
stone is most frequently detached from the mass by blasting, a process by which 
much valuable stone is wasted, and a different method is employed whenever it is 
found possible. In the case of stratified rocks, blocks are separated by hand tools 
alone. Small holes a few inches apart are cut along a certain length of rock, into 
which steel wedges are inserted. These are driven in by heavy hammers until the 
stratum is cut through. The large blocks necessary for monumental purposes are 
generally obtained in this way, and before they leave the quarry they are usually 
reduced as nearly as possible to a rectangular form. 

Granite is a fire-formed rock which has been exposed to great heat and pres- 
sure deep down in the earth. It is one of the most abundant of that species of rocks 
seen at or near the surface of the earth, and was formerly considered as the founda- 
tion rock of the globe, or that upon which all sedimentary rocks repose. Granite 
supplies the most durable materials for building, as many of the ancient Egyptian 
monuments testify. It varies a great deal in hardness as well as in color and for 
that reason must be selected with care when desired for building purposes. 

Granite abounds in crystallized earthy materials, and these occur for the most 
part in veins traversing the mass of the rock. Of these minerals, beryl, garnet and 
tourmaline are the most abundant. The decomposed felspar of some varieties of 
granite yields the kaolin used in porcelain manufacture. Granite is not rich in 
mineral ores. 

It is abundant in America and is largely quarried in the United States for build- 
ing purposes, especially in New England. The best known quarries are those of 
New England. There is a great deal of granite found in South Carolina and Georgia, 
but much of this, as well as that of some parts of California, is in a singular state of 
decomposition, in many places being easily penetrated by a pick. Granite quarried 
anywhere in which felspar predominates is not well adapted for buildings, as it cracks 
and crumbles down in a few years. 



540 HOW DO BIG BUILDINGS GET THEIR GRANITE 




RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 541 




THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY'S "BROADWAY LIMITED," A TWENTY-HOUR TRAIN 
BETWEEN NEW YORK AND CHICAGO* 




ALL-STEEL PASSENGER TRAIN, DRAWN BY ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE, AS USED IN THE NEW YORK 
TUNNELS OF THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD* 



Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. 



542 RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 




ELECTRIC TRAIN ON THE MAIN LINE OP THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD* 




LOCOMOTIVE EQUIPPED WITH FIRE-FIGHTING APPARATUS* 



'Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 543 




TRAIN OP 120 LOADED COAL CARS DRAWN BY A SINGLE LOCOMOTIVE* 




EXPRESS TRAIN READY TO LEAVE THE BROAD STREET STATION OP THE PENNSYLVANIA 
.' ;*^: RAILROAD AT PHILADELPHIA* 



* Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. % 



544 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 




I s 

.-S 



8 

5 -O 

i! 



3! 

.2 
o 


9 



CJ 03 

xs 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 545 




A STRING OP ALL-STEEL FREIGHT CARS JUST TURNED Our OP THE SHOPS* 




ELECTRIC BAGGAGE TRUCK HAULING TRAILERS* 



* Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. 
35 



546 RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW or THE PENNSYLVANIA STATION, NEW YORK CITY* 



, 




THE "UNION STATION" AT WASHINGTON, D, C,* 



*Courteey of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 547 




FREIGHT TRAIN, EASTBOUND, ON THE HORSESHOE CURVE* 




OVEN FOR DRYING PAINT ON PASSENGER CARS AT THE ALTOONA, PA., SHOPS OF THE PENN- 
SYLVANIA RAILR.QAP 



* Courtesy of the Pennsylvania Railroad CQ, 



548 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 




LOCOMOTIVE BUILDING 

View in the erecting shop where the locomotives are assembled. The traveling 
crane in the foreground is capable of transporting a locomotive to any part of the 



Courtesy of the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 549 




650 RAILROAD SCENES PROM SHOP AND ROAD 




FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE THE DELAWARE & HUDSON C& 
Built by American Locomotive Company. 




FOUNDRY 
Schenectady, N. Y., Works, American Locomotive Company 




PACIFIC TYPE PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE NEW YORK CENTRAL R. R. 
Built by American Locomotive Company. 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 551 




4-8-2 TYPE PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND & PACIFIC R. R. 
Built by American Locomotive Company. 




MACHINE SHOP 
Schenectady. N. Y., Works, American Locomotive Company. 



552 RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 




MIKADO TYPE FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE DELAWARE, LACKAWANNA & WESTERN R. R. 
Built by American Locomotive Company. 




ROD SHOP 
Schenectady, N. Y., Works, American Locomotive Company. 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 553 




MALLET TYPE FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE BALTIMORE & OHIO R. R. 
Built by American Locomotive Company. 




CYLINDER SHOP 
Schenectady, N. Y., Works, American Locomotive Company. 



554 RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 




2-10-2 TYPE FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE NEW YORK, ONTARIO & WESTERN R. R. 
Built by American Locomotive Company. 




ERECTING SHOP 
Schenectady, N. Y., Works, American Locomotive Company. 



RAILROAD SCENES FROM SHOP AND ROAD 555 








NEW YORK CENTRAL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE* 




PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE f 
Two of the best known types of electric locomotive. The New York Central type 
is 43 feet long, 14 feet 9^ inches high, and weighs 230,000 pounds. It is equipped 
with four 550-horse-power motors and has a maximum speed of 60 miles per hour The 
Pennsylvania type is the latest development. It is built in two halves for flexibility 
and either half may be replaced during repairs. The complete unit weighs 157 tons, is 
64 feet 11 inches long, and the motors have combined horse-power of 4,000, giving a 
draw-bar pull of 79,200 pounds, and a speed of 60 miles per hour. 



* Courtesy of the General Electric Co. f Courtesy of the Westinahouse Co. 






The Story of an Up-to-Date Farm 



A man who had been tied in a great city all his life made his first visit the other 
day to an up-to-date farm. He was so surprised at what he saw that he wrote a letter 
describing his emotions. Some of it is worth quoting because it shows a picture of 
the modern farm as it was cast upon the eye of a man who had never seen it before. 

"I was whisked from the railway station in a big touring car, through beautiful 
country. Then we turned up a flower and shrub lined concrete driveway, and stopped 




THE WOMAN ON THE FARM AT LAST ENJOYING THE BENEFIT OF LABOR-SAVING MACHINES 

This small mounted kerosene engine runs the washing machine, pump, cream separator and 
churn. It is easily drawn about from place to place by hand where its energy is needed to 
lighten the housework. 

by a home, capacious and modern. Inside I found electric lights, electric iron and 
bathroom with running water. 

"I found that the good man of the house had his own electric light and water 
plant, run by kerosene engines, that his cows were milked automatically, that he 
pulled his plows, harrows, drills, manure spreader and binder with a kerosene tractor, 
that his hired men went about the farm doing everything as they rode on some 
machine, that he went to church and town in an automobile, and that he delivered 
the products of his farm to market with a motor truck. Everything was managed 
like a factory. Things went forward with order and with assurance. Everyone 
was busy and happy." 

This is an optimistic picture of one of our best farms, but compare it with the 

* Illustrations by courtesy of International Harvester Company of America, unless otherwise indicated 

(556) 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



557 



best that could be found only a few hundred years ago. The best farmer of those 
days held all the land for miles around and lived in a castle in the middle of it. The 
castle was dark and cold and was made of rough stones fitted together. The poor 
farmers were serfs and came two or three days out of a week to their master's house 
to work. Those were the great days of their lives, for then they ate of the master's food. 
Food that was the problem of those long tired years which dragged through 
the ages, when nearly everyone was a farmer, and a farmer with crude tools held in 
his hands. Time was when 
practically the whole world 
went to bed hungry and rose 
again in the morning craving 
food, just as half the millions 
of India do today because 




THE MOTOR TRUCK MAY BE USED BY THE FARMER EVEN 
IN HILLY AND MOUNTAINOUS PLACES 

This photograph was taken near the summit of Pike's Peak. 



they do with their hands 
what a machine should do. 

People in the hungry, 
unfed ages grew so used to 
privation that even the 
philosophers accepted sorrow 
and woe as a matter of 
course and dilated upon their 
virtues for chastening the 

human soul. "It is better to go to the house of mourning than the house of mirth," 
said one of the prophets, and such words brought comfort to the hungry, miserable 
millions who had to mourn and go hungry whether it was to their advantage or not. 

Today the years glide by like pleasant pictures. We are fed, busy and happy. 
We almost let the dead bury their dead today while the living drive forward their 
tasks, achieving as much in a year as the old ages did in twenty. We have learned 
to iteed ourselves and the food fills our bodies and brains with energy which must 
find expression in useful accomplishment. "Blessed is he who has found his work 




THE REAPING HOOK WAS THE FIRST IMPLEMENT USED FOR HARVESTING GRAIN OP WHICH 

WE HAVE RECORD 

This pictures the reaping hook as still used in India. 



558 



THE STORY 'OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



to do," we say nowadays, "but thrice blessed is he who has found a machine to do 
it for him." 

Thread your way back through history to the time when the slender lives of men 
expanded into full and useful employment, and you will find that, so far as raising the 




THE SCYTHE is A DEVELOPMENT OP THE REAPING HOOK 
The blade was made larger and the handle longer so two hands could be used. 

world's food is concerned, it all began with the invention of the reaper in only the 
last century. It is interesting to know something of the precarious entry of this 
machine and something of the dark background from which it emerged. 

The Reaping Hook or Sickle. 

From the first pages of history we find that the reaping hook or sickle is the 
earliest tool for harvesting grain of which we have record. Pliny, in describing 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



559 



the practice of reaping wheat says, "One method is by means of reaping hooks, by 
which the straws are cut off in the middle with sickles and the heads detached by a 
pair of shears." Primitive sickles or reaping hooks made of flint or bronze are 
found among the remains left by the older nations. Pictures made in 1400 or 1500 
B. C. upon the tombs at Thebes in Egypt, which are still legible, show slaves reaping 
with sickles. This crude tool, brought into use by ancient Egypt, remained almost 
stationary as to form and method of use until the middle of the last century. 

The scythe, which is a development from the sickle, enables the operator to 




THE CRADLE WAS DEVELOPED IN AMERICA BETWEEN 1776 AND 1800 AND is AN OUTGROWTH 
OF THE SCYTHE. IT is STILL USED IN SOME PLACES 

use both hands instead of one. The scythe is still a familiar tool on our farms, but 
it serves other purposes than that of being the sole means of harvesting grain. 

The Cradle. 

Gradually the blade of the scythe was made lighter, the handle was lengthened, 
and fingers added to collect the grain and carry it to the end of the stroke. With 
the cradle the cut swath could be laid down neatly for drying preparatory to being 
bound into bundles. This tool is distinctly an American development. The 
colonists, when they settled in this country, probably brought with them all the 
European types of sickles and scythes, and out of them evolved the cradle. 

With the cradle in heavy grain an experienced man could cut about two acres 
a day, and another man could rake and bind it into sheaves, so that two men with 
the cradle could do the work of six or seven men with sickles. 

The American cradle stands at the head of all hand tools devised for the har- 
vesting of gram. When it was once perfected, it soon spread to all countries with 
very little change in form. Although it has been displaced almost entirely by the 
modern reaper, yet there are places in this country and abroad where conditions 
are such that reaping machines are impractical and where the cradle still has 
work to do. 



560 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 




HARVESTING IN THE WESI 

Reproduced by permission of the Philadelphia Museums. 




THRESHER 

The upper view shows side-hill harvesters drawn by teams of twenty-eight horses 
each The machines cut the grain, and tie it up in bundles, which are dropped along- 
side The machine in the lower view is self-propelling, cuts and threshes the gram, 
throwing out the straw, and places the grain in sacks ready for loading on the wagon. 

Reproduced by permission of the Philadelphia Museums. 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



561 



Early Attempts to Harvest with Machines. 

The beginning of practical efforts in the direction of harvesting by wholly mechan- 
ical means may be said to date from the beginning of the last century, about the year 
1800, although very little progress was made from that time up to the year 1831. 

It is true that the Gauls made use of an instrument nearly two thousand years 
before, but this contrivance fell into disuse with the decline of the Gallic fields. 
Pliny describes this machine which was used early in the first century and which 
might be termed a stripping header. Palladius, four centuries later, describes the 
same sort of machine. This device of the Gauls had lance-shaped knives, or teeth 




THE MOWING MACHINE HAS REPLACED THE SCYTHE FOR CUTTING HAY, AND THE KEROSENE ] 
TRACTOR HAS REPLACED EXPENSIVE HORSE POWER FOR PULLING THE MOWERS 

The tractor has 10 H. P. on the drawbar and is pulling three mowers, laying down a swath of 

hay 21 feet wide. 

with sharpened sides, projecting from a bar, like guard teeth, but set close together 
to form a sort of comb. As it was pushed forward, the stalks next the heads came 
between these sharp teeth and were cut or stripped off into a box attached to and 
behind the cutter bar and carried by two wheels. When the box was filled with 
heads, the machine was driven in and emptied. This is the way in which it is supposed 
that it was worked, and the illustration is the generally accepted representation of 
it as roughly reconstructed from the old Latin description of Pliny. 

Near the close of the past century, the subject of grain-reaping machines again 
began to claim the attention of inventors. In July, 1799, the first English patent 
was granted to Joseph Boyce. In 1806, Gladstone of England built and patented a 
machine which not only attempted to cut the grain, but also to deliver it in gavels 
to be bound. In 1807, Plucknett and Salmon both patented machines. In 1811, 
Smith and Kerr took out patents. In 1822, Henry Ogle, a schoolmaster of Rennington, 
assisted by Thomas and Joseph Brown, invented the so-called Ogle reaper. The 
next, and last, reaper of this period was invented by Patrick Bell of Carmvllie, 
Scotland, in 1826. 

86 



562 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



Nearly all of these early reapers relied upon scythes or cutters with a rotary 
motion or vibrating shears. This method of cutting was essentially wrong, and none 
of the machines ever appeared to have gained or long retained the favor of the farmers. 
That these early attempts were all unsuccessful is evidenced by the fact that at the 

great World's Fair in Lon- 
don in 1851, the United 
Kingdom could not present a 
single reaping machine. 
English journals and writers 
of that period, without a sin- 
gle exception, spoke of the 
American reapers which wen- 
exhibited as " completely suc- 
cessful." For the real pro- 
gress towards solving the 
problem of harvesting grain 
with machines we must turn 
to America. 

American invention in 
this line, so far as there is 
any record, began with the 
patent issued to Richard 
French and T. J. Hawkins 
of New Jersey, May 17, 1803. 

No reliable description of this machine seems to be extant. Five patents of no impor- 
tance were issued between that time and 1822, when Bailey took out a patent. 
Cope and Cooper of Pennsylvania obtained a patent in 1826, and Manning obtained 
one in 1831. 

Up to 1831, no successful and practical reaper had been developed. With all 




THE McCoRMicK REAPER OF 1845 




A CORN BINDER Curs THE HEAVIEST CORN WITH EASE 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



563 




A VIEW OF THE FIRST McCoRMiCK REAPER OF 1831 AS USED IN THE FIELD 

the patents taken out in England, and with those taken out in America from 1803 
down to 1831, we might say that nothing had been accomplished toward perfecting a 
reaping machine which actually worked successfully. 

The First Successful Reaper. 

In 1831 came McCormick's reaper, the first practical machine of its kind ever 
taken into the field. It was crude at first, but improved from year to year. Although 
McCormick's reaper was not patented until 1834, one year after the patent granted 
to Obed Hussey for his reaper, young McCormick gave a public exhibition in Virginia 
three years before, in 1831. It was in the fall of that year when Cyrus McCormick 







THE McCoRMicK REAPER OF 1845 IN THE FIELD, WITH A SEAT ADDED FOR THE RAEEB 
Formerly the raker walked by the side of the machine. 



564 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



hitched four horses to his machine, which 
at Steel's Tavern, and drove into a field 
adjoining his father's. The reproduction 
indicates the interest of the neighbors in 




McCoKMicK REAPER OF 1858 

1831 and abandoned it, and in that same 
started the world toward cheaper bread. 

The first practical reaper taken into 
parts of the reaper with 
which we are familiar. It had 
a platform for receiving the 
grain, a knife for cutting it, 
supported bv stationary fin- 
gers over the edge, and a reel 
to gather it. The driver of 
the machine rode one of the 
horses, while the man who 
raked off the grain walked 
by the side of the machine. 



Development of the Reaper. 

The ten years following 
this first instance of a suc- 
cessful reaper were strenuous 
times indeed for Cyrus 
McCormick, for it was not 
until 1840 or 1841 that he was 
able to make his first sale. 
Twenty more were sold in 
1843 and fifty in 1844. 

During all these years 



had been built in the old blacksmith shop 
of late oats on the farm of John Steele, 
of an old lithograph depicting this scene 
this event. Although the United States 
had been established more 
than fifty years past, this was 
the first grain that had ever 
been cut by machinery. 
McCormick's machine con- 
tinued to operate to the sur- 
prise of everyone and in less 
than half a day had reaped 
six acres of oats as much as 
six men would have done by 
the old-fashioned method. 

This was not the first 
attempt of a McCormick to 
solve the problem of harvest- 
ing wheat by machinery, for 
Robert McCormick, the 
father of Cyrus, had, himself, 
worked on a machine of this 
kind as far back as 1816. 
His father tried it again in 
year the son Cyrus took up the work and 

the field in 1831 embodied the essential 




THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER OF TOD AY DOES NOT LET His 
CORNSTALKS GO TO WASTE IN THE FIELD, BUT CUTS THEM 
WITH A CORN BINDER AND EITHER PUTS THEM INTO A SILO 
OR SHREDS THEM INTO STOVER FOR His HAY-LOFT 
This picture shows the husker and shredder in operation with 
kerosene for power. 



from 1831 to 1844 Mr. McCormick was diligently at work changing, testing and 
experimenting. In 1845 he secured a second patent, which embodied many 
improvements the principal ones referring to the cutting mechanism. 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



565 




THE McCoRMiCK REAPER OF 1858 IN THE FIELD 

Note that an automatic raker has been substituted for the man who rode on the machine and 

raked off the cut grain. 

In this year, Mr. McCormick started for the western prairie, and in 1847 built 
his own factory in Chicago, thus starting the world's greatest reaper works. This 
factory, known as "McCormick Works," is still in progress. It covers today more 
than 120 acres in the heart of Chicago, and has an annual capacity of 375,000 machines 
of all types. 

The third step in the development of the reaper was the addition to the machine 
of a seat for carrying the raker. The machine built in 1831 required that the raker 
walk by the side of the machine. In 1845 Mr. McCormick added the seat, patent 
for which was added in 1847. This seat which carried the raker enabled him while 







A MARSH HARVESTER AS BUILT BY THE MCCORMICK COMPANY IN 1874 
Note the two men riding on the platform and binding up the grain as delivered to them by the 

elevator of the machine. 



566 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



riding to rake the grain from the platform and deposit it in gavels on the ground. 
This type of reaper, patented in 1847, is the one taken by Cyrus H. McCormick to 
the first world's fair held in London, England, in 1851, and about which the records 
of that exposition state "The McCormick reaper is the most valuable article contri- 
buted to this exposition, and for its originality and value and perfect work in the 
field it is awarded the council medal." 

This same reaper received the grand prize in Paris in 1855 and is the reaper which 
created so much surprise in the world's fair in London that the comments made 
by the press demonstrated beyond a doubt that England had not as yet built a suc- 




A MCCORMICK HEADER BINDER WHICH ELEVATES THE GRAIN INTO WAGONS WHICH DRIVE 

ALONGSIDE 

cessful reaper. In 1858 the machine was further improved by substituting an 
automatic rake for the raker on the machine. 

Many other patents were granted from time to time until 1870, when the founda- 
tion features of all reapers had been invented and substantially perfected. The 
reaper is still used extensively, especially in foreign countries. 

The interest in this machine centers not in its development as used today, but 
in the fact that it led to the invention and perfection of th,e self-binder. 

The prototype of all machines designed to bind the grain before being delivered 
to the ground is the Marsh harvester. It is the half-way mark, the child of the 
reaper and the parent of the self-binder. The original patent for this machine was 
granted August 17, 1858, to two farmer boys of De Kalb, Illinois, the Marsh brothers. 

Previous to this time, attempts had been made to build harvesting machines 
which would bind the grain before delivered to the ground, but not one could be 
considered a success. At the time the Marsh harvester began seeking a place in 
the market, about 1860, reapers hand-rakers, self-rakers, and droppers held 
the trade substantially to the exclusion of any other kind of harvesting machine. 

The first successful Marsh harvester, built in 1858, was operated through the 
harvest of that year. It has never been changed materially in principle or form 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



567 




568 



THE STORY OP AN UP-TO-DATE 1 FARM 



since. The theory of the inventors was that two men might bind the grain cut by 
the five-foot sickle in ordinary motion provided it could be delivered to them in the 
best possible position and condition for binding and if they could have perfect freedom 
of action. They knew that the binders must have a free swing and open chance 
at the grain to enable them to handle it, so they arranged the elevated delivery, 
the receptacle, the tables and the platform for the man with these things in view. 

The second Marsh harvester was built in Chicago in 1859. Improvements 
were made during the years 1861, 1862 and 1863. The manufacture of the Marsh 
harvester began in earnest at Piano in the fall of 1863 by Stewart and Marsh, 
twenty-five machines being put out in 1864. 

In 1875 McCormick began putting out harvesters of the Marsh type. Of 




No MORE TIRESOME HAY PITCHING ON THIS FARM, WHERE HAY LOADERS ELEVATE THE 

HAY TO THE MEN ON THE WAGONS 

The small kerosene tractor has taken the place of horses and is drawing two wagons at a time. 

straight Marsh harvesters carrying a man to bind there had been made up to 
and including 1879 over 100,000, of which about two-thirds had been produced by 
the Marr.n combination and the rest by outsiders. 

The Self-Binder. 

The development of the automatic binder followed quickly after the intro- 
duction of the Marsh harvester, although attempts Were made to perfect this 
machine as early as 1850. 

The self-binding harvester was borne on the shoulders of the Marsh harvester. 
Carpenter, Locke, Gordon, Appleby and every inventor who succeeded in any 
measure in binding gram, first did so by placing his binding attachment upon a 
Marsh harvester, taking the grain from a receptacle where it fell to another receptacle 
where it was bound. The first record of these attempts is a patent granted to J. E. 
Heath, of Warren, Ohio, in 1850. Watson, Renwick and Watson secured patents 
in 1851 and 1853, but their machines were very complicated and never more than 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



569 




A MODERN GRAIN BINDER IN HEAVY OATS 




THE WlTHTNGTON BlNDER BuiLT BY THE McCoRMICKS IN 1876 

This machine binds the grain with wire. 



570 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



experiments. From that time until 1865 many patents were granted, none of which 

may be considered successful. 

In 1865 S. D. Locke of Janesville secured a patent which ultimately developed 

into the Withington wire binder first put out by McCormick in 1875. 

The Withington machine 
was an improvement on the 
binding device patented by 
Locke in 1865. McCormick 
built 50,000 of these machines 
between 1877 and 1885. It 
was a simple mechanism 
which consisted mainly of 
two steel fingers that moved 
back and forth and twisted a 
wire band around each sheaf 
of grain. 

Farmers did not take 
kindly to the wire binder. 
They said that wire would 
mix with the straw and kill 
THE DEERING TWINE BINDER OF 1879 their horses and cattle. 

This is the perfected Marsh harvester with a perfected 

Appleby twine binding attachment and was first put out by the The Twine Binder. 
Deering Company in 1879. This w&& ^ situat j on 

in the harvesting industry about the time that William Deering took an active 
interest. He looked about for a better machine. He found John F. Appleby, who, 
in 1878, had perfected a twine binder attachment. When Deering saw the strong 
steel arms flash a cord around a bundle of grain, tie a knot, cut the cord and fling 





THE MCCORMICK TWINE BINDER OF 1881 WITH THE APPLEBY BINDING ATTACHMENT, WHICH 

USED TWINE INSTEAD OF WIRE 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



571 




572 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



off the sheaf, he knew he had what the world needed. Appleby began working on his 
invention in 1858, but accomplished nothing until 1869 when he took out his first 
patent on a "wire binder." In 1874 he began what is known as the Appleby twine 
binder, operating one in 1875 and 1876 and several in 1877. In 1879 Deering bought out 

t Gammon, joined forces with 

Appleby, moved the factory 
from Piano to Chicago in 
1880, and began putting out 
twine binders. In 1881 Mc- 
Cormick, also, and Champion 
began building the. Appleby 
binder. 

With the development 
of an attachment to bind with 
twine, a new problem arose 
where to get a cheap ser- 
viceable twine. William 
Deering again arose to the 
occasion. He met Edwin H. 
Fitler in Philadelphia, one of 
the three twine makers in the 
United States, and after a 
good deal of persuasion 
induced him to take an order 
for a single-strand binder 




THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER NOW USES A MECHANICAL 
MANURE SPREADER TO INCREASE THE PRODUCTIVENESS OF 
His LAND 



The modern spreader is built low and equipped with a 

rial wide 1 " 

beyond the 



special wide spread attachment which throws the manure well 
wheels. 



twine. From that time on, 
all manufacturers have been 




A GRAIN DRILL WITH DISK AND CHAIN ATTACHMENTS 
This drill is large enough to require the strength of four horses to pull it. 



THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 



573 




574 THE STORY OF AN UP-TO-DATE FARM 

building^practically the same machine the Appleby binding attachment on the 
Marsh type of harvester which, in turn, was founded on the McCormick cutting 
mechanism. The self-binder of today is of that type. 

Other Machines Follow. 

The completion of the reaper set the wheels of farm invention spinning. It 
was the first great battle successfully won and gave a spirit of confidence and an 
irresistible spirit of victory to the men who were lifting the burdens off the bodies 
of men. After the reaper, the mowing machine came naturally. Following the 
binder in easy sequences came the corn binder, push binder, header and harvester 
thresher. 

Every variety of haying machine, from side-delivery rake and tedder to sweep 
rake and loader, came eventually to make hay-making easy. The thresher, ensilage 
cutter, riding plow, disk harrow, cream separator, manure spreader and seeding 
machines succeeded in making the raising of the world's food a profitable occupation; 
at the same time, they made it an easy one. Lately, the internal combustion engine, 
together with its application in the kerosene tractor, promises to make the farmer's 
emancipation practically complete. If Herbert Casson could say "The United 
States owes more to the reaper than it does to the factory or the railroad or the 
Wall Street stock exchange," what can be said of these myriad machines that now 
do the food-grower's work for him? 

Where formerly nearly all the people had to engage in food raising and even 
then went to bed hungry, now nearly half the people live away from the farm and 
there is a great abundance of bread and of food. 



What Causes an Echo? 

An echo is caused by the reflection of sound waves at some moderately even 
surface, such as the wall of a building. The waves of sound on meeting the surface 
are turned back in their course, according to the same laws that hold for reflection 
of light. In order that the echo may return to the place from which the sound 
proceeds, the reflection must be direct, and not at an angle to the line of transmission, 
otherwise the echo may be heard by others, but not by the transmitter of the sound. 
This may be effected either by a reflecting surface at right angles to the line of trans- 
mission or by several reflecting surfaces, which end in bringing the sound back to the 
point of issue. 

Sound travels about 1,125 feet in a second; consequently, an observer standing 
at half that distance from the reflecting object would hear the echo a second later 
than the sound. Such an echo would repeat as many words and syllables as could be 
heard in a second. As the distance decreases the echo repeats fewer syllables till it 
becomes monosyllabic. 

The most practiced ear cannot distinguish in a second more than from nine to 
twelve successive sounds, so that a distance of not less than sixty feet is needed to 
enable a common ear to distinguish between the echo and the original sounds. At a 
near distance the echo only clouds the original sounds. This often interferes with 
the hearing in churches and other large buildings. Woods, rocks and mountains 
produce natural echoes in every 'variety, for which particular localities have become 
famous. 

In Greek mythology, Echo was a nymph (one of the Oreads) who fell in love 
with Narcissus, and because he did not reciprocate her affection she pined away 
until nothing was left but her voice. 



The Story of the Motion-Picture 
Projecting Machine* 

Few businesses have had a more spectacular rise than the motion-picture industry.. 
It may be true that there are other industries of recent growth that are more highly 
capitalized than the motion-picture business. I shall not make any comparisons 
nor look up statistics, but will present some facts about an enterprise that, scien- 
tifically, industrially and commercially, is one of the great wonders of the world. 

It is fair to estimate that more than $375,000,000 is invested in this business 
in the United States. It looks like an exaggeration or as if the typesetter had slipped 
in several extra ciphers by mistake, does it not? Nevertheless, the estimate is said 
to be extremely conservative. In the first place, it concerns every branch of the 
business, of which there are five. Taken in their natural order there are: 1. The 
manufacture of motion-picture cameras. 2. The manufacture of films. 3. The 
taking of the pictures. 4. The manufacture of the projecting machines. 5. The 
exhibition of the pictures. 

The projecting machine is the subject of this story. One sees very little about 
it in the newspapers and popular magazines, in spite of the fact that it is the key- 
stone, so to speak, of the motion-picture industry. Of the entire business, in all its 
ramifications, this machine is the most important not only from a technical stand- 
point, but as regards both the pleasure and safety of the public. Here, again, a great 
deal of money is invested. Its manufacture involves costly and highly specialized 
machinery, the most intelligent of mechanics and the constant thought and endeavor 
of the men at the head of the business. 

The advancement in the manufacture of motion-picture projecting machines 
from the start has been along two avenues to secure better projection, a sharper, 
clearer and steadier picture, and to eliminate the danger of fire resultant from the 
ignition of combustible film. Experts have watched and studied the picture machine 
through all its stages of development. For seventeen years they have slowly improved 
the machine and brought it to its present high state of mechanical perfection. The 
development of the fireproof magazine, the automatic fire-shutter, the loop-setter, 
flame shields and the famous intermittent movement have all been vital factors hi 
the elimination of fire and also in securing perfect projection. The oldest invention 
was patented by W. E. Lincoln on April 23, 1867. The contrivance was a mere 
toy, employing no light and being merely a little machine which, when revolved, 
gave figures, printed in different positions, the semblance of motion. The second 
oldest was of an " optical instrument" patented by O. B. Brown on August 10, 1869. 
This was really the first American motion-picture projection machine. There was 
a sort of disk or moving-shutter movement which, on revolving, gave projected objects 
the appearance of animation. Of course, there were no films in those days and the 
inventor had used translucent glass to obtain the results. Yet here was the germ of 
our native modern machine. 

A well-known moving-picture projecting machine manufacturer tells the following 
story: "A bet was made in 1871 by the late Senator Leland Stanford, of California, 
that a running horse at no time had all four feet off the ground. Edward Muybridge, 

* Illustrations by courtesy of the Nicholas Power Co. 

(575) 



576 STORY OF THE MOTION-PICTURE MACHINE 




THE LATEST MOTION-PICTURE PROJECTING MACHINE 



STORY OF THE MOTION-PICTURE MACHINE 577 




THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE LAMPHOUSE 
AFFORDS EASY ACCESS 



an Englishman, by way of experiment, placed numerous cameras at regular intervals 

about the track, which, by electrical contact, were snapped by the horse in passing. 

It proved that the horse always had, when running, one foot on the ground. Although 

this was not the first record of motion 

pictures, it served to demonstrate their 

practicability. 

" Development had dragged until the 

Muybridge experiment. In 1880 Muybridge 

produced, in San Francisco, the 'Zoopraxi- 

scope/ which projected pictures (on glass 

positives) on a screen. Later Muybridge 

conferred with Edison regarding a combina- 
tion of his machine with the phonograph, 

then in its infancy; about 1883 he went abroad 

and held frequent conferences with M. Marey 

of the Institute of France 

11 Marey first utilized' the continuous 

film, though it was George Eastman who 

brought it to its present state of high perfec- 
tion. A great deal of the tremendous present 

popularity of motion pictures :s due to the 

invention of the translucent film. The early 

kodak film became the great factor in the 

cinematograph manufacture. 

"In 1893 Lumiere produced the l Cine- 
matograph/ the first machine to project 

from a film. Edison in 1896 produced his 

' Vitascope.' These machines became the models of the greatly improved article 

of today. 

"The first real machine was brought to America in 1894. At least, that is as 

near as I can recollect the date. It was a 
Lumiere cinematograph and was exhibited at 
the Union Square Theater, New York City. 
The French manufacturing firm instructed 
J. B. Cole & Co. to furnish an operator. The 
Cole Company was interested in the sale of 
lanterns and slides and the foreign firm 
naturally turned to them for assistance. 

"They furnished an operator, Edward 
Hadley. Although he had never seen a 
motion-picture machine, Hadley was a man 
who had been in their employ and was 
naturally familiar with lanterns and electric- 
ity. To the best of my belief, Hadley was 
the first motion-picture operator in America. 
He afterwards became the operator for Lyman 
H. Howe, the well-known pioneer traveling 
motion-picture exhibitor, and later became 
an exhibitor himself. 

"The films then had one perforation 

on either side of each picture. That was the French method. The American 

method of four perforations on either side of each picture, formulated by 

Thomas A. Edison, was taken up later. The Edison perforation method became 







I 



QHL 



THE NEW ARC LAMP 



37 



578 STORY OF THE MOTION-PICTURE MACHINE 

the standard in America and finally throughout the world. We find no more 
single-holed films." 

_ Here, for the benefit of the uninitiated, a little description of the film and the 
projecting head of a machine is necessary. A motion-picture film is a thin ribbon 
of transparent pyroxylin plastic or nitrocellulose, which is highly inflammable. 
The photographs on the film, one by three-fourths of an inch in size, leave a margin 
of five thirty-seconds of an inch on each side. In the margins are the perforations 
necessary to feed the film through the machine head. There are sixteen pictures 
to the foot. 

The mechanism of the machine head moves the film over an aperture, so that 
the rays of light from the lamp will project an enlargement of the film picture upon 
the screen. The reels upon which the film is wound are mounted above and below 
the upper is the feed reel and the lower is the take-up reel. Sprocket wheels control 
the action of the film. The top feed sprocket pulls the film from the upper feed 
reel, the middle intermittent sprocket (below the aperture) turns in a way to give 




NARROW SHUTTER WINGS AFFORD BRIGHTER ILLUMINATION ON THE SCREEN 

each picture a certain time of stop over the projection aperture, and the bottom 
take-up sprocket assists in winding the film on the take-up reel. 

"The early films were in very short lengths," continued the manufacturer. 
"The average was from twenty to sever ty-five feet. A hundred-foot film was con- 
sidered extra long. They were mostly comic and not educational. The vast possi- 
bilities of the film had not yet dawned upon the pioneers. They aimed only to get 
a laugh with a crude comic picture. 

"But those with more foresight realized that the film had come to stay. So 
the advancement began. Today the public is always looking toward something 
better. It has been educated up to an exceedingly high standard. The average 
spectator today can see a defect in an exhibited film as quickly as an expert. 

"Machines in the early days were very crude, permittuig only short films, which 
were an endless belt. They were threaded over spools contained in a box at the rear 
end of the lamphouse, passing over the lamphouse to the head of the machine ; thence 
down through the head, past the projection aperture and back to the spools. This 
exposed the film at all tunes, which was extremely dangerous. About 1900, longer 
films came into use, which necessitated a change in handling. At the machine 



STORY OF THE MOTION-PICTURE MACHINE 579 

head, the film was piled on the floor. This being dangerous and destructive, a 
receptacle was devised and fastened to the frame below the reel, into which the film 
passed. This soon gave way to a reel known as the take-up reel, which received 
the film after it had passed from the upper reel through the head and before the 
aperture, where it was projected on the screen. 

" These are a few steps in the march towards improvement. My first machine 
was called the 'Peerlesscope.' I kept continually improving it, and in 1902 changed 
the name to ' Cameragraph ; ' my latest machine, No. 6B, possesses every known 
device for safety fire-shutters, which automatically cut off the film from the rays 
of the lamp while motionless; film-shields, which enclose and protect the film; fire- 
valves, which prevent entrance of flame into magazines; the loop-setter, which prevents 
breakage of the film while in motion, etc." 

Concerning projection, this manufacturer said: "Pictures cannot succeed with- 
out perfect projection, resulting in absolutely clear, flickerless pictures. The longer 
the period of rest of each picture on the screen, the better the detail and the clearer 
the picture. This I accomplished by means of an intermittent movement. 

"You know that in projecting pictures the motion in the film is not continuous 
in front of the aperture of the machine head, each picture pausing long enough for 
proper projection on the screen. Through this intermittent movement I obtain a 
longer period of rest for each picture, which accomplishes perfect* projection of 
pictures without flicker. 

"A very annoying feature until recently has been the losing of the lower film 
loop, due to poor patching of the film, tearing of the perforations in the films, etc., 
causing the film to jump the lower sprocket, with the probable tearing and re-adjust- 
ment of the film. This I overcame with my loop-setter invention. To explain 
briefly 

"As the full movement at the upper and lower reel is continuous, while at the 
aperture it is intermittent, a loop is necessary as a feeder for the take-up or the lower 
sprocket. If this loop is lost, the film becomes taut, the machine stops and -the film 
may break. The loop-setter instantly readjusts this loop automatically, keeping 
it always in force." 

The taking of pictures is, of course, one of the interesting phases of the business 
from a popular standpoint. Here we find not only large sums invested but the action, 
setting, plots in fact, the entire order of pulsating life and convincing reality that 
give to motion pictures their remarkable hold upon the public. In vying with each 
other to make the most attractive films possible, the concerns in this end of the 
industry engage the most talented players, who are transported on long journeys 
so that the settings may be realistically satisfactory; while often the company 
includes not only two-footed actors, but horses, one or two clever dogs and some- 
times a trained bear and other animals, besides all of which there is usually an array 
of "properties" that far exceeds in quantity and variety the list of such appurte- 
nances carried by the average stock theatrical company or theatei of the ordinary kind. 

Then, too, there is the presentation of the pictures, where we find another vast 
outlay of money in land, buildings and equipment. And, remember, the matter of 
taking and presenting the pictures must not be considered only from the amusement 
standpoint. Motion pictures are being employed more and more every day for 
educational and industrial purposes. 



The Story of Leather* 

We all know that leather is the skins of animals, dressed and prepared for our use 
by tanning, or some other process, which preserves them from rotting and renders 
them pliable and tough. 

The larger and heavier skins, such as those of buffaloes, bulls, oxen, horses and 
cows, are called " hides;" while those of the smaller animals, such a,s calves, sheep, 
pigs and goats, are called "skins." 

The tanning of raw hides taken from animals is an ancient trade. The bark of 




SCOURING 

trees made into a liquor has been used for centuries in treating practically all kinds of 
hides. 

The oak, fir, hemlock and sumach are the most familiar of the many trees from 
which "tannin" is obtained for this purpose. 

The cow hide is used practically altogether for sole leather and is bark tanned 
in the majority of cases. After the hide is taken from the animal it is either dry cured, 
or else salted green, and packed for shipment or storage. 

The first process of preparing sole leather is to cut these hides in half or sides. 
The sides are then run through lime vats for the purpose of loosening the hair. They 
are then run through the unhairing machine, in which large rollers remove the hair. 

From the unhairing machine the hides pass to a fleshing machine, which cuts 
away all the flesh or fat on the hide. They are then trimmed and scraped by hand, 
after which the real tanning process begins. 

The old method of tanning leather was in large vats, which were filled alternately 
with tan bark and hides, then filled with water and allowed to soak for a period of 
eight to nine months before the tanning process was complete. The extract of bark 
in liquor form is used today by all large tanneries. 



* Illustrations by courtesy of Endicott, Johnson & Co. 



(580) 



THE STORY OF LEATHER 



581 



After the hides have been all prepared for tanning they are hung on rockers in 
the tanning vats, where they are kept in motion both day and night so that all parts 




TANNING VATS 

pf every hide are equally tanned. They are changed from time to time from weaker 
into stronger liquor until the tanning process is complete. 

All sole leather is filled more or less to make it wear the better. 

The drying process comes next. The hides are all hung in a dry loft, where 
artificial heat of different temperatures is used until they are thoroughly dry. The 




ROLLERS 

drying of the hide is as important as the tanning. Hides that are dried too quickly 
become brittle, so that great care must be taken in this drying process. Even the 
weather conditions play an important part 



'582 



THE STORY OF LEATHER 



After the hides are thoroughly dried they are then oiled and ironed by laree 
rollers having several hundred pounds pressure. This gives the grain side o the 
leather a finished appearance and also serves to press the leather together compactly 




RUBBING 

Before this leather can be cut into sole leather it has to be again dried and prop- 
erly edged to secure the best results. 

Bark-tanned leather that is used for upper stock in shoes is tanned practically 




BOARDING ROOM 



the same way as the bark sole leather, except lighter hides are used and the finishing 
processes are of a nature to make it softer and smoother. 

The above tannage is what is called vegetable tannage. There is also a tannage 
made from minerals that is called chrome. This is used mostly in tanning soft, glovey 



THE STORY OF LEATHER" 



583 



upper leather, which when finished makes a very tough yet soft and pliable leather for 
footwear. 

Ninety to one hundred days are required to tan bark leathers, while the chrome 
tannage is very quick and on the average requires only about three weeks. 

The brilliant smooth surface of patent, enameled, lacquered, varnished or 
japanned leather is due to the mode of finishing by stretching the tanned hides on 
wooden frames and applying successive coats of varnish, each coat being dried and 
rubbed smooth with pumice stone. There is also a process called " tawing," which 
is employed chiefly in the preparation of the skins of sheep, lambs, goats and kids. 




MEASURING 

In this process the skins are steeped in a bath of alum, salt and other substances, and 
they are also sometimes soaked in fish-oil. The more delicate leathers are treated in 
this manner, those especially which are used for wash-leathers, kid gloves, etc. 

In currying leather for shoes the leather is first soaked in water until it is thor- 
oughly wet ; then the flesh side is shaved to a proper surface with a knife of peculiar 
construction, rectangular in form with two handles and a double edge. The leather 
is then thrown into the water again, scoured upon a stone till the white substance 
called "bloom" is forced out, then rubbed with a greasy substance and hung up to 
dry. When thoroughly dry it is grained with a toothed instrument on the flesh side 
and bruised on the grain or hair side for the purpose of softening the leather. A further 
process of paring and graining makes it ready for waxing or coloring, in which oil 
and lampblack are used on the flesh side. It is then sized, dried and tallowed. In 
the process the leather is made smooth, lustrous, supple and waterproof. 



What is a " Glass Snake ? 

"Glass snake" is the name which has been given to a lizard resembling a serpent 
in form and reaching a length of three feet. 

The joints of the tail are not connected by caudal muscles, hence it is extremely 
brittle, and one or more of the joints break off when the animal is even slightly 
irritated. 



The Story in Diamond -Cutting* 

Diamonds were known and worn as jewels (in the rough) in India 5,000 years 
ago and used as cutters and gravers 3,000 years ago. India was the source of supply 
until diamonds were discovered in Brazil about the year 1700, when Brazil became 
the largest producer and remained so until diamonds were found in South Africa 
about 1869. The African mines now produce four-fifths of the diamond supply. 
Previous to the discoveries in Africa, diamonds were known to originally come only 
from high places in the mountains, because the diamond deposits were found in 
India and Brazil, on high plateaus, on the sides of mountains, in the beds of mountain 
streams, and in the plains below^ where mountain torrents had rolled them. 

In Africa, for the first time, the true original home of the diamond was found 
at high levels in the mountains, in enormous fissures, open chasms, chimneys or pipes, 
extending to great and unknown depths. Into these immense chimneys, nature 
forced from subterranean sources, slow rivers of a peculiar blue clay, a diamondiferous 
earth termed ''serpentine breccia" or "volcanic tuf " and now known by the latter- 
day name of "Kimberlite." As this soft mixture oozed into the "chimneys" or 
"pipes" from the bottom, it was gradually forced upwards, filling the whole chasm 
from wall to wall and to the top, where its progress ended by hardening in a small 
mound ten to twelve feet higher than the surrounding surface. 

In this blue clay or Kimberlite in these chimneys, is found nature's most 
wonderful creation, the diamond crystallized from pure carbon, in intense heat, 
and under titanic pressure. 

The greatest mines of Africa are the Jagersfontein, Wesselton, Premier and 
Robert Victor. The Kimberlite of the Jagersfontein mine is free from pyrites, and 
to that is attributed the remarkable brilliancy and purity of color for which the 
diamonds of this mine are celebrated. Their color includes the blue, and they com- 
mand the highest prices of any diamonds. 

The Wesselton mine crystals are noted for their octahedra and purity. The 
color and brilliancy are so superior that nearly all fine white "Rivers" are rated as 
Wesseltons. The Robert Victor yields a big average of fine white stones, and many 
of the crystals are very perfect and beautiful. The Dutoitspan diamonds mostly 
show color, but many are "fancy" and demand a high price. The Bulfontein crystals 
are usually small white octahedras of very good color, but many are flawed. The 
De Beers stones are good white, some color, some broken crystals and smoky stones. 
The Kimberly diamonds are much the same as those from the De Beers mine. The 
Premier is the largest diamond mine in the world. Of its diamonds some have an 
oily lustre and are quite blue many are of the finest quality and color. This mine 
also produces a large number of "false color" stones which change color in different 
lights. The Voorspoed and the Koffyfontein produce fair white and some colored 
diamonds. 

Diamonds in small quantities are also found in Borneo, British and Dutch 
Guiana, Australia, Sumatra, China and the United States. 

One of the largest diamonds known (weight 367 carats) was found in Borneo 
about a century ago, and belongs to the Rajah of Mat tan. One of the most cele- 
brated is the Koh-i-noor (Mountain of Light), belonging to the British crown. It 
weighed originally nearly 800 carats, but by subsequent recuttings has been reduced 

* Courtesy of Mr. Charles L. Trout. 

(684) 



THE STORY IN DIAMOND-CUTTING 



585 



to 103% carats. The Orloff diamond, belonging to the Emperor of Russia, weighs 
195 carats; the Pitt diamond, among the French crown jewels, 136J4 The former, 
which came from India, has been thought to have originally formed part of the 
Koh-i-noor stone. The largest Brazilian diamond weighed 254 J/2 carats and was 
cut to a brilliant of 125. Some of the South African diamonds are also very large, 
one being found in 1893 weighing 971 carats, or nearly half a pound. More recently 
a much larger one has been found, weighing 3,034 carats. This has been cut into 
eleven pieces, the largest, a drop brilliant, weighing 516J/2 carats. This, called the 
Star of South Africa, has been placed in King George's scepter, and another, of 
309^ carats, in his crown. 

A rough diamond is a hard-looking, luminous object, somewhat like a piece of 
alum, with a dull skin, called the "nyf," over a brilliant body. The ancients wore 
their diamonds uncut because they 
could not find a substance that 
would grind or cut them. About 
1,500 years ago, however, it was 
found that by rubbing or grinding 
one diamond against another the 
outer skin could be removed. At 
Bruges, in 1450, diamonds were 






OLD SQUARE CUT DIAMONDS 








ENGLISH SQUARE CUT DIAMONDS 



first polished with diamond dust. 
In Holland, in 1700, diamonds 
were first cut with an idea of 
bringing out real beauty and bril- 
liance by cutting them square with 
a large flat table and some small 
facets, ten in all, sloping to the 

edge of the square. From this beginning cutters gradually added additional facets to 
increase the brilliancy until there were thirty-four in all. Then came the English 
round-cut brilliants with fifty-eight facets, but the diamond was left thick and 
lumpy, until about seventy-five years ago, when an American cutter, Henry D. 
Morse, of Boston, developed the cutting of diamonds to its present perfection by 
fearlessly sacrificing weight to get proportion. This greatly increased the price of 
diamonds, but enhanced their brilliancy. 

All cutters have been compelled to follow this method, and the perfectly cut 
brilliant of today has a depth from table to culet of six-tenths of the diameter, of 
which one-third is above the girdle and two-thirds below. In this form the diamond 
resembles two cones united at their bases, the upper one cut off a short distance from 
its base, the lower one having its extreme point cut off. It has fifty-eight facets, of 
which thirty-three, including the table, are above the girdle and twenty-five, including 
the culet, below the girdle. Stones which are not scientifically cut in this true pro- 
portion, if too deep, are called "lumpy," if too shallow they are called "fish eyes." 
A slightly spread stone is desirable, provided it has not lost brilliancy, and so become 
a "fish eye." Looking larger than its weight indicates, it offers a larger appearing 
diamond for the price of a smaller perfectly cut stone. Most cutters remove as little 
of the rough stone as possible in cutting so as to retain weight (they sell by weight). 
This often results in the finished diamond being too thick at the girdle, making a 
lumpy stone. Many people think deep, lumpy stones are most desirable. This is 
not true, as they are imperfectly cut. 

In preparing to cut a diamond the rough crystal is studied until the grain is 
found. Along the grain another sharp-pointed diamond is ground until there is a 
V-shape incision or nick. The blunt end of a flat piece of steel is placed in this nick 
and a smart blow of a hammer divides the crystal evenly and perfectly. After this 



586 



THE STORY IN DIAMOND-CUTTING 



"cleavage" has removed the unnecessary portions, or they have been sawed off by 
the use of rapidly-revolving thin wheels charged with diamond dust, the diamond 
is set in a turning wheel and ground with another diamond until it takes the shape 
in which we know it. 

The fifty-eight facets are cut and polished one at a time on a rapidly-revolving 
wheel charged with diamond dust and oil. It takes from two and one-half to four 
days to properly cut a stone. Knife-edge girdle diamonds are impractical owing 
to the liability of chipping the thin edge in setting or by blows while being worn. 



TABLE 



CROWN 



PAVILION 




GIRDLE 




CULET 



LUMPY- 
DIAMOND 



FISHEYE 
DIAMOND 




FACET 



CHAMBER 



CULET 



Polishing the rough edge of the girdle is rarely done and then usually to conceal a 
girdle which is too thick or lumpy. The principal diamond cutting centers are 
Amsterdam, Antwerp and New York. 

Inherent flaws can be perfectly understood by imagining a pond of water frozen 
solidly to its center. At the shore, where the ice has been partly forced out along 
the banks, it will be full of grass, leaves, pebbles and sticks, and presents a broken 
and frosted appearance. Further out there are only traces of such debris, some 
bubbles, spots, etc. Out at the center is clear, transparent, unbroken, unflawed^ 




MOSTLY FLAWS 
SURROUNDED 
BY DIAMOND 





CULET OUT 
OF CENTER 



CARBON SPOT 
FAVORABLY 
SITUATED 




CARBON SPOT 

BADLY 
SITUATED 



purest blue-white ice, such as you delight to see in your glass on a hot day. So is 
it with diamonds; some (like the ice along the shore) are full of cracks, carbon 
specks, bubbles, clouds, splits and cavities; some have all of these; some only a few; 
others only one, and some are without flaws. 

Of all the imperfections (not considering glaring cracks or nicks), carbon spots 
are the most discernible. They range from mere specks scarcely visible with a powerful 
magnifying glass, to large black spots or clusters of large or small black specks some- 
tunes quite plain to the naked eye. These are carbon which failed to crystallize 
with the rest of the diamond, or intrusions of titanic iron. The blackest and often 
most numerous carbon specks occur in the finest white and blue-white stones. 
"Capes" and other yellow diamonds are usually perfect, something in the color 
of these stones seemingly being of a nature which helps clear and perfect crystalli- 
zation. Blue-white stones of exceptionally fine color are often massed full of shaggy 
or jet-black carbon spots. 

White specks and bubbles are common flaws, which vary in size and which may 
be best illustrated by looking at a pane of glass in your window. There you will 



THE STORY IN DIAMOND-CUTTING 



587 



find small knots, white bubbles and whitish specks. These seldom injure the bril- 
liancy, as they are often a glittering silver color, more brilliant than the diamond. 

Clouds are dark flat patches in the grain, of a brownish color, and appear as a 
sprinkling of dust in a small patch in the interior. This seldom injures brilliancy. 

Glessen or glasses are flat sectional streaks having an icy appearance. When 
large or abundant they disturb or cut off the proper reflection of the interior light 
rays, causing an appearance known as " shivery." When clouds or glessen occur 
at the surface of a diamond they appear as cracks, and if at or near the girdle are 




WH1TESPECKS 
BUBBLES 





CLOUDS 



GLESSEN 



dangerous, as the stone is liable to split or crack there when being mounted or by 
any hard blow, which would result in the loss of a sliver or wedged-shaped piece out 
of the edge. 

Surface flaws consist of nicks or cavities in the face of the stone either above or 
below the girdle. The brilliancy of the diamond hides these flaws when the diamond 
is clean, but when clouded with soap and dust these cavities fill up and show plainly. 





1 






PERFECT CUT BUT 
BADLY FLAWED 



NICKS 

SPLINTERS 

CRACK 





BARGAIN 
DIAMOND 



CAVITY 



Diamonds are so brilliant, the radiance from the facets so bewildering to the 
eye, that the flaws cannot be seen by the human eye unless the imperfection is pro- 
nounced and at the top surface of the diamond. Each facet of a diamond (by reason 
of the method of cutting) is a window looking down a clearly defined walled chamber, 
like a hall-way to the culet. With a one-inch loup or magnifying glass such as watch- 
makers and diamond dealers use, it is possible to clearly look down through each 
facet and its hall-way to the culet, and observe throughout each chamber the very 
slightest imperfection if one exists, thus thoroughly examining and exploring the 
entire diamond. 

Diamond brilliancy is of two kinds: " surf ace brilliancy" and "internal bril- 
liancy." Light falling vertically on a diamond is reflected back in straight, unbroken 
rays. This constitutes ''surface brilliancy," Light falling in a slanting direction 



588 



THE STORY IN DIAMOND-CUTTING 




is partly reflected and partly enters the stone; that part which enters is refracted 
or bent and causes the " internal brilliancy." 

In a perfectly cut diamond, the facets are so carefully arranged that entering 
rays of light jump from waH to wall of this transparent enclosure and emerge again 
at the very point of entry Cleverly arranged mirrors sending a ray of light from 
one to all the others and back again to the first will produce the same effect. Lights 
entering a diamond are reflected, refracted and dispersed. The dispersion of a ray 
of white light separates it into its component color rays. These are the spectrum 

colors often seen radiating from a diamond. 
Placing a diamond in the sun's rays and holding 
a sheet of white paper at the proper angle to 
catch the reflections from the stone clearly shows 
these colors. 

Brilliancy is often said to be the most 
important quality of a diamond, but that is not 
true. Yellow diamonds are more flashingly bril- 
liant than white stones that cost much more. 
In each color grade, greater brilliance deter- 

mines higher value over stones of the same color grade with less brilliancy. The 
diamond is the hardest known substance in the world, cutting and grinding all other 
known hard things, but itself only cut and ground by its mates. 

Because of their hardness, diamonds worn by many previous generations remain 
as brilliant as they were in the beginning and they will continue so to the end of time. 
No other thing can scratch or mar the polished facets and sharp corners of the 
diamond. It is the hardest of all known things. While all diamonds are of practically 
the same hardness, this is not, however, absolutely true, as stones from wet diggings 
or rivers are slightly harder than those from dry diggings. All diamonds are infusible 
and unaffected by acids or alkali. The heat of a burning building will not affect 
them, they can be raked from the ashes uninjured and can only be burned in oxygen 
under a scientifically produced intense heat of 4000 F. While the hardest known 
thing, the diamond is brittle and can be crushed to a powder. It is the only absolutely 
pure gem, being composed of crystallized carbon all others are composed of two or 
more elements 



MODERN AMERICAN CUT DIAMONDS 



The term " Shibboleth" has come to mean a countersign or password of a 
secret society since the Biblical days, when the Ephraimites, who had been routed 
by Jephthah, tried to pass the Jordan. They were made to pronounce the word 
"Shibboleth" and were easily detected as enemies when they pronounced it 
"Sibboleth." 

Why do We Get Hungry? 

Hunger is a sensation partly arising in the stomach, since it may be relieved 
temporarily by the introduction into .the stomach of material which is incapable of 
yielding any nutriment to the body. It may be due to a condition of fulness of the 
vessels of the stomach, relieved by any stimulus which, acting on the lining mem- 
brane, induces a flow of fluid from the glands. But it also arises from a condition of 
the system, since the introduction of nutriment into the blood, apart altogether from 
the stomach, will relieve it. This is also evident from the fact that hunger may be 
experienced even when the stomach is full of food, and when food is supplied in abun- 
dance, if some disease prevents the absorption of the nourishment, or quickly drains 
it from the blood. Hunger may be partially allayed by sleep or by the use of narcotics, 
tobacco and alcohol, all of which tend to diminish the disintegration of tissues. 



The Story in the Modern Lifting Magnet* 

Nearly every boy has had 'among his treasured possessions a small horseshoe 
magnet, painted red, with bright ends, and has spent many happy hours picking up 
needles, steel pins or other small objects, and finally tired of it because of its small 
lifting capacity and dreamed of one which would lift a hammer, or possibly even the 
family flatiron. Little did he know at that time of the long and interesting history 
of magnetism, the many stories and superstitions based on its strange power; or of 
its intimate relation to the wonderful growth of electricity within the last hundred 
years. His wildest dreams of lifting power would be realized if he could see a 
modern electric lifting magnet which has only come into use within the last ten 










FIG. 



years and is meeting with instant approval in nearly every industry where iron and 
teteel is handled in any quantity. 

There are three primary kinds of magnets: the lodestone or natural magnets, 
the artificial or permanent steel magnet, and the electric magnet. At present the 
lodestGBe is little used. The permanent steel magnet is used for compass needles, 
as the familiar horseshoe magnet, and in certain types of electric machinery. The 
electric magnet forms a part of nearly every kind of electrical machinery and is by 
far the most useful form of the magnet. The modern high-duty lifting magnet is a 
form of the electric magnet. 

The properties of the lodestone and the permanent magnet have been known for 
thousands of years, while the electric magnet is a comparatively recent discovery. 

-A 11 magnets, whether natural, permanent or electric, possess the same magnetic 
properties. Every magnet has two poles commonly called a north pole and a south 
pole. It has also been found that when a magnet is broken in two each piece 
becomes a magnet in itself with its own north and south poles. 

For practical purposes it has been found convenient to assume that magnetism 
consists of a series of "lines of force" running through the magnet from one end 
to the other and back again through the air. Each one of these lines is assumed to 

* Illustrations by courtesy of Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co. 

(589) 



590 STORY IN THE MODERN LIFTING MAGNET 



have a certain strength, and the power of any magnet is determined by the number 
of lines of force flowing through it. These lines are clearly shown in Fig. 1, which 
was made by sprinkling iron filings on a sheet of paper over a bar magnet, and tap- 
ping the paper slightly so that the filings could arrange themselves along the magnetic 
lines of force. 

Since Oersted's first electric magnet in 1820, electric magnets have been made in 
a variety of forms and for many different purposes. The simplest form of electric 




FIG. 2 

magnet is shown in Fig. 2. It consists of an iron bar with an insulated electric wire 
wound around it carrying an electric current. 

Another form of the electric magnet is shown in cross-section in Fig. 3. This 
consists of a short steel cylinder with a groove in its face for the electric coil. The 
modern lifting magnet is a highly specialized form of this type of electric magnet. 

Although the use of a magnet for lifting purposes seems to be a very simple idea 
and easily adopted, many difficulties had to be overcome and years of experimenting 

done before the lifting magnet was a 
commercial success. Nearly all electrical 
machinery may easily be protected from 
rough usage and moisture, but the lifting 
magnet must be so strongly designed that 
it will withstand the countless blows due 
to heavy pieces of iron flying against it, and 
the banging it must get against the sides 
of cars, ships, etc. All light parts must be 
placed inside of the magnet or in such a 
position that they can never be knocked 
off or broken. To moisture in some form 
or other nearly all lifting-magnet troubles 
can be traced. Hence the importance of 
an absolutely moisture-proof construction. 
The result of moisture in the interior of 
a magnet is to weaken the effectiveness of 
the installation, leading eventually to short 
circuits and burn-outs. It is necessary 
not only to guard against moisture in the form of rain, snow or dew, but precau- 
tion must also be taken against the entrance into the magnet of moisture-laden air, 
since moisture so introduced will presently be condensed in the form of drops of water. 
A very natural question is, how much such a magnet will lift. For a given size 
of magnet, the lifting capacity varies greatly with the nature of the load handled. 
With a magnet sixty-two inches in diameter, this may vary from in the neighbor- 




STORY IN THE MODERN LIFTING MAGNET 591 




A 43-INCH MAGNET HANDLING PIG IRON 



592 STORY IN THE MODERN LIFTING MAGNET 



hood of 1,000 pounds for light scrap, to from 4,000 to 5,000 pounds for pig iron, 
and as high as 60,000 pounds for a solid mass of steel or iron such as, for instance, 
a skull-cracker ball or a casting affording surface for good magnetic contact. 

The lifting magnet has been 
adopted for the handling of 
materials in all branches of the 
steel and iron industry. It is 
used for handling pig iron, scrap, 
castings, billets, tubes, rails, 
plates, for loading and unloading 
cars and vessels, and for handling 
skull-cracker balls and miscel- 
laneous magnetic material. 

Probably one of the best 
illustrations of the saving accom- 
plished by means of a lifting 
magnet is its use in unloading 
pig iron from steamers. By the 
old hand method it required 
twenty-eight men, two days and 
two nights, to unload a cargo of 
4,000,000 pounds. When the 
lifting magnet was introduced, 
the total time for unloading was 
reduced to eleven hours, and was 
done by two men whose labor 
consisted in manipulating the 
controllers in the cages of the 
cranes, thus two men and two 
magnets did the work of twenty- 
eight men in less than one-fourth 
of the time. Furthermore, the 
vessels were enabled to double 
their number of productive trips. 
In railroad work, lifting 
magnets are at the present time 
used principally in scrap yards 
and around store-room platforms, 
where it is necessary to handle 
iron and steel rapidly and eco- 
nomically. For this class of work 
magnets are generally used in 
connection with a locomotive 
crane, making a self-contained, 
^elf-propelled unit which may 
be operated over the shop-yard 
tracks as required. The use of 
this combination has reduced 
very greatly the cost of handling 
both new and scrap material, 
both by reducing the actual expense of handling and by enabling the material 
to be handled much more rapidly than was before possible. 

Probably the best possible endorsement of the waterproof constniction of the 




36-iNCH LIFTING MAGNET PICKING UP 3,500-PouND 
WINDING DRUM 



STORY IN THE MODERN LIFTING MAGNET 593 



modern lifting magnet is the fact that one of them was successfully operated seventy 
feet below the surface of the Mississippi River. At New Orleans a large load of 
kegged nails was raised from a depth of seventy feet. A load of steel cotton ties was 
raised near Natchez and a 
barge of iron wire near Pitts- 
burgh. And these are only 
a few instances of such work. 

The magnets used in this 
river work were three and 
one-half feet in diameter. 
They were dropped into the 
stream, the current turned on, 
and five or six kegs of nails 
or bundles of wire were raised 
each trip. The nails weighed 
200 pounds to the keg, so 
there were lifted each time, 
from 1,000 to 1,200^ pounds 
from the bed of the river. 

The variety of uses to 
which these magnets may be (/ : 

put are shown by the accom- 
panying illustrations and there 
are many industries handling 
iron and steel where the 
introduction of the modern, 
high-duty lifting magnet will 
effect a great saving in time 
and labor. 

An amusing incident 
occurred recently in a factory 
where a large lifting magnet 
is used in connection with a 
crane to carry pig iron through 
the shop. Just as the operator 
was bringing it across the shop 
unloaded, he saw two laborers 
ahead of him in altercation. 
One held a short pinch bar and 
the other a heavy shovel. As 
he approached, they- both 
raised their tools like weapons. In a flash the operator switched on. the current 
and the two men stood as if transfixed, hanging desperately to their weapons that 
were held aloft as by some giant's hand. The laughter of everyone who saw the 
tableau ended the quarrel. 




36-iNCH MAGNET HANDLING HEAVY CASTINGS 
Note that there is no hoisting tackle to be adjusted. 



Why is the Thistle the Emblem of Scotland? 

According to tradition, the Danes were attempting to surprise an encampment 
of the Scotch one night, and had come very near to it without being observed, when 
a Dane stepped on a thistle and its sharp points made him cry out with pain. The 
Scotch were then awakened and succeeded in defeating then- assailants. Ever since 
that time the thistle has been made the insignia of Scotland. 



594 ANIMALS IDENTIFIED ON CATTLE RANGES 

How are Animals Identified on Cattle Ranges? 

The question of how to mark animals started with the first stock raisers. In 
those days the main object was to provide some way animals could be identified as to 
ownerships, and many crude and more or less cruel methods were used, such as 
notching or lopping off part of the ear or branding with a hot iron, burning a letter or 
figure often ten or twelve inches high on the side of an animal. Branding in this way 




Courtesy of Wilcox & Harvey Mfg. Co. BRANDS FOB IDENTIFICATION 

was used mostly by cattle raisers when large herds were grazed on the western plains. 
The large brand made it possible for cowboys on horseback to separate the cattle of 
different owners, as the brand could be seen at some distance. 

As the industry advanced the methods of marking improved. At the present 
time a mark in the ear made of metal is most commonly used. These are in many 
different styles such as narrow bands looped into the edge or in the form of a button 
fastened through the ear. 

Tags are lettered with owner's name and address and numbered, which serves 
not only as a mark for identification of ownership but as a means of keeping a record 
of each animal by number; also in making health tests before shipping from one point 
to another. 

How is Glue Made? 

The best quality of glue is obtained from fresh bones, freed from fat by previous 
boiling, the clippings and parings of ox hides, the older skins being preferred; but 
large quantities are also get from the skins of sheep, calves, cows, hares, dogs, cats, 
etc., from the refuse of tanneries and tanning works, from old gloves, from sinews, 
tendons and other offal of animal origin. 

By a process of cleaning and boiling the albuminoid elements of the animal 
matter are changed into gelatine. This, in a soft, jelly-like state, constitutes "size;" 
dried into hard, brittle, glassy cakes, which, before use, must be melted in hot water, 
it forms the well-known glue of the joiner, etc. 

When a solution is mixed with acetic or nitric acid it remains liquid, but still 
retains its power of cementing; in this state it is called liquid glue. 

Marine glue is a cement made by dissolving India rubber in oil of turpentine 
or coal-naphtha, to which an equal quantity of shellac is added. 

Why does a Hot Dish Crack if We Put Ice Cream in It? 

If we take a hot dish and put ice cream in it, it cracks because the dish when hot 
has expanded. All the tiny particles that make up the dish have absorbed some 
heat and have expanded. When the ice cream is put in the particles composing 
the inside of the dish are cooled off and begin to contract, while the outside particles 
have not cooled and they pull away from each other, causing the dish to crack. 



Index 



Abacus, 347 

Acid, Nitric, 464 

" Adam's Apple," 321 

Adding Machines, 345 

Addressograph, 364 

Aerial Railway, 120 

Aerials, 264 

Aerial Trucks, 451 

Aeroplane Bombs, 158 

Aeroplanes, 505 

Aestivation, 241 

"After-damp," 247 

Agate, 49, 149 

Agriculture, 461, 556 

Air, Liquid, 461 

Air Currents, 158, 231, 244, 263 

Air-locks, 497 

Air-mines, 390 

Air-pressure, 411, 492 

Airships, 505 

Alcohol, 336, 478 

Alloys, Gold, 448 

"Almighty Dollar," 355 

Alternating Current, 363 

Amazon, 98 

"American Turtle," 9 

Amethysts, 149 

Ammonia, 466 

Ammunition, 75, 94, 158, 398 

Animals, 51, 138, 146, 229, 241, 293, 297 

Anthracite, 244 



Anti-cyclones, 450 
"A-l,' y 136 



Apaches, 147 

Apartment-houses, First, 334 

Apiaries, 183 

Apples, 136 

Aquarium, 378 

Arack, 214 

Arc Lamps, 577 

Area of Oceans, 169 

Armored Railway Car, 470 

Armor-piercing Shells, 402 

Armor Plate, 422, 435, 470 478 

Army Ambulances, 485 

Arrows, 79 

Artesian Wells, 96 

Artificial Precious Stones, 361 

Artillery, 386 

Astronomical Observatory, 66 

Atmospheric Conditions, Recording, 58 

Atmospheric Nitrogen, 459 

Atmospheric Pressure, 180 

"Atmospherics," 264 

Atoms, 324 

Austrian Guns, 388 

Autographic Photography, 168 

Automatic Bowling Pin Setters, 360 



Automatic Machine Guns, 144, 391 

Automatic Pistols, 143 

Automatic Rakers, 565 

Automatic Rifles, 89 

Automobile Factory, 518 

Automobile Guns, 145 

Automobiles, 145, 223, 278, 290, 451, 481, 518, 557 

Auxiliary Pumps, Fire, 455 

Bacon, 300 

Bacon, Roger, 83 

Baggage Trucks, 545 

Baking Clay under Water, 501 

Balanced Rations, 298 

Balance-wheels, 65 

Balloons, Captive, 58, 515 

Balloons, Fire, 157 

Balloons, Military, 515 

Balls, 309, 357 

Bascule Bridges, 466 

Battery Park, 378 

Battle of Four Elements, 513 

Battleship Aeroplanes, 506 

Battleships, 22, 266, 480 

Battleship Turrets, 425 

Beaches, 149, 180 

Bed Lasting Machines, 440 

Beef, 297, 299, 458 

Bees, 184 

Beets, 464 

"Before you can say Jack Robinson," 119 

Bell, Alexander Graham, 217 

Belting, 118, 535 

Benday Engravings, 3&2 

Bending, Illusion, Stick in Water, 308 

"Benedicts," 149 

Bicycles, 52 

"Big Trees," 304 

Billiard Tables, 309 

Binders, 562 

Biplanes, 505 

Birds, 303 

Blackberries, White, 316 

Blackfeet Indians, 148 

Blast Furnaces, 417 

Bleriot's Monoplane, 509 

Boats, Submarine, 9 

Body Chute, Auto, 530 

Bolters, Salt, 476 

Bomb-dropping Device, 514 

Bombs, 152 

Boots, 436 

Boots, Rubber, 111, 116 

Boring Tool, 87 

Bow and Arrow, 79 

Bow-drill; 77 

Bowling Alleys, 357 

B6x Kites, 59 



595) 



596 



INDEX 



"Breathing Bags," 248 

Breech-loaders, 85 

Bridges, 467 

Briquetting Machines, 249 

Broadway, 274, 280, 308 

Bud-grafting, 136 

Buffing Machines, 444 

Buildings, Large, 221, 234, 274, 280, 540 

Bulbs, Rubber, 116 

Bullets, 93 

Bull-fights, 362 

Burbank, Luther, 317 

Bureau of Mines Rescue Crew, 247 

Burnishing, Silverware, 260 

Cabinet-making, 310 

Cable, Hemp, 123 

Cable, Wire, 132 

Cactus, Spineless, 316 

Caissons, 504 

Calcium Carbide, 459 

Calculating Machines, 345 

Calendering, 109, 116 

Calibers, Guns, 389 

California, 49, 304, 332 

"Calling-crabs," 229 

Cameras, 162 

Canal Navigation, 39 

"Canary-bird Test," Mining, 250 

Candles, 63 

Cannel Coal, 251 

Cannon, 386 

Carats, 317 

Carbide Furnaces, 460 

Carbines, 87 

Carbon Filament Lamps, 275 

Carboniferous Strata, 247 

Carburetors, 56 

Carnelians, 149 

Carrier Pigeons, 216 

Oars, Armored Railway, 470 

Cars, Freight, 545 

Cars, Motor, 145, 223, 290, 451, 481, 518, 557 

Cars, Pullman, 544 

Cars, Sight-seeing, 482 

Cars, Special Heavy Duty Freight, 424 

'Cars, Street, 215 

Cartridges, 85, 94 

Casting Gold Ingots, 449 

Casting Machines, 414 

Castings, 424,531 

Catenary Construction, 284 

Cat's-eye, 149 

Cattle, 297, 458 

Cattle Food, 298, 317 

Cave Men, 75 

Cellulose, 450 

Cellulose Acetate, 168 

Central Exchanges, Telephone, 218 

Central Station, First Commercial, 273 

Centrifugal Extractors, Honey, 190 

Chafing Dishes, Electric, 210 

Chain Rammers, 407 

Channel Cementing Machines, 441 

Chattering. Teeth, 182 

Chemical Engines. 454 



Chemical Fire Extinguishers, 375, 523 

Chemicals, Photographic, 162 

Chewing Gum, 337 

Chicle, 337 

Chimes, 260 

Chimneys, 158 

Chinese Firecrackers, 150 

Chrome Leather, 582 

Circuits, Telephone, 225 

Citrus Fruits, 331 

"Clam-shell Dredges," 491 

Clay, 247, 496 

Clicking Machines, 438 

Cliff Dwellings, 334 

Clinking Glasses, 231 

Clocks, 61, 344 

Clothes, 252 

Coal, 244, 543 

Coast Defense Guns, 396 

Cobbler Shop, 437 

Cocoanuts, 132, 138, 214, 450 

Cod, 216, 325 

Coffee-machines, Electric, 207 

Coining, 302, 449 

Coir, 132 

Coke, 251, 460 

Cold Storage, 299, 466 

Color-printing, 289, 382 

Comb, Honey, 183, 197 

Combination Engravings, 381 

Combined Sweep Rake and Stacker, 567 

Combustion, Spontaneous, 42 

Combustion Engines, 12, 53 

Compass, Gyro, 74 

Compasses, 435 

Composition Billiard Balls, 315 

Compressed Air Construction, 492 

Compressed Air Engines, 133 

Conduits, 223 

Conning Towers, 425 

Continuous Core Ovens, 532 

Conveyor Belts, 535 

Conveyors, Spiral, 240 

Cooking, 121 

Cooking Appliances, 205 

Co-operative Agriculturists, 333 

Copper, 448, 450 

Cordage, 121 

Cork, 385 

Corn Binders, 562 

Cotton, 464 

Counting, 345 

Coursing, 377 

"Court of Love," 363 

"Cowboys," 374 

"Cow-trees," 383 

Crabs, 138, 229 

Cradles, 559 

Cradle Springs, 55 

Crane Neck Hand Fire Engine, 452 

Cranes, Traveling, 536, 543 

Crane way, 531 

Crank-shafts, 435, 518, 535 

Cravats, 270 

Crops, 458, 556 

Cross-bow, 82 



INDEX 



59? 



Cross-section on Sixth Avenue at Thirty-third 

Street, New York, 503 
Crowns, 384 
Crude Rubber, 99 
Cruisers, 478 
Cucaracha Slidr,-, 27 
Cues, Billiard, 313 
"Culebra Cut, r 25, 29 
Culverins, 83 
Curfew, 289 
Curing, Fish, 329 
Meat, 292, 300 
Currying, 583 
Cutlery, 333, 4&i 
Cutting Shield Head, 495 
Cyanamid, 458 
Cyanide Gold Process, 448 
Cyanometer, 199 
Cyclones, 450 
Cylinder Machining, 524 
Cylinder Presses, 173 
Cylindrical Valve Machines, 26 

Daguerreotypes, 164 

Dates, 97 

"Davids," 10 

"Death Valley," 315 

Deep Sea Monster, 469 

Deer-stalking, 82 

Delivery Trucks, 481 

Denatured Alcohol, 478 

Desk 'Phones, 223 

Detonators, 85 

"Deutschland," 14 

"Deviation of the Compass," 435 

Diamond Boring Machines, 97 

Diamond Cutting, 584 

Diamonds, Artificial, 361 

Dictograph, 262 

Diesel Engines, 12, 252 

Die-sinking, 285 

"Difference Engine," 348 

Dipper Dredges, 491 

Direct Current, 363 

Dirigibles, 516 

Diving Bells, 489 

Diving Equipment, 4ll, 490 

"Divining Rods," 199 

"Dog-days," 310 

"Dog-watch," 317 

" Dog-towns," 42 

Dollar Sign, 450 

Double Octuple Press, 179 

Drawbridges, 467 

Dreams, 182 

Dredges, 23, 27, 490 

Dredging, Submarine, 15 

Drills, Steam, 19 

Drinking, 231 

Driving Shields, 494 

Drop Forging, 419 

Dry Docks, 159 

" Dry Farming," 372 

Drying Machines, 372 

Ducking Stools, 379 

Ducks, 180 



Ductility of Metals, 448, 450 

Dumbwaiters, 237 

Dumping Trucks, 486 

Dynamo Room of First Edison Station, 276 

Dynamos, 262, 274 

Earth, 181, 379 

"Earth-shine," 356 

Echoes. 574 

Eclipses, 181 

Edge Trimming Machines, 443 

Efficiency Systems, 518 

Electric Baggage Trucks, 545 

Control Boards, 519 

Delivery Wagons, 278 

Eels, 472 

Locomotives, 22, 24, 541 

Magnets, 589 

Sewing Machines, 279 

Train Chart and Switch Control, 283 

Transmission, 261 
Electricity, Domestic Utensils, 200 

Progress, 273 

Electrification of Railroads, 284, 541 
Electrode Regulators, 460 
Electro-magnetic Waves, 263 
Electro-plating, 257 
Elevating Gears, Gun, 402 
Elevators, 232 
Emblem of Scotland, 593 
Engines, Combustion, 12, 53 

Compressed Air, 133 

Diesel, 12, 252 

Electric Railroad, 541 

Fire, 451 

Gasoline-electric, 214 

Gas-steam, 518 

Kerosene, 556 

Steam Railroad, 541 
English Guns, 398 
Engraving, 380 
Ensilage, 271 
Ermine, 356 
Escapements, 68 
Exchanges, Telephone, 218 
Explosions, 37, 231, 244, 333 
Eyes, Impressions of Vision, 162 
Eyeleting Machines, 438 

Factory Hospitals, 521 

Farming, 458, 556 

Fast Express Trains, 541 

Federal Government, Coal Lands, 251 

Felspar, 539 

"Fenian Ram," 10 

Ferris Wheel, 342 

Fertilizers, 298, 458, 572 

Fiber, Manila, 132 

"Fiddler-crabs," 229 

Field Guns, 386 

Field Ring Forgings, 425 

"Fighting Fish," 199 

Figs, 198 

Files, 138 

Films, 162, 537, 578 

Filters, Salt, 474 



598 



INDEX 



Finger-prints, 74 

Finishing Shafts, 443 

Fire Apparatus, 451, 523, 542 

Fire-arms, 75, 139, 386 

Fire-damp, 244 

Fire Extinguishers, 375, 523 

Fireflies, 161 

Fire-making, Early, 121 

Firing Gears, 405 

Fireworks, 150 

Fish, 99, 216, 325, 333, 377, 384, 468 

Fixation of Nitrogen from the Air, 458 

Flash Pans, 83 

Flax, 132 

Flight of Projectiles, 398 

Flint, 149 

Flint-lock, 84 

Floating Docks, 159 

Floating Islands, 504 

Flowers, 317 

Fluid Compression, 401 

Flying, Birds, 303 

"Flying Dutchman," 180 

Flying Machines, 505 

Focus, Eye and Camera, 162 

Fog Horns, 60 

Folding Machines, 175, 288 

Food, Cooking, 121 

Food Crops, 458, 556 

Foreign Exchange, 356 

Forestry, 268 

Forging Press, 418 

Forgings, Quenching, 532 

Forks, 254 

"Forlorn Hope," 306 

"Fossil Forests," 50 

Foundry Methods, 531 

Freckles, 412 

Free Electric Current, 278 

Freezing Points, 336 

French Guns. 390 

Fresco Painting, 336 

Front Axles, Auto, 527 

Front-drive Motor Trucks, 457 

Fruits, 317, 331 

Fuel Economy, 244 

"Fundamental Development Plans," 222 

"Funditor," 77 

Fur, 356 

Furnaces, Steel, 416, 534 

Furnaces, Carbide, 460 

Fuses, 405 

Gaillard Cut, 25, 29 

Galileo's Swinging Chandelier, 63 

Gamboa Dike, 37 

Game Preserves, 270 

Gas, Coal, 244 

Gas Meters, 270 

Gas, Nitrogen, 460 

Gasoline-electric Cars, 215 

Gas-steam Engines, 518 

Gatling-guns, 145, 391, 470 

Gatun Locks, 24, 31-2 

Gear Wheels, 408 

Gelatine Films, 152 



Generators, 262, 465 

German Guns, 398 

"Get the Sack," 169 

Geysers, 41 

Glacier National Park, 324 

Glaciers, 322 

Glass, 231. 450 

"Glass Snakes," 583 

Glowworms, 161 

Gold, 303, 317, 377, 448 

Goldfish, 377 

Gold Leaf, 377 

"Goodyear Welt," 437, 447 

Grab-buckets, 245 

Grade Crossing Elimination, 504 

Grafting, Bud, 136 

Grain Binders, 569 

Grain Drills, 572 

Granite, 540 

Graphophones, 43 

Graphotypes, 368 

Gravity Conveyors, 240 

"Great White Way," 274 

Greek-fire, 83, 377 

Greyhound, 377 

GriUs, Electric, 209 

Grinding Crank Shafts, 518 

Groundnuts, 241 

Guard Gates, 31-2 

Gun-carriages, 141, 386 

Gunpowder, 83 

Guns, 75, 139, 386 

Gyroscopes, 72 

Halftone Engravings, 380 

Ham, 292 

Hammers, Steam, 533 

Hand Bombards, 83 

Hand Presses, Printing, 172 

Hand-shaking, 308 

Harvesting, 557 

Hay Loaders, 568 

Header Binders, 566 

Hearth Furnaces, 416 

Heat, 315 

Heating Element, Electric, 208 

Heating Pads, Electric, 211 

Heat-treatment, 532 

Heel-seat Rounding Machines, 443 

Helmets, Diving, 41 

Oxygen, 248 
Hemp, 130 

Highlight Engravings, 382 
High Tension Currents, 262 
Henequen, 130 
Hibernation, 241 
Hides, 580 
Hives, Bee, 186 
"Hob-nobbing," 231 
"Hobson's Choice," 169 
Hogs, 293 

"Holland" Under-sea Boats, 10 
Honey, 183 
Hopper Dredgers, 490 
Hoppers, Coal, 246 
Horizon, 121 



INDEX 



599 



Horse-drawn Fire Engines, 453 
Horseshoe Curve, 547 
Hose, 117 

Reels, 456 

Trucks, 451 
Hour Glasses, 63 
Household Appliances, 200, 556 
How a Newspaper is Printed. 172 
How are Artificial Precious Stones made? 361 

Cannon made? 386 

Chewing Gum tablets coated? 342 

Oocoanuts Used to Help our Warships? 450 

Composition bowling balls made? 360 

Diamonds cut? 584 

"Electric Eels" Caught? 472 

Explosions guarded against in mines? 244 

Files made? 138 

Fireflies used as dress ornaments? 161 

Fireworks made? 150 

Glaciers Formed? 324 

Harbors Dredged Out? 491 

Magazines made? 286 

Oranges Packed? 331 

Rifles made? 75 

Sand-dunes formed? 180 

Sausages made? 301 

Vessels handled while going through the 
Panama Canal? 39 

Watches made? 61 

we able to hear through Speaking Tubes? 308 

we taking care of our forests now? 267 
How big do Redwood Trees grow? 304 
How big is the Largest Adding Machine in the 

world? 354 
How can a factory make two Automobiles a 

minute? 518 
How can we hear through the Walls of a Room? 

251 

How can we send Messages through the Air? 263 
How can we travel in trains under water? 492 
How cold is 372 below zero? 461 
How could a large hole in a tunnel under water 

be repaired? 501 

How deep is the deepest part of the Ocean? 169 
How did Chemical Fire Extinguishers developV 
375 

Men learn to count? 345 

Men learn to eat pork? 292 

Nodding the head up and down come to mean 
"yes"? 149 

the cooking of food originate? 121 

the Dollar Sign originate? 450 

the expression "A-l" originate? 136 

the expression "Before you can say Jack 
Robinson" originate? 119 

the expression "Forlorn Hope" originate? 306 

the fashion of wearing Cravats commence? 270 

the Greyhound get his name? 377 

the ringing of the Curfew originate? 289 

the term "Cowboys" originate? 374 

the term "Yankee" originate? 171 

the wearing of crowns originate? 384 

we learn to tell time? 61 

your State get its Name? 243 
How do bees make honey? 183 

big buildings get their Granite? 539 



How do Calculating Machines calculate? 345 

"Carrier Pigeons" Carry Messages? 216 

Chimes strike the Hour? 260 

Elevators operate? 232 

Fishes Swim? 384 

Moving Pictures get on the Screen? 575 

Peanuts get in the Ground? 241 

Shoe Machines operate? 436 

the Indians Live now? 146 

they make Chewing Gum? 337 

we know that the Earth is Round? 379 
How does a Bird Fly? 303 

a Camera take a Picture? 162 

a Gasoline Motor run an Electric Street Car? 
214 

a Lifting Magnet lift? 589 

a "Master Clock" control others by electric- 
ity? 344 

a Monorail Gyroscope Railway operate? 72 

a Siren Fog Horn Blow? 60 

a Talking Machine talk? 43 

an Artesian Well keep up its supply of Water? 
96 

Electricity help the Housewife? 200 

Telephone Development in this country com- 
pare with that abroad? 222 

the Addressograph operate? 364 

the Beach get its Sand? 149 

the Gas Meter measure your Gas? 270 

the New York Stock Exchange operate? 374 

the Poisonous Tarantula live? 146 
How far away is the Sky-line? 121 
How far can a powerful Searchlight send its 

Rays? 229 

How has Electricity advanced? 273 
How has man helped nature give us Apples? 136 
How has the Motor Truck developed? 481 
How is a Five Dollar Gold Piece made? 303, 449 

a Newspaper printed? 172 

a Paper of Pins filled? 321 

a Pool Table made? 309 

a Razor Blade made? 491 

a Teaspoon Silver-plated? 253 

Die-sinking done? 285 

Electricity brought into a House? 262 

Food taken from the air by Electricity? 458 

Fresco Painting done? 336 

Gold Leaf made? 377 

Leather tanned? 580 

Lime Juice used in Curing Rubber? 110 

Photo-engraving done? 380 

Pine Tar made? 129, 134 

Rope made? 121 

the exact color of the Sky determined? 199 

the Weather Man able to predict tomorrow's 

Weather? 58 
Howitzers, 388 

How large are Molecules? 324 
How long does it take "Hello" to reach 'Frisco 
from New York on the Transcontinental 
Line? 228 
How many Post Offices are there in the U. S.? 

218 

How much Gold in a 14-carat Ring? 317 
How much is a Duodecillion? 354 
How much Salt do we each use a year? 478 



600 



INDEX 



How much silver is there in "Sterling" ware? 

260 

How the Self-loading Pistol developed, 139 
How waa Vulcanizing discovered? 105, 115 
How were Motorcycles first made? 52 
Hudson River Tubes, 493 
Hunger, 588 
Hunting, 75 
Hybridization, 317 
Hydraulic Compressors, 401 

Forging Presses, 418 

Jacks, 497 

Swinging Arms, 494 
Hydroaeroplanes, 507 
Hydroelectric Station, 20 
"Hypo,' 163 

Ice, 322 

Illumination, Electric, 273 

Immersion Heaters, Electric, 211 

Imoerfections in Diamonds, 586 

Incandescent Lamps, 275 

Indians, 146, 336 

Inner-tubes, 117 

Inseam Trimming Machines, 440 

Insole Tacking Machines, 437 

Installing Motors, Auto, 528 

Instruments, Range-finding, 403 

Insulated Wire, 118 

Interior Transverse Fissures, 344 

Iron, 413 

Irons, Electric, 200 

Isinglass, 216 

Istle, 132 

Italian Guns, 389 

Ivory, 314 

Jaggery, 214 
Jasper, 49, 149 
"Jeweler's Gold," 448 
Jewels, Synthetic, 361 

Kerosene Engines, 556 

Tractors, 561 
"Kick the Bucket," 171 
"King can do no wrong,' 466 
Knives, Table, 260, 333 
Guns, 398 



Lacing Machines, 438 

Ladder Dredges, 23, 27, 490 

Ladders, Fire, 451 

"Lake" Submarines, 9 

Land-crabs, 138 

Lard, 301 

Latten Spoons, 254 

League Island Navy Yard, 160 

Leather, 580 

Lemons, 331 

Lifting Magnets, 589 

Lightning Bugs, 161 

Lights, Electric, 273 

Lignite, 251 

Lilies, Violet-odored, 317 

Limit Switches, 26 

Line Engravings, 381 



Liquid Air Plant, 461 

"Liquid Fire,;' 377 

Listing Machines, 350 

Lizards, 583 

Llama, 99 

Loading Platforms, 531 

Lobsters, 384 

Lock Gate Operating Machinery, 34 

Locomotive Building, 543 

Locomotives, 22, 24, 541 

Long-bow, 80 

Loose Nailing Machines, 443 

Low Tension Currents, 262 

Lumbering, 306 

"Lump in the Throat," 308 " 

"Lynching," 355 

Machine Guns, 142, 391, 470 

Magazines, 286 

Magnets, 589 

Mailing System, Magazines, 289 

Manila Fiber, 132 

Manure Spreaders, 572 

Map, Tree-planting Regions of U. S., 269 

Marsh-gas, 244 

Masonic Signs, 262 

"Master Clocks," 344 

Matchlock, 83 

Matrix-drying Machines, 179 

"Measurer of Blue," 199 

Meat, 292, 299 

Mechanical Starter, Auto, 529 

Megaphones, 308 

Merchant Submarine Liners, 14 

Mercury, 336 

Mer de Glace, 322 

Meters, Gas, 270 

Mica, 203 

Micrometric Regulators, 67 

Military Air Tractors, 506 

Milk, 383 

Mine-planting Submarines, 11 

"Mineralite" Balls, 360 

Mining, Coal, 244 

Mining, Gold, 448 

Mining, Iron, 413 

Mint, 302 

Mobilization, 228 

Molds, Steel, 431, 531 

Molecules, 324 

Monoplanes, 509 

Monorail Railways, 73, 520 

Moon, 181, 356 

Mortars, 397 

"Mother of Pearl," 385 

Motion Pictures, Assembling Films. 537 

Projecting, 575 

Taking, 536 

Motor Assembling, Auto, 525 
Motorcycles, 52 
Motor Delivery Vans, 58 

Fire Apparatus, 451 
"Motor-paced Tandems, 55 
Motors, Electric, 262 

Gasoline-Electric, 215 
Motor Trucks, 223, 451, 481, 557 



INDEX 



601 



Mountain Guns, 390 

Mt. Rainier, 323 

Mt. Weather, 60 

Moving-stairways, 238 

Mowing Machines, 561 

Multiple Switchboards, Telephone, 220 

Muskets, 88 

Muzzle-energy, Giant Guns, 398 

Nailing Machines, 441 
Names of States, 243 
" Napier's Rod," 348 
"Nautilus," 10, 491 
Naval Guns, 387 
Navy Yards, 161 
Neckties, 270 
Negatives, 163 
Nets, Fish, 328 
Newspapers, 121, 172, 282 
New York Sky-line, 493 
New Zealand Flax, 132 
Niagara Falls, 463 
"Nine-pins," 357 
Nitrate of Soda, 459 
Nitric Acid, 464 
Nitrogen, 458 

Nitrogen Fixation Ovens, 462 
"No," 149 
Nuts, Cocoanuts, 214 

Oats, 569 

Observation Balloons, 515 

Oceans, 169 

Oil, Cod-liver, 216 

Oil Cushion Buffers, 235 

Oil-tempering, 420 

"Old Moon in the New Moon's Arms," 356 

Opals, 49, 149 

Open-hearth Furnaces, 416 

Oranges, 332 

Ordnance, 386 

Outsole Rapid Lockstitch Machines, 446 

Ovens, Continuous Core, 532 

Drying Painted Cars, 547 

Electric, 210 

Overhead Monorail Systems, 520 
Oxygen Reviving Apparatus, 248 
Oynx, 149 
Oyster Dredging Apparatus, 16 

Painting, Fresco, 336 
Palms, 97, 214 
Panama Canal, 17 
Panama City, 35 
Panama-Pacific Exposition, 230 
Patent Leather, 583 
Peanuts, 242 

Pearl Fishing Equipment, 16 
Pearls, 385 

Imitation, 361 
"Pebble Board," 345 
Pedro Miguel Locks, 22 
Penetrating Powers of Projectiles, 398 
Pennsylvania Station, 546 
Percolators, Electric, 206 
Percussion Fuses, 405 



Periscopes, 13 

Petrified Forests, 50 

Phantom Circuits, 225 

Philippine Carts, 131 

Photo-engraving, 380 

Photography, 162, 536 

Pigeons, 216 

Pig Iron, 429 

Pigs, 293 

Pike's Peak, 557 

Pine Tar, 129, 134 

Pins, 318 

Pirates, 150 

Pistols, 139 

Piston Machining, 522 

Plants, 317 

Plating, Electro, 257 

"Plumcot," 317 

Pole Lathes, 87 

Poles, Telephone, 222 

Pool, 309 

Pork, 292 

Potato-diggers, 242 

Power House, Niagara Falls, 465 

Power Stations, 278, 519 

Prairie Dogs, 42 

Predictors, Range, 403 

Printing, Color, 289 

Printing-presses, 172, 282, 286 

Projectile Forging, 419 

Projectiles, 158, 398 

Projecting Machines, 576 

Proving Grounds, 399 

Prunes, Stoneless, 317 

Pulling-over Machines, 439 

Pullman Cars, 544 

Pyro, 163 

Pyrometers, 534 

Pyrotechnics, 150 

Quarry, 540 

Quenching Steel Forgings, 532 

Radio Telephone and Telegraph, 263 
Railroads, 344, 424, 470, 492, 541 
Rails, Steel, 343 
Railways, Aerial, 120 

Monorail, 73, 520 
Rakes, 567 
Rammers, Gun, 407 
Range Finders, 403 
Ranges, Electric, 213 
Rapid-fire Guns, 144, 391, 470 
Rasps, 138 
Razor Blades, 491 
Reapers, 562 
Reaping Hooks, 557 
Rear Axle Assembling, Auto, 523 
Record Making, Graphophone, 44, 4"? 
Redwood, 272, 305 
Refraction, 308 
Refrigerating Machinery, 296 
Return Chutes, Bowling BaU, 357 
Revolvers, 139 
Rifles, 75 
Rock-boring, 97 
Pock-crystal, 49, 149, 539 



602 



INDEX 



Rockets, 151 

Rock Salt, 474 

Roentgen Rays, 169 

Rolling Bridges, 466 

Roman Candles, 156 

Rope, 121 

Rounding and Channeling Machines, 444 

Rubber, 98 

Safe Deposit Vaults, 428 

Safety Crew, Mines, 248 

Salt, 473 

Salt Fish, 330 

Sand, 149, 180, 247 

Sand-dunes, 180 

Sandwiches, 119 

Sausages, 292 . 

Scythes, 558 

Searchlight Projectiles, 158 

Searchlights, 229 

Self-binding Harvesters, 568 

Semi-submersible Wrecking Apparatus, 1 

Set Pieces, Pyrotechnic, 154 

Sewing Machines, 279 

Shaking Hands, 308 

Sheep-growing, 252 

Sheffield Plate, 256 

Shells, 409 

"Shibboleth," 588 

Shoes, 436 

Shoes, Rubber, 115 

Shoe Treeing Machines, 446 

Shot-guns, 92 

"Showing the White Feather," 231 

Shutters, Motion Picture Machine, 578 

"Side-cars," 56 

Siege-howitzers, 388 

Sight-seeing Cars, 482 

S : lhouettes, 163 

Silica, 149 , 

Silos, 271 

Silver Plating, 253 

Shiking of the "Bluecher," 479 

Siren Horns, 60 

Sisal, 130 

Skins, 580 

Skiving Machines, 437 

Sky, 180, 199 

Sky-line, 121 

Sky-rockets, 150 

Slaughter-houses, 295 

Sling-shot, 78 

Smiling, 412 

Smoking, Meat, 292 

Snakes, ll Glass," 583 

Soap, 298 

Sole Laying Machines, 441 

Sole Leather, 580 

Sole Leveling Machines, 441 

Scroban, 345 

Sound. 47, 251, 333, 574 

Speaking Tubes, 308 

Spiders, 51, 146 

Spineless Cactus, 317 

Spinning, Hemp, 124 

Spiral Chutes, 240 



Spontaneous Combustion, 42 
Spoons, 253 
Sprinkler Systems, 523 
Stabilizers, 74 
Stamping Machines, 444 
"Standard Gold," 448 
"Standard Yard," 61 
States, 243 

Stations, Railroad, 546 
Statue of Liberty, 378 
Steam Drills, 19 

Dynamos, 275 

Fire Engines, 452 

Hammers, 533 

Harvesters, 560 

Shovels, 28, 30, 38 

Velocipedes, 52 

Steel, 333, 343, 413, 470, 491, 532 
"Sterling," 260 
Sting, Bee, 187 

Stitch and Upper Cleaning Machines, 445 
Stitch Separating Machines, 443 
Stoat, 356 

Stock Exchanges, 373 
Stockyards, 297 
Stoneless Prunes, 317 
Story in a Billiard Table, 309 

Bowling Alley, 357 

Box of California Oranges, 331 

Chemical Fire Extinguisher, 375 

Giant Cannon, 386 

Honey-comb, 183 

Pin, 318 

Rifle, 75 

Sausage, 292 

Silver Teaspoon, 253 

Watch, 61 
Story in Diamond-cutting, 584 

Elevators and Escalators, 232 

Firecrackers and Sky-rockets, 150 

Photo-engraving, 380 
Story in the making of a Pair of Shoes, 436 

making of a Magazine, 286 

making of a Picture, 162 

Modern Lifting Magnet, 589 

Printing of a Newspaper, 172 

Talking Machine, 43 

Telephone, 217 
Story of a Deep Sea Monster, 468 

a Piece of Chewing Gum, 337 

America's First Horseless Carriage, 290 

an Automobile Factory, 518 

an Up-to-date Farm, 556 

Coal Mining, 244 

Electricity in the Home, 200 

Leather, 580 

Rope, 121 

Rubber, 98 

Salt, 473 

Self-loading Pistols, 139 

the Addressograph, 364 

the Advance of Electricity, 273 

the Big Redwood Trees, 304 

the Building of a Silo, 271 

the Calculating Machine, 345 

the Growth of the Motor Truck, 481 



INDEX 



603 



Story of the Motion Picture-Projecting Machine, 
575 

the Motorcycle, 52 

the Panama Canal, 17 

the Submarine, 9 

the Taking of Food from the Air, 458 

the Tunnels Under the Hudson River, 492 

the Wireless Telegraph, 263 
Stoves, Electric, 208 
Straightening Crank Shafts, 533 
Street Cars, Gasoline, Electric, 215 
Submarines, 9 
Subway Construction, 283 
Suction Dredges, 23, 27 
Sugar Beets, 464 
Sugar Cane, 459 
Sugar-coating Machines, 338 
Sulphuric Ether, 336 
Sun, 181 
Sun Dials, 61 
Swine, 293 
Swing Bridges, 466 
Switchboards, 519 
Synthetic Precious Stones, 361 

Table Appliances, 205 

Table-ware, 253, 333 

Tack-pulling and Resetting Machines, 440 

Taking Food from the Air, 458 

Talking Machines, 43 

Tanning, 580 

Tawing, 583 

Tar, Pine, 129, 134 

Tarantulas, 146 

Teeth, Chattering, 182 

Telegraph, Wireless, 263 

Telephone, 217 

Telephone, Wireless, 226 

Temperature, 315 

Temperature Regulation, Foundry Furnaces, 534 

Tension Spokes, 342 

Third Rails, 283 

Thistle, 593 

Threshers, 560 

Throat, 308 

Time, 61 

" Times Square," 274 

Tip-punching Machines, 439 

Tires, Automobile, 117 

"Tirth's Stainless Steel," 333 

Toasters, Electric, 205 

Tobacco, 458 

Torpedo Guns, 404 

Torpedoes, Gyroscope Equipment, 74 

Torpedoes, Toys, 153 

Tortoises, 171 

Totem Poles, 149 

" Touching Glasses," 231 

Towline, 126 

Traction Elevators, 233 

Tractors, Kerosene, 561 

Train Chart, 283 

Trains, 541 

Trans- Atlantic Submarine Navigation, 14 

Transcontinental Line, 225 

Transmission, Electric, 261, 363 



Transmission Covers, Auto, 526 
Traveling Belt Conveyors, 535 
Traveling Cranes, 536 
Trawls, 327 
Trees, Apple, 136 

Buried. 247 

Cocoaiiut, 214 

Cow, 383 

Date, 97 

Fig, 198 

Forestry, 267 

Petrified, 49 

Redwood, 304 

Rubber, 108 
Trench ArtiUery, 390 
Tri-cars, 55 
Trinity Church, 308 
Trucks, Electric, 278 

Electric Baggage, 545 

Fire, 451 

Motor, 223, 451, 481, 557 
"Tune the old cow died of," 539 
Tunneling Shields, 494 
Tunnels, 492, 520 
Turbine Generators, 465 
Turrets, 426 
Twine Binders, 570 
Twin Edge Setting Machines, 445 
Type, 172 

Upper-trimming Machines, 439 

Under-water Boats, 9 

Under-water Construction, 492 

U. S. Battleship "Arizona," also "Nevada 3 

and "Oklahoma" Type, 266 
U. S. Battleship "Mississippi," 160 
U. S. Battleship "Ohio," 22 
U. S. Guns, 386 
U. S. Mint, Philadelphia, 449 

Vacuum Cleaners, Electric, 212 

Vacuum Dryers, 107, 112 

Vamp Creasing Machines, 446 

Vanadium Steel, 533 

Vats, Tanning, 581 

Vaults, 427 

Ventilating Systems, 221, 247, 298, 520 

Vessels, Fishing, 325 

Veterinarians, Government, 298 

Vulcanizing, 105, 115 

Wall Street, 307 

Washington Union Station, 546 

Watches, 61 

Watches, Nautical, 317 

Water, 308, 333, 336, 411 

Water Bottles, 118 

Water Clocks, 63 

"Water-finders," 199 

Water Fireworks, 158 

Water-power, 461 

Waterproofing, 106 

Water-towers, 457 

Weather Bureau, 58 

Weight of Projectiles, 398 

Wells, 96, 199 



604 



INDEX 



Wells, Salt, 473 

Welt and Turn Machines, 445 

Welt Lasting Macliines, 440 

Wetterhorn Mountain, 120 

What Animals are the best Architects? 51 

What are Cyclones? 450 

Dreams? 182 

Dry Docks like? 159 

"Fighting Fish"? 199 

Petrified Forests? 49 

White Blackberries like? 317 
What causes a Lump in a Person's Throat? 308 

an Echo? 574 

Floating Islands? 504 
What do we mean by an "Eclipse"? 181 

"Deviation of the Compass"? 435 

"Hobson's Choice"? 169 

the "Flying Dutchman"? 180 

"The Old Moon in the New Moon's Arms"? 

356 

What does the biggest Fish ever caught look 
like? 468 

expression "Showing the White Feather" 
come from? 231 

Sheep-Grower get for the wool in a Suit of 

Clothes? 252 

What Family has over 9,000,000 members? 216 
What happens when Animals Hibernate? 241 
What is a Deep Sea Diver's Dress like? 411 

Dictagraph? 262 

Diesel Engine like? 252 

Diving Bell? 489 

"Divining Rod"? 199 

Drawbridge like Today? 466 

"Drying Machine" like? 372 

Game Preserve? 270 

Geyser? 40 

"Glass Snake"? 583 

Mexican Bull-fight like? 363 

Silo? 271 
What is an Aerial Railway like? 120 

Armored Railway Car like? 370 

"Electric Eel"? 472 

Electro-magnet? 317 

up-to-date Farm like? 556 
What is Cork? 385 

"Dry Farming"? 372 

Forestry Work, 267 

Rubber? 98 

Spontaneous Combustion? 42 

"Standard Gold"? 448 

What is the difference between a Cruiser and a 
Battleship? 478 

difference between "Alternating" and "Di- 
rect" Current? 363 

Greatest Discovery of the last twenty-five 
years? 458 

Hottest place in the U. S.? 315 

Natural Color of Goldfish? 377 

principle of "Foreign Exchange"? 356 
What kind of a Crab Climbs Trees? 138 

Dogs are Prairie Dogs? 42 

Steel Knives do not Stain or Rust? 333 
What makes a Chimney Smoke? 158 

a Stick seem to Bend in Water? 308 

our Teeth Chatter? 182 



What Metals can be Drawn into Wire best? 450 
What Progress has been made toward Universal 
Service since the opening of the Transcon- 
tinental Telephone Line? 226 
What started the habit of Touching Glasses 

before drinking? 231 
What was the "Court of Love"? 363 

the origin of Masonic Signs? 262 
What were "Ducking Stools"? 379 

Hour Glasses originally used for? 63 

the First Apartment Houses in this country? 

336 

When does a Tortoise move quickly? 171 
When is Exchange at Par? 356 
When was "Liquid Fire" first used in Warfare? 
377 

New York the Capital of this Country? 379 
Where are Fireflies used for Domestic Lighting? 
161 

Milk-pails filled from Trees? 383 
Where did the Ferris Wheel get its name? 342 
Where do Dates come from? 97 

Figs come from? 199 

Pearls come from? 385 
Where does Ermine come from? 356 

Rubber come from? 98 
White Blackberries, 316 
"White Elephant," 435 
Who discovered Rubber? 98 

the Slide Rule Principle? 348 
Who invented Arms and Ammunition? 76 
Who made the first American Automobile? 290 

the first practical Talking Machine? 43 
Why are Finger-prints used for Identification? 

74 

Why are they called "Newspapers"? 121 
Why are Windows broken by Explosions? 231 
Why do Lobsters Change Colors? 384 

some of us have Freckles? 412 
Why do they call it "Shibboleth"? 588 

call them "Fiddler-crabs"? 229 

have a Dog-watch on Shipboard? 317 

say "The King can do no Wrong"? 466 
Why do we always shake Hands with our 

'Right Hand? 308 
Why do we call a Man "A Benedict" when he 

Marries? 149 
Why do we call it "Denatured Alcohol"? 478 

"Hob-Nobbing"? 231 

the "Adam's Apple"? 321 

the "Almighty Dollar"? 355 
Why do we call them "Artesian Wells"? 96 

"Cravats"? 270 

"Dog-days"? 301 

"Sandwiches"? 119 

"X-Rays"? 169 

Why do we call 32 above Zero "Freezing"? 336 
Why do we Count in Tens? 345 
Why do we Dream? 182 . 

get Hungry? 588 

say "a White Elephant"? 435 

say "Get the Sack"? 169 

say "Kick the Bucket"? 171 

say "the Tune that the Old Cow Died of"? 539 

Smile when we are Pleased? 412 
Why does a Duck's Back shed Water? 180 



INDEX 



605 



Why does a Lightning Bug light her Light? 16] 

rope cling together? 136 

shaking the head mean "No"? 149 
Why doesn't the sky ever Fall Down? 180 
Why is it called "Battery Park"? 379 

"Death Valley"? 315 

"Lynching"? '355 
Why is it necessary to keep unusually quiet 

"when fishing? 333 

Why is the Thistle the Emblem of Scotland? 593 
Why is there always a soft spot in a cocoanut 

shell? 214 
Why is "Wall Street" known round the World? 

308 

Why were rubber trees called "Siphonia"? 108 
Windows, 231 
Wire, 118, 132 
Wire-drawing, 450 
Wireless Telephone and Telegraph, 263 



Wire Stitching Machines, Magazines, 287 
Wood, Apple, 136 

Cocoanut, 214 

Redwood, 272, 304 
Wool, 252 

Woolworth Building, 234 
Wrapper, Leaf Tobacco, 458 
Wrecking Apparatus, 16 

"X"-Rays, 169 

X-Ray View of a New York Street Crossing, 503 
X-Ray View of Underground Tunnel Construe 
tion, 502 

"Yankee," 171 
Yard Measure, 61 
"Yes," 149 

"Zeppelins," 511 



Acknowledgment 



The Editor wishes to express his gratitude and appreciation to the following, 
to whom he is indebted for much valuable assistance in the form of illustrations and 
special information: 

ADDRESSOGRAPH Co. 

"THE AMERICAN BOY." 

AMERICAN CHICLE Co. 

AMERICAN CYANAMID Co. 

AMERICAN LAFRANCE FIRE ENGINE Co. 

AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE Co. ; 

"AMERICAN MAGAZINE." 

AMERICAN PIN Co. 

AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH Co. 

ARMOUR & Co. 

BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 

"BALTIMORE AMERICAN." 

BETHLEHEM STEEL Co. 

JAMES BOYD & BROTHER, INC. 

BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDER Co. 

BURROUGHS ADD NG MACHINE Co, 

CALIFORNIA FRUIT GROWERS' EXCHANGE. 

CALIFORNIA REDWOOD ASSOCIATION. 

CHESAPEAKE AND POTOMAC TELEPHONE Co. 

COLT'S PATENT FIRE ARMS MANUFACTURING Co. 

COLUMBIA GRAPHOPHONE Co. 

COLUMBIAN ROPE Co. 

COMMON SENSE GUM Co. 

CONSOLIDATED FIRE WORKS COMPANY OF AMERICA O 

CURTIS AEROPLANE Co. 

CURTIS PUBLISHING Co. 

CUTLER-HAMMER MANUFACTURING Co. 

DIAMOND CRYSTAL SALT Co. 

G. M. DODGE Co. 

EASTMAN KODAK Co. 

ENDICOTT, JOHNSON & Co. 

"THE FIELD" 

"FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING." 

FORD MOTOR Co. 

CvATCHEL & MANNING. 

GENERAL ELECTRIC Co. 

GENERAL MOTORS TRUCK Co. 

GLOUCESTER (MASS.) BOARD OF TRADE. 

B. F. GOODRICH Co. 

HAYNES AUTO Co. 

HENDEE MANUFACTURING Co. 

R. HOE & Co. 

(6075 



608 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

GEORGE A. HORMEL & Co. 

HOTPOINT ELECTRIC HEATING Co. 

HUDSON AND MANHATTAN RAILROAD Co. 

INDIANA STEEL Co. 

INGERSOLL-RAND Co. 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OF AMERICA. 

INTERNATIONAL SILVER Co. 

JACOBS & DAVIES, ENGINEERS. 

LAKE TORPEDO BOAT Co. 

McCLURE Co. 

MERGANTHALER LINOTYPE Co. 

MONROE CALCULATING MACHINE Co. 

NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD Co. 

NEW YORK EDISON Co. 

NIAGARA FALLS POWER Co. 

OTIS ELEVATOR Co. 

THE PANAMA CANAL, WASHINGTON OFFICE* 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD Co. 

THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUMS. 

PLYMOUTH CORDAGE Co. 

NICHOLAS POWER Co. 

PYRENE MANUFACTURING Co. 

" RAIL WAY AGE GAZETTE." 

MR. GEORGE A. READING. 

REMINGTON ARMS-UNION METALLIC CARTRIDGE Co, 

A. I. ROOT ^o. 

"SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN." 

"SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE." 

STANDARD STEEL CAR Co. 

CAPT. CHARLES H. THOMPSON. 

MR. CHARLES L. TROJT. 

MR. HAROLD L. TUERS. 

UNITED SHOE MACHINERY Co. 

UNITED STATES RUBBER Co. 

WALTHAM WATCH Co. 

WESTINGHOUSE Co. 

WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS Co. 

WILCOX & HARVEY MFG. Co. 

"WINSTON'S CUMULATIVE 



RETURN TO the circulation desk of any 
University of California Library 

or to the 
KinQTHFRN REGIONAL LIBRAR 

BE?*--?" 




prior to due date 

"r^u7AS~sTAMPED BELOW 




-xixr2i-TUUm-6,' 5 6 
(B9311slO)476 



- -General Library . 

University of California 

Berkeley 



117